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?o f\ 




Professor of English in the University of Lund 


Manchester * * * * * At the University Press 
London, New York, Bombay, &c. * Longmans, Green & Co. 



All rights reserved 



Preface ............ vii 

Bibliography ........... ix 

Abbreviations ........... xvi 

Phonetic Symbols .......... xvi 

Introduction ........... 1 

Elements in Lancashire Place-Names ....... 7 

Notes on the Phonology of Lancashire Place-Names .... 21 

Anglo-Norman Spellings ......... 22 


Salford hundred 26 

Blackburn hundred ......... 65 

West Derby hundred 93 

Leyland hundred . 126 

Amounderness hundred . . . . . . . .139 

Lonsdale hundred S. of the Sands . . . . . . .167 

Lonsdale hundred N. of the Sands ...... 190 


I. Britons in Lancashire ........ 224 

II. Anglians in Lancashire . . . . . . . . 227 

III. Scandinavians in Lancashire ....... 241 

IV. Miscellaneous 257 

Addenda 263 

Index 265 


THIS book has been some twelve years in making. By the time Professor Wyld's 
book on Lancashire place-names appeared it had made good progress ; in fact, 
the material collected was on the whole fuller than his. My first thought, when I 
found I had been forestalled, was to drop the subject altogether. On further re- 
flection it seemed to me, however, that certain aspects of the large subject might 
repay further study, and finally I decided to go on with my original plan, which 
included a full study of Lancashire place-names. The publication of Mr. Sephton's 
book two years later again caused some hesitation, but did not discourage me 
from going on. 

The book would probably have been published long ago had it not been for 
the war, which temporarily prevented the carrying out of a long-cherished project 
of going to Lancashire in order to form a personal acquaintance with the topo- 
graphy of the district. It was not until the summer of 1920 that this plan could 
at last be executed. I then spent over two months in various parts of the county, 
and in 1921 I had the opportunity of spending a few more weeks there. The time 
at my disposal did not permit an equally full study of the whole district. Natur- 
ally I gave rather more time to the north than to the industrialized south. 

It remains to acknowledge gratefully assistance received from various quarters. 
I have to thank the Manchester University Press Committee and the Council of 
the Chetham Society for undertaking the publication. I thank Professor W. J. 
Sedgefield for his good offices in the negotiations for the publication. I understand 
that I owe special thanks to Professor James Tait for using his weighty influence 
both on the Press Committee and in the Chetham Society. I have also had the 
privilege of discussing various questions with Professor Tait, who has read a proof 
and offered numerous valuable suggestions. It need hardly be said that the 
criticism and advice of a scholar like Professor Tait, whose knowledge of Lanca- 
shire and its history is unrivalled, has been an inestimable advantage. 

I thank Mr. W. G. Collingwood for important information and many instruc- 
tive talks, from which I have learnt far more than he would perhaps admit. 
Dr. William Farrer, from whose publications I have derived perhaps the greater 
part of the material, has given valuable advice and otherwise shown interest in 
the work. 

Special thanks are due to the numerous helpers, mostly unknown, who with 
unfailing courtesy have answered questions concerning local pronunciation and 
topography. The greatest debt of gratitude in this respect I owe to Mr. Sam 
Dixon, of Edgend, Nelson. 

My wife has given inestimable help in collecting the material, in preparing the 
manuscript for the press, and in reading the proofs. 


LUND, March 1922 



AD : A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds. Rolls Ser. 1890 ff. 

Ant. It. : Itinerarium Antonini Augusti et Hierosolymitanum. Ed. Parthey and Finder. 

Berlin, 1848. 

AP : Placitorum . . abbreviatio, Ric. I. Ed. II. Record Com. 1811. 
BCS : Cartularium Saxonicum. Ed. W. de Gray Birch. London, 1885-93. 
Beck : Annales Furnesienses. History and Antiquities of the Abbey of Furness. By Thomas 

Alcock Beck. London, 1844. 
Bede : Venerabilis Baedae Opera Historica. Ed. C. Plummer. Oxford, 1896. [The place-names 

in Bede are collected in Sweet, The Oldest English Texts, and in Miller, Place-names in 

the English Bede.'] 
BF : The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill, reformed from the earliest MSS. 

I. Rolls Ser. 1920. [Contains among other things the important Great Inquest of 1212, 

printed in translation in LI i, pp. 1-114.] 

Burghley : Lord Burghley's Map of Lancashire in 1590. Catholic Record Soc. London, 1907. 
Cal. Sc. : Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland. Edinburgh, 1881 ff. 
Camden : Camden, Magna Britannia. London, 1586. 
Cart. Glam. : Cartce et alia munimenta quce ad dominium de Glamorgan pertinent. Ed. G. L. 

Clark. Cardiff, 1910. 
CC: The Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey. Chetham Soc. New Ser. xxxviii, etc. [Thechartu- 

lary was compiled in 1267-8.] 
CCR : Court Rolls of the Honor of Clitheroe, 1377-1663. Ed. William Farrer. Manchester, 


CD : Codex diplomaticus cevi Saxonici. Ed. J. M. Kemble. London, 1839-48. 
Ch : Early Lancashire charters. See LPR. 
Chart. Chester Abbey : The Chartulary or Register of the Abbey of St. Werburgh, Chester. Ed. 

James Tait. Chetham Soc. New Ser. Ixxix. 

Chr. : The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Quoted from : Earle-Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chroni- 
cles parallel, Oxford, 1892, and Petrie's Monumenta historica Britannica, London, 1878. 
ChR : Charter Rolls. Rotuli chartarum, 1199-1216. Record Com. 1837. Calendar of the 

Charter Rolls, 1226-1341. Rolls Ser. 1903-12. 
C1R : Close Rolls. Rotuli litterarum clausarum 1204-27. Record Com. 1833-44. Close Rolls of 

the Reign of Henry III 1227-42. Rolls Ser. 1902 ff. Calendar of the Close Rolls 1272 ff. 

Rolls Ser. 1892 ff. 
CR : " Calendar of Rolls of the Chancery of the County Palatine." Deputy Keeper's Reports 

xxxii. app. i, 331-65 ; xxxiii. app. i, 1-42. 
Crawf. Ch. : " The Crawford Collection of Early Charters and Documents." Ed. Napier and 

Stevenson. In Anecdota Oxoniensia. Oxford, 1895. 
CS : The Publications of the Chetham Society. Manchester, 1844, etc. (New Ser. 1882, etc. 

= CSNS). 

CW : Index to the Wills at Chester, 1545-1620. Record Soc. ii. 
CWNS : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological 

Society. New Series. Kendal, 1901 ff. 

DB : Domesday Book. London, 1783-1816. [Compiled in 1086.] 
DD: " Dunkenhalgh Deeds c. 1200-1600." Ed. G. A. Stocks and James Tait. In Chetham 

Miscellanies, vol. iv. Chetham Soc. New Ser. Ixxx. 

1 References to volume and page of works quoted are, as a rule, given only in the case of 
sources wanting a full or reliable index. 

A simplified mode of dating has been adopted where a document is stated to belong to such 
and such a year of the reign of a king or queen. Instead of 1203-4 (= 6 John), and the like, the 
later year (1204, etc.) is used, unless there is (to my knowledge) definite proof that the docu- 
ment belongs to the earlier year. This has no doubt led to some inconsistency, which it is 
hoped will do no practical harm. 


DL : Ducatus Lancastrian calendarium inquisitionum post mortem, Edw. I. Ch. I. Record 
Com. 1823. 

Dugdale : Monasticum Anglicanum. New Ed. London, 1846. 

Eddi : "Vita Wilfrid! Episcopi Eboracensis." In Historians of the Church of York, i. Chron. 
and Mem. Ixxi. 

Ellis : On Early English Pronunciation. By A. J. Ellis. Part V. London, J889. 

FA : Inquisitions and Assessments relating to Feudal Aids. Rolls Ser. 1899, etc. 

FC : The Coucher Book of Furness Abbey. Chetham Soc. New Ser. ix, xi, xiv (= FC or FC I). 
Vol. ii. New Ser. Ixxiv, Ixxvi, Ixxviii ( = FC II). [The bulk of the coucher was compiled 
in 1412. In vol. ii the original charters, when preserved, are printed instead of the tran- 
script in the coucher]. 

Gaunt R : John of GaunCs Register (1371-75). Camden Soc. 1911. 

Grueber : A Catalogue of English Coins in the British Museum. Anglo-Saxon Series. Vol. ii. 
By H. A. Grueber and C. F. Keary. London, 1893. 

Guisb. C : Cartularium prioratus de Gyseburne. Surtees Soc. 1889-94. 

Harr. : William Harrison, " The Description of Britaine." In Holinshed's Chronicle, 1577. 

Hawkshead R : The oldest Register Book of the Parish of Hawkshead, 1568-1704. Ed. H. S. 
Cooper. London, 1897. 

Higden : Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden. Chron. and Mem. xli. 1865-86. 

Hist. St. Cuthbert : " Historia de S. Cuthberto." In Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collec- 
tanea. Surtees Soc. Ii, 138-52. [Compiled in the first quarter of the twelfth century.] 

HR : Rotuli hundredorum, temp. Hen. Ill and Edw. I. Record Com. 1812-18. 

HS : The Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1849, etc. [Con- 
tains reprints of old deeds, e.g. Ince Blundell charters, vol. xxxii ; Schedule of deeds 
chiefly relating to Warrington, vol. xl ; Crosse deeds, vol. xli ff . ; Hospitallers charters 
relating to Much Woolton, vol. liv. Cf. SO]. 

IM : Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous preserved in the Public Record Office. Rolls Ser. 

IN : Nonarum Inquisitiones temp. Edw. III. Record Com. 1807. 

Ind : Index Locorum. Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum. I. 1900 ; II. 
1912 (= Ind II). 

IPM : Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem. Rolls Ser. 1898 ff. 

Kirkstall C : The Coucher Book of the Cistercian Abbey of Kirkstall Thoresby Soc. viii. Leeds, 

Lacy C : Two " compoti " of the Lancashire and Cheshire manors of Henry de Lacy, earl of 
Lincoln, 24 and 33 Edward I. Chetham Soc. Old Ser. cxii. 

LAR : Lancashire Assize Rolls. Ed. Col. John Parker. Record Soc. xlvii, xlix. 

LC : Materials for the history of the Church of Lancaster. Chetham Soc. New Ser. xxvi ff. 
1892-1906. [Contains the chartulary of the priory of Lancaster ; MS. from " the latter 
part of the first half " of the fifteenth century.] 

LCR : Lancashire Court Rolls A.D. 1323-4. Ed. W. Farrer. Record Soc. xli. 

Leland : The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-43. Ed. Lucy Toulmin Smith. 
London, 1907 f. 

LF : Final Concords of the County of Lancaster. Ed. W. Farrer. Record Soc. xxxix, xlvi, 1, Ix. 

LI : Lancashire Inquests, Extents, and Feudal Aids. Ed. W. Farrer. Record Soc. xlviii, liv. 

LL : Liber Landavensis. The Text of the Book of Llan Dav. Oxford, 1893. 

LP : Pleadings and Depositions in the Duchy Court of Lancaster. Record Soc. xxxii, xxxv, xl. 

LPD : " Duchy of Lancaster : Calendar of Ancient Charters or Grants " [private deeds]. 
Deputy Keeper's Reports, xxxv, 1-41, xxxvi, app. i, 161-205. [Report xxxvi (= LPD n) 
contains original document now partly published in Furness Coucher, vol. n.] 

LPR : Lancashire Pipe Rolls (1130-1216). Also Early Lancashire Charters. Transcribed and 
annotated by W. Farrer. Liverpool, 1902. 

LR : Lancashire and Cheshire Records. Ed. W. D. Selby. Record Soc. vii, viii. 

LS : The Exchequer Lay Subsidy Roll . . in the County of Lancaster A.D. 1332. Record Soc. 
xxxi. 1896. [Contains a list also of townships in the Subsidy Roll of 1327 and a list of 
subscribers to the stipend at Ormskirk in 1366.] 

LV : Liber Vitce Ecclesice Dunelmensis. Surtees Soc. 1841. [The early pers. names are collected 
in Sweet's Oldest English Texts.] 


M : Mamecestre : Chapters from the early History of . . Manchester. Ed. John Harland. 

Chetham Soc. Old Ser. liii, Ivi, Iviii. 
Moore MSS : Calendar of . . Deeds and Papers of the Moore Family of Bankhall, co. Lane. 

Record Soc. Ixvii. 
Morris : T" 'Siege of Brou'ton. A sketch in the Furness dialect. By a Native [J. P. Morris]. 

Carlisle, 1867. 

NG : Norske Gaardnavne. Christiania, 1897 ff. 

NoB : Namn och Bygd. Tidskriftfor nordisk ortnamnsforskning. Uppsala, 1913, etc. 
O.E.T. : The Oldest English Texts. Ed. Henry Sweet. London, 1885. 
OR : Rotulorum originalium in curia scaccarii abbreviatio. Record Com. 1805-10. 
Owen's Pembrokeshire. Ed. Henry Owen. Cymmrodorion Record Series. 1892. 
PatR : Patent Rolls. Rotuli litterarum patentium 1201-16. Record Com. 1835. Patent Rolls 

of the reign of Henry III (1216-32). Rolls Ser. 1901-3. Calendar of the Patent Rolls 

1232 ff. Rolls Ser. 1891 ff. 

PC : Documents relating to the Priory of Penwortham. Ed. W. A. Hulton. Chetham Soc. 1853. 
PD : The Pudsay Deeds. The Yorks. Archseol. Soc. Record Series. Vol. Ivi. 
Percy C : The Percy Chartulary. Surtees Soc. 1911. 
PR : The Great Roll of the Pipe. Pipe Roll Soc. 1884 ff. 
PW : Placita de quo warranto, Edw. I-Edw. III. Record Com. 1818. 

R (Cockerham R, etc.) : Parish Register, published by the Lancashire Parish Register Soc. 
RB: The Red Book of the Exchequer. Rolls Ser. 1896. 
Rec. Cam. : The Record of Caernarvon. Record Com. 1838. 
Richard of Hexham : " Gesta Stephani." In Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, 

and Richard I. Chron. and Mem. Ixxxii. 1886. 

Rot. Obi. : Rotuli de oblatis etfinibus [1-18 John]. Rec. Com. 1835. 
RS : Publications of the Record Society for the publication of original Documents relating to 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 1879, etc. 

RSB : The Register of the Priory of St. Bees. Surtees Soc. 1915. 
RW : Index to the Lancashire Wills proved at Richmond, 1457-1608. Record Soc. x. 
Saxton : Lancastrice Comitatus palatin' vera et absoluta descriptio. Anno Dni 1577. Christo- 

phorus Saxton descripsit. 

SC : " Ancient Charters at Scarisbrick Hall." Historic Soc. xlviii, xlix. 

Selby C : The Coucher Book of Selby. The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Asso- 
ciation. Record Series. Vols. x, xiii. 1891, 1893. 

Sim. Durh. : Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea. Surtees Soc. 1868. 
Staton : J. T. Staton : The Lankishire Loominary un Widely Lookin Glass, Manchester, 

1863 ff. Bobby Shuttle un his woife Sayroh at th' Grand Review in Jetton Perk, 1872. 

Kestor un Betty, Manchester, 1865. Bobby Shuttle un his woife Sayroh at th' Darrun 

Eggsibishun, 1868. 
Surv. Denbigh : Survey of the Honour of Denbigh, 1334. Ed. by Paul Vinogradoff and Frank 

Morgan. London, 1914. 

TE : Taxatio Ecclesiastica. Record Com. 1802. 

Thorpe : Diplomatarium anglicum cevi Saxonici. Ed. B. Thorpe. London, 1865. 
TI : Abstracts of Inquisitions post mortem made by Chr. Towneley and R. Dodsworth. Chetham 

Soc. Old Ser. xcv, xcix. 
TN: Testa de Nevill. Record Com. 1807. 

Trevisa : Higden's Polychronicon. Translated by John Trevisa. Chron. and Mem. xli. 
VHL : Victoria History of the County of Lancaster. London, 1906, etc. 
Warr. : W arrington in 1465, as described in a contemporary rent-roll. Chetham Soc. 1849. 
Waugh : Edwin Waugh (1817-90), Lancashire Sketches. Tufts of Heather. Poems and 


West : The Antiquities of Furness, or an Account of the Royal Abbey of St. Mary. London, 1774. 
WhC : The Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey. Chetham Soc. Old Ser. Vol. x, etc. [The coucher 

was compiled in the fourteenth century.] 

Whit. : T. B. Whitaker, History of the Original Parish of Whalley. 4th ed. 1872. 
WR : The Register of the Priory of Wetherhal. Ed. J. E. Prescott. London, 1897. 
YCh : Early Yorkshire Charters. Ed. W. Farrer. Edinburgh, 1914, etc. 
YFF: Pedes Finium Ebor. A. D. 1199-1214. Surtees Soc. 1897. 


ii. MAPS 
Saxton 1577. See i. 
Burghley 1590. See i. 

The County Palatine of Lancaster. Surveyed by William Yates. 1786. 
Smith : New and accurate Map of the Lakes. 1800. 
Smith : A New Map of the County Palatine of Lancaster. 1801. 
The Ordnance Survey Maps. Scale 6 inches to the mile. 1846-51 (= O.M. 1846-51). 
The Ordnance Survey Maps. Scale 6 inches to the mile. 1904, etc. 
The Ordnance Survey Maps. Scale 1 inch to the mile. 


The list only contains works quoted or frequently consulted. An excellent bibliography of 
Lancashire is to be found in Cheetham's Lancashire, p. 67ff. 

Aarbdger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie. Copenhagen, 1866, etc. (Aarb.) 

Aasen, I. : Norsk Ordbog. Christiania, 1873. (Aasen.) 

Alexander, H. : The Place-Names of Oxfordshire. Oxford, 1912. 

Baddeley, W. St. C. : The Place-Names of Gloucestershire. Gloucester, 1913. 

Bannister, A. T. : The Place-Names of Herefordshire. Cambridge, 1916. 

Bardsley, C. W. : A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Oxford, 1901. 

Bartholomew, J. G. : The Survey Gazetteer of the British Isles. London, 1904. 

Bjorkman, E. : Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English. Halle, 1900, 1902. 

Bjorkman, E. : Nordische Personennamen in England. Halle, 1910. 

Bjorkman, E. : Zur Englischen Namenkunde. Halle, 1912. 

Bjorkman, E. : Eigennamen im Beowulf. Halle, 1920. 

Bosworth, J., and Toller, T. N. : Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Oxford, 1882-1921 (= B-T). 

Bradley, H. : " English Place-Names." In Essays and Studies by Members of the English 
Association. I. Oxford, 1910. 

Brugmann, K., and Delbruck, B. : Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik. Strassburg, 
1897, etc. 

Brunner, K. : Die Dialektliteratur von Lancashire. Wien, 1920. 

Bugge, A. : Vesterlandenes indfiydelse paa Nordboernes . . kuttur, levescet og samfundsforhold i 
Vikingetiden. Christiania, 1905. 

Bugge, A. : Vikingerne. Copenhagen, 1904, 1906. 

Bugge, S. : Studier over de nordiske Gude- og Heltesagns Oprindelse. Christiania, 1881-1889. 

Bulbring, K. D. : Altenglisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg, 1902. 

Bulmer, T. : History, Topography , and Directory of Lancashire and District. Preston [n.d.] 

Chadwick, H. M. : The Origin of the English Nation. Cambridge, 1907. 

Cheetham, F. H. : Lancashire. London, 1920. 

Codrington, Th. : Roman Roads in Britain. London, 1919. 

Collingwood, W. G. : Scandinavian Britain. London, 1908. 

Collingwood, W. G. : Thorstein of the Mere. Kendal, 1905. 

Collingwood, W. G. : The Book of Coniston. Kendal, 1906. 

Collingwood, W. G. : Angles. Danes, and Norse in the District of Huddersfield. Huddersfield, 

Dictionary of National Biography (DNB). 

Doornkaat Koolman, J. ten : Worterbuch der ostfriesischen Sprache. Norden, 1879ff. (Doorn- 
kaat Koolman.) 

Duignan, W. H. : Notes on Staffordshire Place-Names. London, 1902. 

Duignan, W. H. : Worcestershire Place-Names. London, 1905. 

Duignan, W. H. : Warwickshire Place-Names. London, 1912. 

Ekblom, E. : The Place-Names of Wiltshire. Uppsala, 1917. 

Ekwall, E. : Scandinavians and Celts in the North-West of England. Lund, 1918. (Scandi- 

Ekwall, E. : Contributions to the History of Old English Dialects. Lund, 1917. 

Ellis, H. : A General Introduction to Domesday Book. London, 1833. 

Ellwood, T. : Lakeland, and Iceland. London (Engl. Dial. Soc.), 1895. 



Englische Studien. Leipzig. (E. St.) 

English Historical Review (EHR). 

Fabricius, A. : Danske Minder i Normandiet. Copenhagen, 1897. 

Falk, Hi., and Torp, A. : Etymologisk ordbog over del norske og del danske sproq. Christiania 


Falkman, A. : Ortnamnen i Skane. Lund, 1877. (Falkman.) 
Farrer, W. : A History of the Parish of North Meols. Liverpool, 1903. 
Forssner, T. : Continental-Germanic Personal Names in England. Uppsala, 1916. 
Forstemann, E. : Altdeutsches Namenbuch. I. Personennamen. II. Ortsnamen. Bonn, 1900- 


Forstemann, E. : Die deutschen Ortsnamen. Nordhausen, 1863. 
Fb'rster, M. : " Keltisches Wortgut im Englischen." In Texte und Forschungen zur englischen 

Kulturgeschichte, Festgabe fur Felix Liebermann. Halle, 1921. (Forster.) 
Fritzner, J. : Ordbog over del gamle norske sprog. Christiania, 1886-1896. 
Gevenich, O. : Die englische Palatalisierung von k>c im Lichte der englischen Ortsnamen. 

Halle, 1918. 

Goodall, A. : Place-Names of South- West Yorkshire. Cambridge, 1914. 
Gross, C. : 9he Sources and Literature of English History. London, 1915. 
Harrison, H. : The Place-Names of the Liverpool District. London, 1898. 
Harrison, H. : Surnames of the United Kingdom. London, 1912-18. 
Hsegstad, M., and Torp, A. : Qamalnorsk ordbok. Christiania, 1909. 
Hellquist, E. : Studier over de svenska sjonamnen. Stockholm, 1903-1906. 
Hellquist, E. : De svenska ortnamnen pa -by. Goteborg, 1919. 
Hellquist, E. : Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Lund, 1920, etc. (In progress.) 
Henderson, G. : The Norse Influence on Celtic Scotland. Glasgow, 1910. 
Hildebrand, B. E. : Anglosaxiska mynt i svenska kongliga myntkabinettet. Stockholm, 1881. 
Hird, F. : Lancashire Stories, 1913. 
Hogan, E. : Onomasticon Goedelicum. Dublin, 1910. 
Holder, A. : Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz. Leipzig, 1896, etc. 
Jakobsen, J : " Shetlandsoernes Stednavne." Aarbdger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 


Johnston, J. B. : Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1903. 
Johnston, J. B. : The Place-Names of England and Wales. London, 1914. 
Jones, J. M. : A Welsh Grammar. Oxford, 1913. 
Jonsson, Finnur : " Baejanofn a fslandi." In Safn til Sdgu Islands og tslenzkra Bokmenta. 

iv. Copenhagen and Reykjavik, 1907-15. 
Jonsson, Finnur : " Tilnavne i den islandske Oldlitteratur." Aarbdger for nordisk Oldkyndighed 

og Historie, 1907. 

Jonsson, Finnur : Norsk-islandske kultur- og sprogforhold i 9. og 10. drh. Copenhagen, 1921. 
Joyce, P. W. : Irish Names of Places. Dublin, 1910-13. 
Kalkar, O. : Ordbog til det celdre danske sprog. Copenhagen, 1881, etc. 
Kluge, F. : Nominate Stammbildungslehre. Halle, 1899. 
Kock, A. : Svensk ljudhistoria. Lund, 1906, etc. (In progress.) 

Landndmabok. Udgiven av Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskrift-selskab. Copenhagen, 1900. 
Liebermann, F. : Gesetze der Angelsachsen. Halle, 1903-1916. 
Liebermann, F. : Die Heiligen Englands. Hannover, 1889. 
Lind, E. H. : Norsk-islandska dopnamn och fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Uppsala, 1905- 


Lind, E. H. : Norsk-isldndska personbinamn fran medeltiden. Uppsala, 1921. 
Lindkvist, H. : Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin. Uppsala, 1912. (Lind- 


Lindroth, H. : De nordiska ortnamnen pa -rum. Goteborg, 1916. 
Loth, J. : Chrestomathie bretonne. Paris, 1890. 

Luick, K. : Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache. Leipzig, 1914, etc. 
Lundgren, M. F., and Brate, E. : Personnamn fran medeltiden. Svenska Landsmalen X : 6. 

Stockholm, 1892, etc. (Lundgren-Brate.) 

MacBain, A. : An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. Stirling, 1911. 
Maitland, F. : Domesday Book and Beyond. Cambridge, 1907. 


Marstrander, C. J. S. : Bidrag til del norske sprogs historic i Irland. Christiania, 1915. 

Mawer, A. : The Place-Names of Northumberland and Durham. Cambridge, 1920. 

McClure, E. : British Place-Names in their Historical Setting. London, 1910. 

Middendorff, H. : Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch. Halle, 1902. 

Miller, Th. : The Place-Names of the English Bede. Strassburg, 1896. 

Moore, A. W. : The Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man. London, 1890. 

Moorman, F. W. : The Place-Names of the West Riding of Yorkshire. Leeds, 1910. 

Morsbach, L. : Mittelenglische Grammatik. Halle, 1896. 

Mutschmann, H. : The Place-Names of Nottinghamshire. Cambridge, 1913. 

A New English Dictionary. Ed. J. A. H. Murray, H. Bradley, and others. 1884, etc. 

Nielsen, O. : Olddanske Personnavne. Copenhagen, 1883. 

Nomina geographica neerlandica. I-V. Amsterdam Leiden, 1885-1901. 

Noreen, A. : Altisldndische und altnorwegische Grammatik. Halle, 1903. 

Noreen, A. : Altschwedische Grammatik. Halle, 1904. 

Noreen, A. : Urgermanische Lautlehre. Halle, 1894. 

Noreen, A. : Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen. Strassburg, 1913. 

Norske Gaardnavne. Ed. 0. Rygh and others. Christiania, 1897, etc. (NG.) 

Nyare bidrag till kdnnedomen om de svenska landsmdlen och svenskt folkliv. Stockholm, 1878, 
etc. (In progress.) 

Oman, Ch. : England before the Norman Conquest. London, 1910. 

Ormerod, G. : The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester. Second ed. by Thomas 
Helsby. London, 1875-82. 

Ormerod, T. : Calderdale. Burnley, 1906. 

Owen's Pembrokeshire. Ed. H. Owen. Cymmrodorion Record Series. 1892. 

Pedersen, H. : Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Gottingen, 1909, 1913. 

Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Herausgegeben von Johannes Hoops. Strass- 
burg, 1911-19. (Reallexikon.) 

Redin, M. : Uncompounded Personal Names in Old English. Uppsala, 1919. 

Rhys, J. : Celtic Britain. London, 1904. 

Rietz, J. E. : Svenskt Dialekt-lexikon. Lund, 1867. 

Roberts, R. G. : The Place-Names of Sussex. Cambridge, 1914. 

Ross, H. : Norsk ordbog. Christiania, 1895. 

Round, J. H. : The Commune of London. London, 1899. 

Rygh, 0. : Norske gaardnavne. Forord og indledning. Christiania, 1898. (Rygh, Indl.) 

Rygh, 0. : Norske elvenavne. Christiania, 1904. (Rygh, N. E. or Elvenavne.) 

Searle, W. G. : Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. Cambridge, 1897. 

Sedgefield, W. J. : The Place-Names of Cumberland and Westmorland. Manchester, 1915. 

Seebohm, F. : The Tribal System in Wales. London, 1904. 

Seebohm, F. : The English Village Community. London, 1915. 

Sephton, J. : A Handbook of Lancashire Place-Names. Liverpool, 1913. 

Skeat, W. W. : The Place-Names of Cambridgeshire. Cambridge, 1904. 

Skeat, W. W. : The Place-Names of Hertfordshire. Hertford, 1904. 

Skeat, W. W. : The Place-Names of Bedfordshire. Cambridge, 1906. 

Skeat, W. W. : The Place-Names of Berkshire. Oxford, 1911. 

Skeat, W. W. : " The Place-Names of Huntingdonshire." In Proceedings of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Soc. No. XLIV. Cambridge, 1904. 

Skeat, W. W. : The Place-Names of Suffolk. Cambridge, 1913. 

Smith and Shortt : History of Ribchester. 1890. 

Spurrell : Welsh- English Dictionary. Ed. J. B. Anwyl. Carmarthen, 1915. 

Steenstrup, J. : Indledende studier over de celdste danske stednavnes bygning. Copenhagen, 1909. 

Steenstrup, J. : De danske stednavne. Copenhagen, 1918. 

Stenton, F. M. : The Place-Names of Berkshire. Reading, 1911. 

Stockdale, J. : Annales Caermoelenses. 1872. 

Stokes, W. : " Urkeltischer Sprachschatz." In Fick's Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indoger- 

manischen Sprachen. Gottingen, 1894. 
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Sveriges ortnamn. Alvsborgs Lan. Stockholm, 1906, etc. 



Soderwall, K. F. : Ordbok over svenska medeltidssprdket. Lund, 1884-1918. 

Tait, J. : Mediaeval Manchester. Manchester, 1904. 

Taylor, I. : Words and Places. Everyman's Library. London. 

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Vinogradoff, P. : The Growth of the Manor. London, 1911. 
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Journal. Vol. xxxvi. 1914-15. 

Watkin, W. Thompson : Roman Lancashire. Liverpool, 1883. 
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Whitaker, T. D. : The History of the Original Parish of Whalley. 4th ed. London, 1872-76. 
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Zachrisson, R. E. : Anglo-Norman Influence on English Place-Names. Lund, 1909. 


a. ante 

A. F. Anglo-French 

Am. Amounderness hundred 

A. N. Anglo-Norman 

Bl. Blackburn hundred 

Bret. Breton 

Brit. British 

Corn. Cornish 

Dan. Danish 

De. West Derby hundred 

Derby. Derbyshire 

E. East(ern) or English 

E. Fris. East Frisian 

el. element 

G. German 

Gael. Gaelic 

Gaul. Gaulish 

Germ. Germanic 

h. hamlet 

Icel. Icelandic 

IT. Irish 

Le. Leyland hundred 

L. G. Low German 

Lo. Lonsdale hundred 

m. mile(s) 

M. Bret. Middle Breton 

M. Du. Middle Dutch 

M. E. Middle English 

M. H. G. Middle High German 

Mn. E. Modern English 

M. W. Middle Welsh 

N. North(ern) 

NLo. Lonsdale North of the Sands 

Norw. Norwegian 

O. Bret. Old Breton 

O. Corn. Old Cornish 

O. Dan. Old Danish 

O. E. Old English 

O. H. G. Old High German 

O. Ir. Old Irish 

O. N. Old Norse ( = Old West Scandina- 

O. Sax. Old Saxon 

O. Swed. Old Swedish 

O. W. Old Welsh 

par. parish 

p(ers). n. personal name 

pi. n. place-name 

Prim. Celt. Primitive Celtic 

S. South(ern) 

Sa. Salf ord hundred 

Sc. Scottish, Scotland 

SLo. Lonsdale South of the Sands 

Swed. Swedish 

trib. tributary 

v. village 

W. West(ern) 

W. R. The West Riding 

A f at the end of an article indicates that the name is also dealt with in the Addenda page 263. 












Northern a, as in man [g] 

as in father [dz] 

Northern e, as in ale [tj] 

as in there [j] 

see [n] 

hot [z] 

law [J 
Northern o, as in no. 

as in pwll [x 

better [}> 

out [& 

die e 

now e 

a Northern diphthong, as in Isnott o 

front k o 

front g 
as in jet 







the voiceless velar fricative, as in G.&ch 
the voiced velar fricative 
as in thing 


M.E. open e, as in hep (O.E. heap) 
M.E. close e, as in kepe (O.E. cepan) 
M.E. open 6, as in lode (O.E. lad) 
M.E. close 6, as in do (O.E. don) 


THE county of Lancaster developed out of the post-Conquest honour of Roger 
of Poitou, which comprised, besides other districts, practically the whole of the 
present Lancashire. The Lancashire portion consisted of at least two distinct 
parts : (1) the land between the Kibble and the Mersey, which in Domesday is 
placed under Cheshire, which belonged (with Cheshire) to the Midland diocese 
of Lichfield, and probably at one time formed part of Mercia ; and (2) the dis- 
tricts north of the Kibble, which in Domesday are dealt with under Yorkshire 
and ecclesiastically belonged to York. But the districts north of the Ribble 
do not seem originally to have formed a political unit. At least we may safely 
distinguish the district between the Ribble and the Kent (Amounderness and 
Lonsdale proper), which seem to have been parts of Yorkshire, and Lonsdale 
North of the Sands, which belongs geographically to the Lake district and was 
very likely once connected with Cumberland politically. The latter district in 
the early Middle Ages (at least in 1291) belonged to the deanery of Copeland 
(Cumberland), while the former was divided between Kirkby Lonsdale and 
Amounderness deaneries. 

If Lancashire thus consists of parts historically unconnected, there is also 
much variety in the topography of the different parts. We have reason to expect 
the place-nomenclature of such a district to show much variety. This is also 
the case. The Lancashire place-names consequently offer many interesting 
and difficult problems. 

Previous Treatment of Lancashire Place-Names 

Three monographs on Lancashire place-names have been published. 

Henry Harrison's " Place-Names of the Liverpool District, 1898," deals 
only with the names of South- West Lancashire. 

H. C. Wyld and T. 0. Hirst, " The Place-Names of Lancashire, 1911." The 
chief author is Professor Wyld. This work aims at dealing etymologically with 
names found in early sources, and including (in Part II.) all those given in the 
one-inch Ordnance Survey Maps. This is a valuable contribution to English 
place-name study, but it is, in my opinion, open to a good deal of criticism. 
A few remarks on the book may be offered here. 1 

The book is by no means complete. Many interesting names, and names 
of important places, are missing (at least in the first, etymological part). Here 
belong, for instance, the majority of names of rivers and hills. Of others may 
be mentioned at random Bacup, Barrow-in-Furness, Birkland Barrow, Cadley, 
Church, Eccles, Levenshulme, Roose, Sharpies, Stennerley, Wycoller. On the 

1 Professor Wyld's book was reviewed at some length by the present writer in Anglia- 
Beiblatt xxiii. p. 177ff. ; reference may here be made to the detailed criticism in the review. 
Critical remarks similar to those given there will be found in the reviews by Dr. Bradley in 
EHR xxvi. (1911), and by Bjorkman in Englische Studien xliv. p. 249ff. 



other hand, some non-Lancashire names are included because they happen to 
be mentioned in Lancashire documents, as Angerby, Cromblebottom, Egger 
(river Ehen), Firbank, Winsterthwaite, and others. 

The early sources have not been exhaustively excerpted. In numerous cases 
earlier examples than those given are to be found. Not rarely the forms adduced 
do not refer to the names under discussion. Examples will be found under 
Alderbarrow, Audley, Ayre (Eyre, 1271-2, is eyre " circuit "), Birchall (Birche- 
halgh, 1295, is in Eccles, not in Manchester), Birtle, Blackstone Edge, Bowerham, 
Cockden, Goodber, Greeta, Pex Hill, Worsley, and others. 

A good many names are not explained. Of etymologies suggested quite a 
number can not, in my opinion, be regarded as convincing. Sometimes sufficient 
regard has not been paid to the testimony of early forms. Sometimes the early 
material is insufficient. Further, Professor Wyld has deliberately omitted to 
make sure that the etymologies suggested suit the topographical conditions of 
the places they designate. " The book," he says, " is not concerned with 
the question whether the names fit the places to which they are attached, nor 
whether they ever did so *' (Preface, p. viii). This has resulted in such ex- 
planations as "the marsh of Alta" for Altmarsh (on the river Alt), or "Kok's 
ham " for Cockerham (on the Cocker), or " the middle valley " for Mythop, 
though the place stands on a slight elevation in flat, marshy country. Professor 
Wyld has also overlooked the fact that the different parts of Lancashire 
show much variety as regards dialectal development. The etymologies of 
Scandinavian names, as pointed out by Bjorkman, are open to a good deal of 

John Sephton's "Handbook of Lancashire Place-Names" appeared in 
1913. Mr. Sephton evidently possessed intimate familiarity with Lancashire 
topography. He corrects several of the mistakes in Wyld's book. But his book 
has certain shortcomings. It gives very few early forms, in the case of some 
names none at all. While some etymologies testify to sound judgment, others 
show plainly that their author was not a trained etymologist. He derives the 
first element of Cuerdale from Germanic war, wcer, etc. ; that of Grassendale 
from a personal name Gcer, Ger\ that of Bartle from a personal name Berchta ; 
that of Edenfield from Gaelic eadanan, to mention some few obvious cases. 
Yet with its shortcomings Sephton's book is undoubtedly a valuable con- 

The three monographs, in my opinion, by no means exhaust the difficult and 
interesting subject. A very great deal still remains to be done in the field of 
Lancashire place-names. On the other hand, it is evident that it is not necessary 
to deal with all names equally fully. Names that have already been on the 
whole satisfactorily explained may be dealt with briefly. I am, of course, not 
alluding here only to the three monographs mentioned, but also to the important 
contributions of other scholars, as Mr. Collingwood, who in " Thorstein of the 
Mere " (1895), and " The Report of the Barrow Naturalists' Field Club," Vol. xi. 


(1896), gives the correct explanation of many Scandinavian names in Furness, 
and whose later publications contain many suggestions of great value ; or Dr. 
Harald Lindkvist, who in his important work on Scandinavian names in 
England gives the final etymology of numerous Lancashire place-names of 
Scandinavian origin ; or Dr. Bradley, who in his various publications on place- 
names (esp. his review of Wyld) has dealt with several Lancashire names. 

Concerning the relation between the present study and its predecessors an 
additional remark may be made. I have not as a rule considered it necessary 
to subject to criticism etymologies suggested by previous workers but not 
adopted by me. Nor have I deemed it obligatory always to point out that an 
etymology given has already been suggested before. In the case of etymologies 
practically self-evident in the light of the early material this would be meaning- 
less. It is different with etymologies that do not immediately suggest them- 
selves. In the case of such I often point out where I have first seen it suggested, 
even if I had already found it independently. And, of course, I acknowledge 
my indebtedness when I have actually adopted an etymology from a previous 
investigator. I may be allowed to point out here that I had devoted a good deal 
of time to the study of Lancashire place-names before the books of Wyld, 
Sephton, and Lindkvist appeared. 

On the Plan and Scope of the Present Study 

The book aims at including (1) all names of parishes and townships ; (2) of other 
names such as are now or were till recently in use and have been found in early 
sources, provided they offer sufficient interest ; (3) of names now lost only such 
as seem to be particularly interesting. Names not found in early sources are 
generally omitted. 

Practical considerations have rendered it impossible to give the whole of 
the material. It has been necessary to make a selection: Of names falling under 
heading (2) the leading principle has been to deal first of all with such as need 
explanation and such as denote fairly important places. Names etymologically 
more or less transparent are sometimes included because they are needed as 
illustration of the types of names used in the district. Of course, names found in 
mediaeval sources have been preferred to those found only from the 16th century 
or later, but frequently names recorded comparatively late have been con- 
sidered sufficiently important to be included. In many cases the late appearance 
of names in the sources is due simply to the fact that the early material is scanty. 
This is particularly the case with the Cartmel and part of the Furness districts. 

The study is based on an examination of practically the whole of the early 
material accessible in print. Of course, it is quite possible that I have overlooked 
some sources. Of the early forms collected only a selection is included in the 
material. I have as far as possible avoided giving examples already adduced 
by previous investigators ; this book and its predecessors will, therefore, to 


some extent supplement each other. Of course, when a different etymology 
is suggested, it has often been necessary to abandon this principle. And in 
several cases few early forms are on record. I have, of course, given preference 
to early forms found in original sources, 1 but often the only ones available are 
those in the transcripts found in monastic chartularies or similar sources. Forms 
from late sources, e.g., from parish registers, have been adopted chiefly to 
illustrate dialectal sound-changes. 

The aim is to offer not only a phonetically acceptable explanation of each 
name, but to determine as nearly as possible the exact etymology. The chief 
means at our disposal, besides a careful examination of the early material and 
a comparative study of the place-names of other districts, are the following two. 
The situation of a place often gives a clue to the etymology of its name. A study 
of the special features of the place-nomenclature of a district often gives valuable 
results. Thus the frequency of Scandinavian names varies from district to 
district ; for a name found in a district where Scandinavian names are rare 
English origin is most probable, while Scandinavian origin is plausible in dis- 
tricts where undoubtedly Scandinavian names abound. To take an example, 
Rainford and Rainhill have probably an English first element, for in the neigh- 
bourhood Scandinavian names are extremely scarce. The nature of a first 
element may often be practically settled by an examination of the relative 
frequency with which different kinds of first elements (personal names, descriptive 
common nouns, etc.) are combined with a certain element. For instance, tun 
has mostly a descriptive common noun, often a tree-name, as first element. 
It is, therefore, improbable that the common name Ashton should have as 
first theme the rare O.E. personal name Msc. Some English words are found to 
be practically always combined with English, some Scandinavian words prac- 
tically always with Scandinavian first elements, while others frequently appear 
in hybrids. 

Particularly helpful is, in my opinion, the light thrown on the etymology 
of place-names by a study of the topography of places. For this reason informa- 
tion concerning the situation of places will be given very frequently, and to 

1 In some works on place-names lately published forms not found in original sources are 
marked by an obelus or some such sign. I have considered the advisability of making a 
similar distinction between forms found in original sources and forms that are not. However, 
it is difficult to carry through such a distinction, as it is not always easy to determine if early 
documents are genuine or not. Besides, I think this distinction is of considerable practical 
importance only in the case of forms from O.E. charters, and hardly any Lancashire charters 
from O.E. time are extant. Obviously, forms found in transcripts (especially late ones) of 
original documents must be used with some caution, but on the whole I have the impression 
that scribes (for instance, those of monastic chartularies) at least attempted to render their 
originals faithfully. 

Some of the most important sources of early forms of Lancashire place-names are monastic 
chartularies or similar collections, which mostly contain transcripts of documents, e.g., the 
early Lancashire Charters published by Dr. Farrer (Ch) and those referred to as CC, FC, LC. 
The forms quoted from these, unless the contrary is stated, are taken from transcripts, not 
from original documents. 


an extent unparalleled in earlier works on English place-names. In many 
cases the exact etymology cannot be established without such information. 
To take one example : the common element den (in Clayden, Denton) may be 
O.E. denu " valley," or denn " swine-pasture " (or in Denton, also O.E. Lena 
" of Danes "). If a place with such a name is found to be situated in a valley, 
we may be fairly sure that den is denu " valley." In other cases a topographical 
examination will contribute to a more exact knowledge of the meaning of place- 
name elements, as O.E. eg, halh, heafod, hop, hoh, twisla. In the case of names 
given without reference to the situation of places (as Abram, Aldingham) 
information concerning topography is in itself unnecessary, but even in such 
cases a hint as to the situation may be useful. 

For the purpose of finding out the situation of places I have made diligent 
use of maps, especially the Ordnance Survey six-inch and one-inch maps, and 
the valuable special maps found in the Victoria History of Lancaster. I have 
derived much help from the topographical descriptions found in the last- 
mentioned work. I have also had an opportunity of studying Lancashire 
topography on the spot during my visits to Lancashire in the summers of 1920 
and 1921. I made it my object, in those visits, to acquire a general familiarity 
with the topography of the various parts of the county and to examine the 
situation of places whose names offer particular difficulties. At least in some 
cases such observations on the spot have, in my opinion, rendered a final 
etymology possible. 

It should be added, however, that in the case of Lancashire place-names, 
which with very few exceptions are not recorded in O.E. forms, a final 
etymology can frequently not be attained. It is often necessary to give two or 
more alternative explanations, and in some cases no definite suggestion can be 

The purpose of the present study is not exclusively etymological. It aims 
at giving a fairly accurate idea of the distribution of name-types and names of 
various provenance, and thereby at throwing light on the early history of the 
county, the distribution of the population, the survival of a Celtic element, the 
Scandinavian immigration, etc. Questions of this kind are discussed chiefly 
in the Summary. 

In the material names are given in a geographical arrangement. This has 
the disadvantage that it will be necessary to consult the Index to find a name 
required. On the other hand, the arrangement chosen, which agrees on the 
whole with that usual in works on Scandinavian place-names, seems to me to 
have obvious advantages. It is, in my opinion, unsatisfactory to deal with 
the Lancashire place-names, which show so much variety from an etymological 
point of view, in an alphabetical order. To judge of many etymologies, it is 
of importance to be able to find out the general characteristics of the place- 
nomenclature of the neighbourhood. With the arrangement adopted the 
material forms a convenient basis for the discussions and conclusions in the 


Summary. Information on topography can be given much, more briefly and 
yet much more satisfactorily. The space saved under this head makes up for 
the extra space involved by the Index. 

Under each hundred 1 the names of rivers, hills, and lakes are given first. 
The division into parishes, as being in most cases convenient and practical, is, 
on the whole, followed, though not rigidly. Under each township names of 
minor places are usually arranged alphabetically. Salford and Blackburn 
hundreds, which have a practically English place-nomenclature, are placed 
first. Then follow West Derby, Leyland, Amounderness, and Lonsdale hundreds. 
The general idea has been to proceed from South to North ; yet in the case of 
Blackburn hundred, where the oldest settlements seem to be in the Northern 
part, a somewhat different plan is followed. 

A numeral is placed before the name of each township, an exception being 
made only in the case of one-township parishes. This numeral, which is really 
added for practical purposes, to show where one township ends and another 
begins, at the same time indicates that the place is a township, and consequently 
in the majority of cases an old manor and vill. If names denote villages or 
hamlets a statement to the effect (v., h.) is added. Where no indication as to 
the status of a place is given it may generally be taken for granted that the 
name designates an estate or a farm. 

In this place I feel it a duty to acknowledge gratefully the inestimable help 
I have derived from that storehouse of information on Lancashire topography 
and history, the Victoria History of the County of Lancaster, not only in the 
arrangement of the material, but in many other directions. It is a pleasure to 
testify to the wealth of its material, the accuracy of its information, and the 
intimate familiarity with Lancashire history and topography evidenced by its 

In the course of my visits to Lancashire I have made it my object also to 
collect local pronunciations of place-names. I want to point out here that the 
material collected is somewhat uneven. Some of the forms given represent the 
educated local rather than the " broad " Lancashire pronunciation. The forms 
do not claim to render nice shades of pronunciation. To get exactly correct 
forms it would be necessary to study the various Lancashire dialects carefully. 
Sometimes the forms will be found to differ from those recorded by Ellis. One 
important reason for this is, I believe, that the pronunciation of names has 
changed in the last few decades. 

The forms given lay no claim to being the only ones used. They are those 

1 Lancashire, from early mediaeval times, has been divided into six hundreds : Salford, 
Blackburn, West Derby, Leyland, Amounderness, Lonsdale. At the time of the Conquest a 
slightly different division was recognized. 

The division at present recognized is, on the whole, followed in this book. The only 
deviation of any importance is the following : Under Amounderness I deal also with the parts 
belonging to it at the time of the Conquest, but later joined to Blackburn and Lonsdale 
respectively. The reason is that these parts belong geographically to Amounderness, this 
being originally the district between the Kibble and the Cocker. 


I have heard myself from inhabitants of the places or persons living in the 
neighbourhood, during my rambles or journeys through the county. In this 
field much remains to be done. After all, I do not think the testimony of the 
modern pronunciation is, on the whole, of very great value for etymological 
purposes. At any rate, my own experience has brought me to the conviction 
that place-names are influenced to a greater extent than other words by spelling- 
pronunciation. Seventeenth- or eighteenth-century spellings and forms from 
dialect-literature of the last century are really more valuable as evidence of the 
genuine local pronunciation than the modern spoken forms. At the same time 
I readily admit that sometimes the modern forms are of value for etymological 
purposes, and they have considerable intrinsic interest. 

Elements Found in Lancashire Place-Names 

This section deals chiefly with the elements found as the second part of place-names. 
Those occurring as the first part are, as a rule, easily found by the help of the Index at the 
end of the book. It is meant as a supplement to the Index, giving information as to the 
frequency and distribution of the various elements. Absolute completeness is aimed at only 
as regards the more important elements, such as -ham, -tun, -worp, etc. 

This section has been considered the best place for a discussion of the etymology and 
meaning of commonly occurring elements, and in the material references are frequently 
given to it. 

In the case of more important elements a brief survey is given of the various kinds of 
first elements combined with them (personal names, descriptive common nouns, adjectives, 
etc.). It has also been considered important to point out if and to what extent elements 
occur in hybrid formations. It will be seen that hybrid formations in the case of most elements 
are by no means very common. 

O.N. & " river, stream " : Greeta SLo, Brathay, perhaps Eea, Cunsey, Eauthey NLo. 

O.E. ac " oak " : Shorrock Bl, Broad-, Graveoak, Laffog, Mossock De, Harrock Le ; 
Aighton Bl (Am), Aughton De, Akefrith SLo, Ogden Sa, Oglet De, etc. 

O.E. secer, O.N. akr " cultivated field." The first el. is Scandinavian in Hose-, Stirz-, 
Tarnacre, perh. Barn-, Stansacre, Am. It is mostly English, being a common noun (Cliviger 
Bl, Linacre, Shurlacres, Waddicar De, Woodacre Am) ; or an adj. (Whitaker Bl, Kenacres 

O.E. sern " house " : Hordern Sa, Hardhorn Am. 

O.N. afnam: see Avenham Am. 

O.E. alor " alder " : Cobhouse, Lightollers Sa, Wycoller Bl ; OUerton Le, perhaps 
Allerton De. 

O.E. angel or O.N. Qngull " hook " : see Ovangle SLo. 

O.E. *anger "pasture" or O.N. angr "bay" : Angram Bl, Angerton NLo. 

O.E. bsec, O.N. bak " back " : see Bacup Bl, Backbarrow Lo. 

O.E. balg adj. (prob. in balgandun 704-9 BCS 123), M.E. balgh (ball ben Gaw.) " rounded ; 
smooth " : Balladen Sa, Ballam Am. Cf . the lost name Balshaw (Spotland Sa) : de Balghschae 
1296 Lacy C, de Balschagh 1311 LI. The same name formerly occurred in Ainsworth Sa 
(Balshahe c 1200 CC) and Ditton De (de Balsagh 1246 LAR). 

? O.E. ball : cf. Cabus Am. 

M.E. banke<O.N. bakM(<*banki), O.Dan, banke, "bank, ridge." In Lane, place-names 
bank mostly means " hill " : Roughbank, Windy Bank Sa, Pickup Bank, Yate Bank Bl, 
Dove Bank, Haws Bank, Speel Bank, Tottlebank (2) NLo. Another meaning is " sea-shore " 
or " bank of a river " : Halebank De, Kent's Bank NLo, Bank Hall (various). The first el. 
of names in -bank is mostly English. 

O.E. bearo " grove " : Bare SLo, Barrow Bl, De, Longbarrow De. 

O.N. bekkr " brook " : Eller Beck De, Artlebeck, Cant Beck, Escow- Harterbeck SLo, 


Grize-, Hole-, Roosebeck, etc., NLo. The first el. is mostly Scandinavian ; it is a pers. n. 
in Artlebeek. 

O.E. beonet " bent " : Chequerbent Sa, Chowbent De. 

O.E. beorh, O.N. berg " hill." The greater part of the names seem to have a Scand. first 
el. and to be of Scand. origin : Firber Bl, Aigburth, Mossborough De, Birkland Barrow, 
Cringle-, Scaleber SLo, Ella-, Hart-, How-, Latter-, Leg-, Quernbarrow NLo ; cf. also Crosse- 
berg, Struteberg (O.N. strutr " peak of a cap "), Sorithsteinberg (for South-) 1202 LF (Lo). 
Here perhaps belongs Habergham Bl. 

O.E. beretun, berewic " barton " (see Barton Sa p. 38) : Barton Sa, De, Am, perh. Pem- 
berton De ; Berwick SLo. 

M.E. bigging " dwelUng -place ; cottage " (from big " to build ; to dwell "<O.N. byggia) : 
Newbigging Am, NLo. 

Early Mn.E. borwen, burian " cairn," see Burwains Bl. 

O.N. bot " piece," see Laithbutts SLo. 

O.N. botn " bottom " etc., see Botton SLo. 

O.Dan, bdj), O.N. btid " booth," Engl. dial, booth " a cow-house, a herdsman's hut " 
(Yks., Lane.). Names in -booth are found chiefly in the hilly districts of Bl. : Goldshaw 
Booth, Haw-, Oozebooth, Higher, Lower Booths, etc., Bl ; Dunnishbooth, Booths Hall Sa. 
The first el. is often English. The O.N. form bud is found only in Lo : Bouth (2), Rulbuth 

O.E. *b6pl, bold, botl " dwelling, house, palace " : Bold De ; Newbold Sa, Parbold Le ; 
Bootle De, Fordbottle NLo. Bolton contains *bo}>L Very likely O.E. *bopltun had a 
special technical meaning ; we may perhaps compare O.Swed. bolbyr " the village proper " in 
contradistinction to umceghur " outlying land " (Hellquist, Ortnamn pa -by, p. 19). On the 
different forms of the O.E. word (bopl, botl, bold) see Anglia-Beiblatt 1 28, p. 82fl. 

O.E. *bopm, botm " bottom," M.E. bothem, also " valley, deU," etc. : Oaken-, Rams-, 
Shilling-, Shipperbottom Sa. 

O.N. brekka, Norw. dial, brekka f., brekk m. " slope, hill " : Breck, Scarisbrick, Walton 
Breck, Warbreck De, Limbrick Le, Esprick, Larbrick, Mowbrick, Norbreck, Swarbrick, 
Warbreck Am, Brantbeck, Eden-, Inglebreck, Norbrick SLo, Sunbrick NLo. The first el. 
apparently is or may be Scandinavian in all cases. In Brownbrinks Bl a form without 
assimilation (O.N. brekka < *brinka) appears. 

O.E. broc " brook " : Corn-, Cringle-, Ellenbrook, Gilda Brook, Gore Brook Sa, Glaze-, 
Holbrook, Tarbock De, Sid Brook, Warth Brook Le, Swill Brook Am, Lucy Brook, Rowton 
Brook, Tarnbrook SLo. 

O.E. bra " brow," later " projecting edge of a cliff ; a slope " : Chantry Brow Sa, Mere 
Brow Le. 

O.E. bryce, see Bruche De. 

O.E. brycg " bridge " : Bamber Bridge Bl, Tawdbridge De, Walnter Bridge Le, Dowbridge 
Am, Cowan Bridge SLo, Haybridge, Newby Bridge NLo. 

O.E. burh " fortified place ; town," etc. The exact meaning is often doubtful. It is 
sometimes " fort," as in Burrow SLo (2), Arbury De, cf. Tilberthwaite NLo ; sometimes 
"borough," as in Flookborough NLo (first el. Scand.), ? Littleborough Sa, Newburgh De. 
A meaning " manor " is probable sometimes when the first el. is a pers. n., as Didsbury Sa, 
Duxbury Le, Bilsborrow Am. Other examples are : Pendlebury Sa, Sales-, Samlesbury 
Bl, Bury Sa, De, Burgh Le ; Broughton Sa, Burscough De. On Burton see under Broughton 
Sa, p. 32. 

O.E. *burh, M.E. borow " burrow " : Badsberry Am, Musburv Sa : cf. Swineburyheuid 
c 1200 CC 342 (Forton). 

O.E. burna " stream, brook " : Burn Am, Black-, Chat-, Hyndburn Bl, Golborne De, 
Perburn Le, Cowburn Am, Hind-, Roeburn, Ludder Burn NLo. 

O.E. byht " bend " : Sidebeet Bl. 

O.N. byr, beer " homestead ; village ; town," O.Dan, by " village, town " : Cross-, Der-, 
Form-, Greet-, Kirk-, Roby De, Aschebi, Nate-, Rib-, Sower-, Westby Am, Horn-, Ire-, 
Thirnby SLo, Birk-, Kirk- (2), Sowerby NLo. Cf. [Birstath] Bryning, Byrewath Am. The 

1 The suggestion made in this article that the regular Northumbrian form was one with 
a long vowel is corroborated by the pronunciation [birol, blind bu-al] for Bothel, Blindbothel, 


word is always combined with elements that are or may be Scandinavian. The first el. is 
mostly a common noun or a personal or national name. These names as a rule denote fairly 
important places. 

O.E. byre " cow-house " : Byrom De. 

O.E. ceaster, csester " a city or walled town," originally one that had been a Roman 
station : Man-, Ribchester, Lancaster. 

O.N. kelda " spring, well " : Calkeld, Kellet SLo, Trinkeld NLo. 

O.N. kiarr " brushwood," Norw. kjerr, kjarr " wet ground, esp. where brushwood grows ; 
brushwood," M.E. kerr. The meaning in Lane, names seems to be " fen or bog, especially 
overgrown with bushes." The first el. is often English, as in Dunscar Bl, Bescar, Hopecarr 
De. Other examples : Hall Carr Bl, Alt-car, Barker, Hoscar De, Riscar, Sower Carr Am, 
Holker NLo. 

O.E. cirice " church " : Church Bl, Newchurch Bl, De. 

O.N. kirkia " church " : Ormskirk De, Bradkirk Am. Of. Kirkby, etc. To some extent 
kirk- may have supplanted O.E. cirice, as in Kirkham, Bradkirk Am. Kirk- is, in my opinion, 
always a Scand. form ; cf. Scandinavians, p. 48. That kirk is Scandinavian in names found 
S. of the Ribble is obvious, for here palatalization of O.E. c is very well evidenced (Childwall, 
Chorley, Church, etc.). No certain examples either of palatalization or non-palatalization of 
O.E. c- before e, i are found N. of the Ribble, except in Bl N. of the Ribble (Chipping, 
Ribchester). But, in my opinion, palatalization of O.E. c must have taken place in all dialects 
initially before i, e, ea, eo and medially at least before j ; this is proved by the fact that in 
the earliest M.E. Northern text words such as chide, chicken, child, cheap, cheek, leche, wrecche t 
always have ch. Exceptions such as Keswick, Kildwick are due to Scand. influence. Cf. 
Anglia-Beiblatt 30, p. 224, and Gevenich, Die englische Palatalisierung von k>5 im Lichte 
der englischen Ortsnamen (Halle 1918). 

O.N. kleif "hill-side": see Claife NLo. 

O.E. clif " a cliff, especially on the sea shore," M.E. clif, Mod. Engl. cliff also " a steep 
slope, a declivity, a hill." The latter appears to be the usual meaning in Lane, names ; the 
sense " rock " seems certain in Radcliffe Sa. Other examples : Horncliffe, Rockliffe, Stani-, 
Tonacliffe Sa, Briercliffe, Cunlifife, Finiscliffe Bl, Aid-, An-, Oxcliffe SLo, Baycliff NLo. The 
first el. is French in Castercliff Bl, Scaitcliffe Sa, Bl. Rawcliff e Am has a Scand. first el. ; the 
second may very well be O.N. klif (Swed. kliv) " steep hill." 

"O.E. cldh " a ravine or valley with steep sides, usually forming the bed of a stream " : 
Cowclough Sa, Deadwin Clough, Love Clough, Meer Clough, Sow Clough Bl, Hawksclough 
De ; cf. Clougha, Swaintley Hill SLo. 

M.E. clos (<O.F. clos) " enclosure " : Filly Close, West Close Bl. 

M.E. knot " a hill " from O.E. cnotta " knot " or O.N. knpttr " hill " (in place-names) ; 
cf. Scandinavians, p. 40 : Knott End Am, Blow Knott or Blawith Knott NLo (a hill). 

O.E. copp " top, summit," prob. also " hill " : Copp Am, Coppull Le, Pickup Bl (2), 
Cross Copp SLo. 

O.E. cot n., cote f . " a small house, cottage " ; M.E. cot, cote, also " a small erection for 
shelter, as for sheep." Perhaps O.E. cot, like cot-Kf, also meant " a manor " ; cf. Prescot. 
Examples : Ancoats Sa, Alkin-, Coldcoats, Huncoat Bl, Cottam Am. In NLo -cote usually 
means " a sheep-cote " : the source is here very likely O.N. kot " a hut," common in Icel. 
names. The first el., except in Idlecote and possibly Hawcoat, seems to be a place-name : 
Billing-, Ireleth-, Roose-, Waltoncote. 

M.E. crag "rock " (Ir.-Gael. creag or Brit, crag 1 ) : Craggs Bl, Ellel Crag, Crag House 
SLo, Buckcrag, Groffa Crag, Whelpshead Crag NLo. 

O.E. cranoc " crane " : Cranshaw De, Cronkshaw Bl. 

O.E. croft " a piece of enclosed ground used for tillage or pasture ; a small piece of arable 
land adjacent to a house " : Age-, Massey-, Scowcroft Sa, Barcroft Bl, Croft, Flit-, Hoi-, 
Martins-, Wolfscroft De, Brimmicroft Le. The names denote comparatively small places. 

O.Ir. cross (>O.N. kross, late O.E. cros) " cross " : Norcross Am, Askelescros SLo ; cf. 
Crosby, etc. Engl. cross was probably adopted chiefly from Scand. kross. "\ 

O.E. eumb " a deep hollow or valley " : Cowm, Holcombe Sa, perh. Compton Am. 

O.E. dsel, O.N. dalr " valley." It is impossible to decide with certainty to what extent 
dale, in Lane, names is English or Scandinavian. There is no reason to doubt that dcel was in 

1 Cf. Forster, Keltisches Wortgut im Englischen (1921) p. 126f. 


living use in early O.E. time in dialects, and that names such as Rossendale, Rochdale, 
Dalton, Dallam may be English. On the other hand, names in -dale often have a Scand. 
first el., as Skelmers-, Birk-, Kirkdale De, Ulvesdale Le, Bleasdale Am, Grizedale Am, NLo, 
Ewe Dale NLo ; many names in -dale are no doubt Scandinavian. The first el. of names in 
-dale is frequently a river-name, as Wyresdale Am, Lons-, Roeburndale SLo, perhaps Dunner- 
dale NLo. Other names in -dale are : Ains-, Drummers-, Grassendale De, Oxendale Bl, 
Chippingdale Bl (Am), Deepdale Am, Little-, Mallow-, Silverdale SLo, Lindal, Lin-, Yewdale 

O.E. denu " a vale, especially the deep, narrow, and wooded vale of a rivulet." This is 
obviously the meaning of -den in Lane, names. The el. is very common in Sa and Bl, but 
rare in. other hundreds : Cokerdene Le, Huntingdon and Ragden Bl (Am), Duxendean Am, 
perh. Duddon NLo. The first el. of names in -den is as a rule of English origin ; possible 
exceptions are those of Ragden, Naden, Ravden. It is mostly a common noun, as in Buck-, 
Burn-, Clay-, Dear-, Harsen-, Mos-, Og-, Sladen Sa, Asp-, Baxen-, Cock-, Hen-, Mars-, Mus-, 
Stan-, Swin-, Trawden Bl. It is a pers. n. in e.g. Bors-, Pigs-, Walsden Sa, Bottin, Hoddlesden, 
Ogden Bl ; an adj. in e.g. Balla-, Sudden Sa, Hasling-, Hoi-, Warmden Bl ; a river-name 
perhaps in Spodden Sa, Cokerdene Le. Other examples : A1-, Ghees-, Droyls-, Egbur-, Goo-, 
Pol-, Roo-, Todmor-, Walk-, Woolden Sa, Crib-, Knuz-, Sab-, Thurs-, Waiver-, Wolfenden Bl, 
Worden Le. 

O.E. die " ditch " : Ditchfield, Ditton De, Reddish Sa, 

Engl. dial, dub " pool " : Arnside Dub SLo, St. Ellen Dub NLo. 

O.E. dun " a hill," later also " open expanse of elevated land " : Quarlton Sa, Billington, 
Hameldon (3) Bl, Smithdown De, Downham Bl. 

O.E. ea " river " : Mersey ; Ewood Sa, Bl ; perh. Eea NLo. 

O.E. ecg " edge," M.E., Mn.E. edge " the crest of a sharply pointed ridge ; ridge, water- 
shed ; brink or verge," also " a steep hill or hillside " (EDD). In Lane, place-names the 
usual meaning seems to be " hill " or " ridge " : Blackstone Edge, Horsedge Sa, Revidge 
Bl, etc. The meaning of -edge in Burna,ge, Burnedge Sa, Brownedge Bl, is not quite clear. 
In Agecroft Sa, Edgeworth Sa, Egton Lo, the pers. n. Ecga is also a possible source. 

O.E. edisc " pasture " : Standish Le. 

O.E. efes " edge of a wood," later also " brow of a hill " : Eaves Le, Am, Wicheves Sa, 
Habergham Eaves, Oakeneaves Bl. 

O.E. eg, O.N. ey " island " : Barrow, Fouldray, Foulney, Roa, Walney NLo, all very 
likely Scandinavian. O.E. eg must also, like Mn. dial, ea, have meant " a well- watered 
piece of land ; a meadow or piece of ground near a river partly surrounded by water " 
(e.g., in Cerotaes ei Bede, now Chertsey). This may be the meaning of the second el. of 
Cockney, Hardy Sa, Livesey Bl, Finney Le, Corner (Row) Am, Bardsea NLo : cf. also 
Edenfield Sa. As a field-name Eea (Ees) is common in Lane. 

O.N. eik " oak " : Aigburth De. 

O.N. eng " meadow " : Mickering De. 

M.E. ergh, argh " a shieling : a (hill) pasture ; a hut on a pasture " from O.N. ergr<M.Ir. 
airge " a herd of cattle, dairy," Ir. airghe " a shieling," Gael, airidh " a shieling, hill pasture," 
etc. Cf. Scandinavians, p. 74ff. In Lancashire the el. is found chiefly N. of the Ribble. It 
occurs alone in Arkholme SLo, perh. Little Arrow NLo. In compounds the first part is as 
a rule undoubtedly a Scand. or Ir. pers. n. (as in Anglezark Sa, Goosnargh, Grimsargh, Kella- 
mergh, ? Dandy Birks Am, Scambler SLo), or a common noun that at least may be Scandi- 
navian (Docker, Salter, Winder (2) SLo, Stewnor, Winder NLo). Other examples or possible 
examples are : Sholver Sa, Aynesargh, Brettargh De, Barker, Medlar Am, Ortner SLo, 
Bethecar, Biggar, Houkler Hall, Robsawter, Torver NLo. Some names in -ergh found in 
early sources are now lost ; cf. Scandinavians, p. 74ff. 

O.E. erj> " ploughed land " : Hengarth De. 

O.N. eyrr " gravel bank " : see Salt Ayre SLo. 

O.E. foelging " faUow land " (cf. babban fcelinge 849 BCS 455) : Falinge Sa, Falling De, 
perh. Haresfinch De. Here belongs Fallings (Staffs.) : Olde Falinge a 1200 (Duignan). 

O.E. feer " passage " : Hollinfare De. Some examples quoted by Jellinghaus, Angh'a XX, 
p. 281 (as O.E. Lagefare, Walhfare), may belong here. 

O.E., O.N. fall : Woodfall De, Threlfall Am, Sinkfall NLo. The meaning in the last two 
is probably " place where trees have been felled ; forest-clearing," a sense found in Norw. 
dialects and in English names such as Horsfal, Micklefal, Monkfal, which denoted inclosures 


from woodlands in the 13th cent, in Balderston Bl (VHL vi. 313). In Woodfall the meaning 
is not so clear. 

O.E. fearn " fern " : Redfern Sa. 

O.E. feld " field." The meaning seems to be either " a plain," as probably in Fallowfield 
(Heaton) Sa, Makerfield De, Cantsfield SLo ; or " common field " as perhaps in Eden-, 
Hundersfield Sa ; or " one of the parts of the common field," as probably in Inch-, Scholefield 
Sa, Hen-, Port-, Saxi-, Schole-, Shelfield Bl, Ditch-, Scholefield De, but it is impossible to 
distinguish neatly between the different meanings. Other examples : Bel-, Fallow-, Stans-, 
Whitefield Sa, Tewhitfield SLo. O.E. gefilde " plain " : Fylde Am. 

O.N. fell, fiall " fell, mountain " : Beacon Fell Am, Little Fell, Winfold Fell SLo, Cartmel 
Fell, Furness FeU, Hampsfell, Whinfield NLo. 

O.N. flpt " level piece of land," M.E. flat " a piece of level ground." In Yks. dialects 
flat means particularly " one of the divisions of a common field, a shot or furlong." This 
is no doubt the original meaning in Quarry Flat, Tarn Flat, Thwaite Flat NLo. 

O.E. ford " ford " : Bam-, Brad-, Sal-, Stret-, Trafford Sa, Barrow-, Horrocks-, Sharney- 
ford, Heysandforth Bl, Bed-, Or-, Rainford De, Middleforth, Rufford Le, Cat-, HoUowforth 
Am, Cam-, Scotforth SLo. The form -forth is late. The reason why it supplanted -ford 
in some cases is not clear. Its late appearance tells against Scand. influence. There is a 
tendency for final [p] and [d] to become [t] ; cf. p. 21f. Perhaps [forpj replaced [fort] as a 
reaction against the change [p]>[tj. 

O:E. furlang " furlong," i.e., " a division of an unenclosed field " : Bam-, Peasfurlong De. 

O.E. fyrhj), gefyrhjte " frith," i.e. " wood, wooded country " : Akefrith SLo, Frith NLo, 
Firber Bl. 

O.E. gaet, geat " gate " : Wingates Sa, Haggate, Yate Bank Bl, Lydiate De, Water 
Yeat NLo. 

O.N. gardr " yard, fence,'-' M.E. garth " a piece of enclosed ground used as a yard, garden, 
or paddock ; a fence or hedge " : Eggergarth De, Lingart Am, Fleagarth SLo, Grassguards, 
Loppergarth NLo, Gartside Sa, Gascow NLo. Occasionally Engl. yard has replaced the 
Scand. word as in Grassyard SLo. Sideyard SLo may contain the Engl. word. 

O.N. gata " road " : Ridgate De, Galgate SLo, Soutergate NLo. 

O.N. geil " ravine, narrow valley " : High Gale SLo, ? Hasty Gill NLo. 

O.N. gil " ravine, narrow valley " : Damas Gill, Hoi-, Low-, Ra-, Thrush-, Todgill SLo, 
Beacons Gill, Dane Ghyll NLo. The first el. is often Scandinavian. 

O.E. graef " grave " : Orgrave NLo. 

O.E. graef, graf " grove, brushwood, thicket " : Greaves Am, Ramsgreave Bl, Tingreave 
Le, Sidgreaves Am. 

O.N. grein " branch," Engl. dial, grain " branch of a valley," etc. : Haslingden Grane Bl. 

M.E. grene, Mn.E. green " a common " : Hollins Green De, Dinkling Green Bl (Am). 

O.E., O.N. grund. Dial, ground means, among other things, " a farm, especially an out- 
lying one." Names such as Dixonground, Rogerground are common in High Furness. They 
are all late. The distribution of the el. rather suggests Scand. origin. In Iceland grund is quite 
common in place-names. It means " flat, grass-grown ground, esp. on streams and lakes." 

O.E. hses. See Malkins Wood Sa, Hey sham Lo. 

O.E. haga " enclosure ; homestead," O.N. hagi " enclosure " : Haigh De, Haw Booth Bl, 
Hawcoat Lo ; Turnagh Sa, Crookhey, Locka, Stodday, Smeer Hall SLo. 

O.E. halh " corner, nook," Mn. dial, haugh " low-lying, level ground by the side of a 
river." The latter meaning is that of the el. in Lane, names, the places in question being 
situated on rivers or streams or at the edge of mosses (Halsall, Maghull De, Midge Hall Le) ; 
cf., however, Wolf hole Crag SLo. The first el. of names in -Jialh is English or pre-Scand. ; 
possible exceptions are Dunkenhalgh Bl, Killinsough Am. It is usually a pers. n. (as Kersal, 
Ordsall, Redvales Sa, Whackersall Bl, Halsall, Kinknall De, Earnshaw, Wignall Le, 
Hothersall Am, Ellel SLo) or an adj. (as Broadhalgh, Siddal, Woodhill Sa, Langho, Ridihalgh, 
Syddles, White Hough, Whithalgh Bl, Chisnall Le, Fernyhalgh, Rowall Am). It is a common 
noun in Ringstonhalgh Bl, Knowley, Midge Hall Le, Lynnall De, Midghalgh Am. Further 
instances : Bullough, Crumpsall, Lomax, Monsall Sa, ? Cuerdale, Ponthalgh, Reedley 
Hallows Bl, Wolfall De, Comberhalgh, perh. Catterall, Rossall Am, Haugh, Haulgh Sa, 
Hale De, Haughton, Houghton, Westhoughton Sa, Haighton Am, Halton SLo. 

O.E. hall " court ; residence." In place-names the usual meaning is no doubt " manor- 
house, residence " : Chingle Hall, New Chingle Hall Am, Wolfhall Bl (Am), Challen Hall, 


Robert Hall, West Hall SLo, etc., perh. Prestall Sa. In Mn. dial, hall also means " farm- 
house, cottage " ; this seems to be the meaning in New Hall Sa, perh. Hollo whead Bl. 

O.E., O.N. hals " neck," dial, hause " a col " : Hawes Water SLo, Wrynose NLo. 

O.E. ham " village ; dwelling, manor " and hamm " a meadow," etc., are always difficult 
to distinguish in place-names. In Lane, names ham is, on the whole, the more probable 
source. At least in S. Lane., O.E. a before a nasal often appears as o (cf. Ramsbottom Bl), 
and we expect isolated spellings -horn, if the source is frequently O.E. hamm. No such 
spellings are on record, except perh. in Dallam De. We may assume that names in -ham 
which denote more important places mostly go back to O.E. ham. There is some doubt as 
regards names of minor places, as Newham (now Newhall) Sa, Higham Bl, Hecham Am. 
The usual meaning of O.E. ham in place-names seems to be " village " or " manor " ; neither 
seems plausible in these names. Bxit the meaning may be " homestead." On the other hand, 
O.E. hamm seems usually to have meant " flat, low-lying pasture-land." This sense is im- 
possible in Higham, and if hamm had no other senses the second el. of this name must be 
O.E. ham. But the original meaning of hamm seems to have been " enclosure," and that 
may have been preserved in some parts of England. There seems no reason to derive -ham 
in any Lane, name from O.N. heimr. Names in -ham have as first el. sometimes a pers. n. 
(or the like), as Abram De, Padiham Bl, Bispham Le, Am, Whittingham Am, Tatham SLo, 
Aldingham NLo ; sometimes a place or river name, as Cheetham, Irlam Sa, Cockerham 
SLo ; sometimes a common noun, as Thornham Sa, Kirkham Am, Heysham SLo. There are, 
further : Alt-, Habergham Bl, Penwortham Le, Gressingham SLo ; see also Rochdale Sa. 

O.N. haugr " hill ; mound " is sometimes difficult to distinguish from O.E. hoh, as haugr 
in early sources seems occasionally to appear as -ho (cf. e.g. Hackinsall Am). This may point 
to confusion between the two elements. But O.N. au often becomes M.E. o (Bjorkman, 
Loanwords, p. 68ff.) and -ho may be a substitution for or development of normal -hou. Names 
in -hou denote hills (mountains) and hillocks or mounds. They are most common in Bl and 
N. of the Ribble. Examples : Harcles Hill, Tittleshaw Sa, Blacko, Clitheroe, Cadshaw, 
? Gannow, Gerna, Noyna, ? Worsaw Bl, Becconsall Le, Hawes, Hackinsall, Revoe, Sharoe 
Am, ? Kitlow, Melishaw, Threaphaw SLo, Haume, Haws Bank, Fiddler Hall, Groffa, Houkler 
Hall, Knapperthaw, Picthall, Satterhow, Sella, Sow How, Tarn Hows, Tock How, Whitestock 
Hall NLo. 

O.E. heafod " head " sometimes means " upper end " (Shireshead Lo (Am), Field-, 
Waterhead NLo), sometimes " headland " (Lindeth SLo, Humphrey Head, Kirkhead NLo), 
usually " hill or eminence " (cf. EDD head 13). The first el. is usually English, but Scand. in 
e.g. Gambleside Bl, Grizehead SLo ; French in Castlehead NLo. Other examples : Hades, 
Hartshead Sa; Henheads, Hollin-, Hollow-, Oakenhead, Read Bl; Burton-, Elton-, Fearn-, 
Lamber-, Mickle-, Slyne-, Westhead De ; Hazel-, Ingolhead Am ; Birkett, Conishead, 
Roanhead NLo. In Rampside NLo the meaning may be literally " head." 

O.E. hege " hedge, fence " : Cockey, Harpurhey *Sa, Blackay, Carry (Bridge), Newhall 
Hey Bl, Heapey Le. The meanings in place-names are probably " enclosed tract meant for a 
hunting-ground " and " enclosure " generally. 

O.N. helkn. See Helks SLo. 

M.E. helm " shed." See Helmshore Bl, Elmridge Bl (Am). 

Engl. dial, hile " cluster," etc. See Moor Isles Bl. 

O.N. hlada " barn " : Lathoin De, Laithbutts, Laithwaite SLo, perh. Leagram Bl (Am). 

O.N. hlaw " hill ; mound." The meaning in Lane, place-names varies from " mountain " 
(as Horelaw, Pike Law Bl, Brownlow De) to " hillock, slight eminence " (as in Low Bl, 
Lowton De, Bar-, Greenlow Sa, Spellow De), or even " mound " (as perh. in Wharles Am, 
Dragley NLo). Other examples are : Croichlow, Tetlow, Wickenlow Sa, Catlow Bl (2), 
Gidlow De, Compley Am, Strellas SLo. An interesting hybrid is Osmotherley NLo. 

O.E. hlenc. See Lench Bl. 

O.E. hlip " slope ; hill," O.N. hlid " slope." The former is found with certainty in Lytham 
Am, the latter in Litherla.nd De (2), Lythe SLo (2). As second part the el. is sometimes 
combined with a Scand. word (Bleansley, Kellet SLo, Stennerley NLo) and may then be 
identified with Scand. hlid. Adgarley NLo has an Engl. first el./while that of Ireleth NLo 
may be Scand. or English. 

O.E. hlose, apparently " pig-sty " (Liebermann, Gesetze, Gloss. ; B-T, Suppl.) ; cf. dial. 
lewze " pigsty " (EDD). The el. occurs in Loose Kent, Loosebeare Dev., Looseley Bucks, 
etc. ; in Lane, in Lostock Sa, Le, and perhaps in Luzzley Sa. The word, as shown by Mn.E. 


forms, had O.E. 6, and is probably connected with O.E. hlop " troop," hlcest, O.N. hlada 
" barn," etc. 

O.E. blot "lot, allotment" : Oglet De, Haylot SLo (which see). 

O.E. hoh " heel ; projecting ridge of land," Mn.E. hoe, heugh " a crag, cliff, precipice ; 
a height ending abruptly " : Down-, Upholland De, Houghton De, Hoghton, ? Howick, 
Hutton Le, Hutton SLo (2) ; Nuttall, ? Way oh Sa, Trunnah Am, Clougha SLo : cf. Billington 
Bl. The meaning is sometimes " steep, abrupt ridge," sometimes " a slight ridge " or the 
like. In Hough End Sa the meaning is " ravine." 

O.E. holh, hoi " hollow, hole," O.N. hoi " hole." Where the first el. is the name of an 
animal the meaning is " burrow " : Foxholes Sa, Brockhall Bl, Brockholes Am. Otherwise 
the meaning seems to be " a hollow, depression in the ground " or " valley." The first el. is 
frequently a pers. n. Examples : Edi-, Tockholes, Clover Hill Bl, Greenhalgh (2), Ingol, 
Lickow Am. The first el. is fairly often Scand. (Corcas, Kilgrimol, Staynall Am, perh. others). 

O.N. holmr, holmi " islet," etc., M.E., Mn.E. holme " islet ; piece of flat, low-lying ground 
by a river." Both these senses are evidenced in Lane, names, the former (at least originally) 
in Dunnerholme NLo, the latter e.g. in Holme Bl, Holmes Le, Am, Thorneyholme Bl. A 
third meaning is " a piece of dry land in a fen or marsh " ; originally such names may have 
referred to islands. Examples are : Ballam, Eastham, Hayholine, Skitharn Am, Trailholme, 
Sugham SLo, Wraysholme NLo ; cf. Calfholme, etc., under Bolton SLo. A meaning " piece 
of land partly surrounded by streams " may be that of Levenshulme Sa and others. The first 
el. is often Scand., but frequently English (as Wolstenholme Sa, Bitherham Am, etc.). 
Sometimes -holm has been replaced by -ham. Further examples : Brandlesome, Gawksholme, 
Oldham Sa, Hunter-, Mart-, Rams-, Ravensholme Bl, Denham Le, Dolphinholme, Linholm 
Am, Gamblesholme, Gilberton, Maure-, Torrisholme, Waitholme SLo, Peaseholmes, 
Rougholme, Waitham (2) NLo. 

O.Dan, hulm (cf. O.Swed. hulmber) occurs in some names in S. Salford (Hulme, Davy- 
hulme, Kirkraanshulme, Levenshulme) and once in De (Hulme). See further the Sum- 

O.E. hop, Mn.E. hope (1) " a piece of enclosed land, e.g. in the midst of fens," etc. ; (2) 
" a small enclosed valley, esp. a smaller opening branching out from the main dale, and 
running up to the mountain ranges ; the upland part of a mountain valley ; a blind valley " 
(NED). The first meaning is seen in Mythop Am (though it is perhaps rather " dry, firm land 
in a fen "), the latter in Hope Sa, Brinsop, Hopwood Sa, Bacup, Cowpe, Dunnyshope Bl, 
Brinsop, Ritherope De, perh. Tytup NLo. 

O.N. hofud " head " and hpfdi are used in the sense " a promontory," also (in place-names) 
" a projecting hill or ridge." This el. is found twice in Am (Holleth, Preesall) and fairly 
often in SLo : Escowbeck, Hawks-, Ramshead, Sellet. The meaning is " hill or ridge." 

O.N. hogg " felling of trees," etc. See Hagg NLo. 

O.N. hreysi, hreysar (pi.) " cairn " : Roseacre Am, Raisthwaite, Toppin Rays NLo. 

O.E. hrycg " ridge " : Foulridge Bl, Elm-, Longridge Bl (Am) ; O.N. hryggr : Bail-, 
Esk-, Hazelrigg SLo, Bandrake, Haverigg, Borde-, Mansriggs NLo. 

O.E. hulu. See Hoole Le. 

O.E., O.N. hus " house " : Newsham De, Am, Wesham Am, Aynesom NLo ; Healdhouses 
Sa, Cow-, Hey-, Wymondhouses Bl ; Dwerryhouse Le, Colt-, Salthouse, Head House NLo. 

O.E. hyp " landing-place " : Huyton De, ? Sa. 

O.E. hyll " hill " is a common el. S. of the Ribble, rare N. of that river (Duddel Bl (Am), 
Bazil, Hillam SLo, Mousell, Windhill NLo). The meaning varies from " mountain," as in 
Pendle, Brown Hill, Crow Hill Bl, Great Hill Le, etc., to " hillock," as Pex Hill (200 ft.) De, 
Bazil (50ft.) SLo, etc. The first el. is usually English (or pre-Scand.), but it is French, e.g., 
in Clerk Hill, Friarhills Bl. Other instances : Aspul, Birtle, Blindsill, Buersill, Smithills, 
Stakehill, Warcockhill, Wardle, Whittle, Wuerdle Sa, Braddyll, Combe Hill, Coo Hill, Cowhill, 
Eccleshill, Hindle, Ightenhffl, Royle, Salthill Bl, OrreU (2), Rainhill, Windle De, Brindle, 
Coppull, Withnell, Whittle (2) Le. 

O.N. hylr " a pool, deep place in a river " : Lickle, Troutal NLo. 

O.E. hyrst, Mn.E. hurst " eminence, hillock, knoll or bank, esp. one of a sandy nature ; 
a grove of trees ; a copse ; a wood ; a wooded eminence." The original meaning was perhaps 
" brushwood " ; cf. the cognate Welsh prys " brushwood " (Jones, 128). The exact meaning 
of the el. cannot be determined in each case. A meaning " hillock " is plausible in names 
such as Copster, Smethurst, Bromyhurst Sa, Copthurst Bl, Le, Grindlestonehurst Bl, Hay 


Hurst, Stonyhurst Bl (Am), while " copse " seems preferable in Ha/el-, Nuthurst Sa, Icorn- 
hurst Bl, Blindhurst Am. The el. is rare N. of the Ribble except in the Blackburn part : 
Croglinhurst, Aulthurstside NLo. The first el. is, as a rule, English. It is mostly a descriptive 
common noun, as Wilders Sa, Brockle-, Studlehurst Bl, Ashhurst De, Lickhurst Bl (Am), 
or an adj., as Bromy-, Collyhurst, Smethurst Sa, Fairhurst Le. Other examples : Gristle-, 
Sillinghurst Sa, Dewhurst Bl, Crookhurst De, Gathurst Le. 

-ing. This ending has been much discussed. The chief sources in Lane, names are the 
following : 

1. O.E. plur. -ingas, mostly in derivatives from pers. ns. 1 : Melling De, SLo, Staining Am, 
possibly Billinge De, Bryning Am ; further Alkring-, Dumpling-, Pilking-, Tottington Sa, 
Billington, Padiham, Pleasington, perh. Habergham Bl, Penning-, Warrington De, Adling-, 
perh. Worthington Le, Whittingham Am, Wenning-, Whittington SLo, Aldingham NLo. 
All these denote (or used to denote) rather important places. 

2. O.E. sing. -ing. The words in -ing were either old river- or hill -names ( : Riving in 
Rivington, Shilling in -bottom Sa, perh. Billinge De, Bl, Billings Lo, Wenning Lo), or originally 
common nouns : Falinge Sa, Falling De, Stubbins Sa, Hacking Sa, Bl, Faldworthings Le, 
Chipping Bl (Am), Newbigging Am, NLo, -ridding (see infra) ; Gressingham SLo, Pennington 

3. O.E. n of various origin, as the adj. ending -en (Haslingden Bl, Withington Sa), the 
gen. pi. ending -na (Wrightington), -n in nouns : Hollingworth Sa, Hastingley, perh. Accring- 
ton Bl, Farington Le. 

4. There remain : Pilling Am, Sillinghurst Sa, Shevington Le. 
k-; see c. 

O.E. lacu " stream " : Medlock Sa, Hatlex SLo. 

O.E. l&d " water-course," Mn. dial, lode also " road " : Layton Am. 

O.E., O.N. land. The first el. is Scand. in Down-, Uplitherland De, Thur-, Thursland 
SLo, Big-, Rusland NLo ; French in Muchland NLo ; English in Hillara, Mar-, Spotland Sa, 
Down-, Upholland De, Leyland Le, Yeland SLo, New-, Woodland, prob. Templand NLo, 
Sunderland Sa, Bl, SLo. Bowland Bl (Am) is dubious. The meaning may be " ground or 
soil," " estate," " a piece of land in a common field," etc. The exact meaning can rarely be 

O.F. lande " lawn," i.e., " glade ; pasture " : New, Old Laund Bl. 

O.E. lanu " lane " : Markland De ; cf. Asland Le. 

O.N. life " lair " : Latterbarrow, Hulleter Lo. 

O.E. leah " meadow, field," Mn.E. lea " a tract of open ground, either meadow, pasture, 
or arable land." The original meaning may have been " glade, clearing " ; cf. O.H.G. IdTi, 
M.H.G. I6h " low brushwood, clearing overgrown with small shrubs," Lat. lucus. The meaning 
of the el. in place-names seems to have varied. A meaning " wood " is probably sometimes 
to be assumed (cf. esp. Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, I. 155ff.). Waltonelega is called 
" nemus " in CC 629, and names such as Buckley, Hartley go well with a meaning " wood." 
The common occurrence of names in -ley in the old Forest of Pendle rather points to a meaning 
" glade ; forest clearing " ; very likely the frequent occurrence of names in -ley in a district 
suggests an old forest district. Names such as Ryley point to a meaning " (clearing used as) 
arable land " ; such as Calverley, Studley to a meaning " pasture ground." The fact that 
names in -ley frequently have as first el. an adj. denoting form or extent (as broad, long) is 
worthy of notice. Names in -ley are common S. of the Ribble and in Blackburn N. of the 
Ribble, rare elsewhere. The first el. is usually English ; exceptions are Gamelsley Sa, ? Gautley 
De, Thorpen Lees Am, Dolphinlees SLo with a Scand., Constable Lee Bl, Mawdesley Le with 
a Fr. first part. The first el. is (1) the name of a cereal, as Royley Sa, Bar-, Ry-, Wheatley Bl, 
Wheatley Bl (Am), or of a tree or plant, as Ashley Sa, Reed-, ? Thieveley Bl, Birch-, Risley De, 
Appley Le, Ashley Am, or of an animal, as Buck-, Hart-, Shepley Sa, Antley Bl, Hind-, 
Swinley De, Studley Bl (Am), or some other common noun, as Mossley, Wardley Sa, Acorn-, 
Burn-, Hasting-, Mear-, Towneley Bl, Cow-, Fazakerley, Morleys, Sherd-, Stonebridgley 
De, Bir-, Tunley Le, Greystoneley Bl (Am), Cleveley Lo (Am), Staveley NLo ; (2) a pers. 

1 Some scholars think -ing in such names as Tottington is only partly patronymic (O.E. 
Totinga-tun, etc.), while in other cases it is rather possessive (O.E. Werburgingwic, etc.), 
being a sort of adjectival suffix. (Cf. e.g. Mawer, P1.N. of Northumberland, p. xxiv.ff. with 
references). I am not convinced that this theory is correct. 


n., as Bards-, Pigsley Sa, Loveley Bl, ? Chaigley Bl (Am), Eckers-, Harders-, Knows-, Tyldes-, 
Winstanley De, Chor-, Kingsley Le, Beesley, Cadley, Winmarleigh Am; (3) an adj., as 
Black-, Dearn-, Hea-, Langley Sa, Audley, Helly Platt, Roughlee, Smalley Bl, Ast-, Black-, 
Brad-, How-, Norley, Westleigh De, Healey Le, Bradley Bl (Am), Longley Am. Other 
examples are : Ar-, Kears-, Luzz-, Rid-, Walmers-, Wors-, Wrigley Sa, Ar-, Dimpen-, Dinck-, 
Dine-, Row-, Show-, Whalley Bl, Bai-, Thorn-, Winckley Bl (Am), Arp-, Cay-, Cuerd-, Shaker-, 
Whelley, Dalton Lees De, Baggan-, Shackerley Le, Lees Sa, Leigh De, Leece NLo. The list 
is not quite complete. 

M.E. leche, lache, Mn.E. letch " a stream flowing through boggy land ; a muddy ditch 
or hole ; a bog " : Brindle Heath Sa, Fulledge Bl, Blacklache Le. 

O.N. leir " clay " : Larbrick Am. 

O.E. loc, loca " enclosure " : Parh'ck Am, Locka SLo. 

Engl. dial, lum "a deep pool in the bed of a river" (Lakel., Lane., etc.) : Lumb Sa, Bl, 
? Lomax Sa, ? Redlam Bl, ? Blelham NLo. 

O.N. lundr " grove " : Lunt De, Lund, Kirkland Am, Birkland Barrow SLo. 

O.E. (ge)msere " boundary " : Mersey, ? Marland Sa ; Mearley, Meer dough Bl, High 
Mere Beck NLo. 

O.E. med (msed) " meadow " : Breightmet, Medlock Sa. 

O.N. melr " sand hill," Engl. dial, meal, meol " sand-bank, sand-hill " : Argarmeles, 
North Meols, Ravensmeols De, Cartmel NLo. 

O.E. mercels " mark " etc. See Marsden. 

O.E. mere " lake " : Windermere NLo ; ? Marland Sa, Martin De, Mere Brow (Side) Le, 
Marton Am, Martin NLo. 

O.E. mersc " marsh " : Alt Marsh De, ? Admarsh Am. 

O.E. mor " moor." The meanings in Lane, names are " hill, high moorland," as in Shore 
Moor, Siddal Moor, etc., Sa, Deerplay Moor Bl, Gunnolf's Moors Le, Quernmore SLo, Parka- 
moor NLo, and " marsh," as in Black-, Wolmoor De, Barbers Moor Le, Swarthmoor Lo. 
Further examples : Beal Moor, Kaskenmoor, Theale Moor Sa, Rakes Moor NLo. 

O.E. mos, O.N. mosi " bog, swamp, morass " : Chat Moss Sa, Wirples Moss De, Rath- 
moss NLo. 

O.E. (ge)mdt " meeting " : Emmott Bl, Emmetts Lo. 

O.E. muda " mouth of a river " : ? Wymott Le. O.E. gemyde "junction of streams" : 
Mitton Bl, Loud Mytham Bl (Am). 

O.N. mynni " mouth of a river " : Stalmine Am. 

O.N. myrr, M.E. mire " a piece of wet, swampy ground, a boggy place " : Walmer Le, 
Myerscough'Bl ?, Am, Goldmire NLo. 

O.N. nabbr, nabbi " a projecting peak " : Whalley Nab Bl, Gascow Nab Lo. 

O.E. naess, O.N. nes " cape, headland." M.E. ness may be an unstressed or dialectal 
variant of ncess or Scand. nes (NED) : Widnes De (prob. O.E. -ncess), Amounderness, Crossens 
Am, Furness NLo (O.N. -nes). 

O.N. oddi " point, cape " : Greenodd NLo. 

O.F., M.E. pare " park," also " an enclosed piece of ground for pasture or tillage ; a field ; 
a parrock or paddock." The meaning " a pasture ground " is obvious in such cases as 
Hill Park, Stot Park NLo. O.E. parroc " paddock " seems to be found in Parrox Am. 

O.E. pic " a sharp instrument," M.E. pik " a pointed summit ; a pointed hill " (ace. to 
NED, possibly from Norw. pik " a pointed mountain," but more probably native) : Rivington 
Pike, Whittle Pike Sa, Clougha Pike Lo, etc. ; Pickup Bl. An adj. piked is the first el. of 
Pike Law Bl, Picthall Lo. 

O.E. plega " play " : Deerplay Bl. 

O.E. pol, pull " pool," in Mod. dial, also " a slow-moving rivulet, esp. in carse-land ; a 
small creek " (Scotl.). In Lane, names the sense " a rivulet " is certain in Otterpool, Otter's 
Pool De, Skippool Am, Wrampool SLo, Otterpool, Rusland Pool, Steers Pool NLo, probable 
in Poulton De, Am, SLo, Poolstock De ; "a tidal creek " : Liverpool. The meaning " pool " 
is found in Blackpool Am, perh. Kitepool Sa ; the first el. is sometimes Scand., as in Skip-, 
Wrampool, Steers Pool. In the last it is a pers. name. 

O.E. port (<Lat. portus) : Alport Sa, Portfield Bl. 

O.N. rann " house " : perh. Cowran, Cowpren NLo. 

O.E. raw " row," later also " a row of houses, a street ": Mihirow Sa, Corner Row Am. 
Perhaps the meaning is really " hamlet " ; cf. street in this sense in Kentish dialects. 


O.E. rod, Mn. dial, royd " clearing in a wood." The el. is common in Sa and Bl names, 
some of which (as Aken-, BromyrodeWhCGQlf.) are stated to denote " assarts," i.e., clearings. 
The first el. is, as a rule, English ; an exception is Ormerod Bl. It is an adj. in Black-, Brim-, 
Brothe-, Copt-, Hey-, Oakenrod Sa, Hey-, Langroyd Bl ; a common noun in Standroyd, 
Linedred Bl ; a pers. n. in Ellenrod Sa, Huntroyde, Monkroyd, Ormerod Bl. Cf. Rhodes Sa. 

O.E., O.N. rum " room." Bum is a common place-name el. in Denmark and Sweden ; 
it seems to have meant " a forest-clearing " (Lindroth, De nordiska ortnamnen pa -rum). 
Such a meaning or use of O.E. rum has not been pointed out, but in Scotland rum from c 1500 
has been used in the sense " an estate, a farm." In Lancashire there are some names in 
-rum, chiefly found in early sources : Bretteroum (first el. O.N. Bretar, or O.E. Brettaa 
" Britons "), Hawkeroum (first el. O.E. Jiafoc or O.N. haukr " hawk " or O.N. Hauler pers. n.) 
c 1320 LI (in Bolton-le-Sands), Wytheruum (Am) c 1260 CC 156 (called " cultura " ; first el. 
app. O.E. widig or O.N. vidir " willow "). This el. seems also to be found in Dertren SLo, 
Dendron NLo. In all probability -rum is Scand., and means " a clearing." 

O.N. runnr " a brake or thicket " : perhaps in Bowerham SLo, Ronhead Lo. For other 
examples see Scandinavians, p. 93f. 

O.E. ryding " clearing " (hryding in Aelfr. Gl.) : Armetridding Le, Abbot's Reading, 
Row Ridding NLo. Names in -ridding are common in early Lane, documents. The word 
ryding, like M.E. ridden " to clear land " and rod " clearing," is no doubt native English. 

O.N. ssetr " shieling " : Satterhow, Satterthwaite Lo ; cf. -set infra. 

O.E. sand, O.N. sandr : Cockersand Lo. 

O.E. scaga " shaw," i.e., " a thicket, a small wood, copse, or grove." The first el. is, as a 
rule, English ; an exception is Kershaw Sa. It is very often the name of an animal, as in 
Hawk-, Henshaw Sa, Craw-, Cronk-, Dunnockshaw Bl, Cranshaw De, Buck-, Cranshaw Le, 
Cat-, Dunken-, Marshaw SLo ; often some other common noun, as in Bir-, Cold-, Prickshaw 
Sa, Nutshaw Bl, Forshaw De, Nutshaw Le ; or an adj., as in Birten-, Brad-, Cowli-, 
Hather-, Open-, Small-, Wheatshaw Sa, Fulshaw Bl, Lightshaw De, Blashaw Le ; more 
rarely a pers. n., as in Auden-, Bernshaw Sa, Beard-, Goodshaw Bl, Occleshaw De. Other 
instances : Brun-, Grim- (2), Walshaw, Lomeshay Bl, Bicker-, Hardshaw De. 

O.N. skali, M.E. scale " a temporary hut or shelter, a wooden shed" : Scholes De, Scales 
Am (2), NLo, Scale Hall SLo, Scholefield, Scowcroft Sa, Scholefield, Feniscowles Bl, Brinscall 
Le, Davyscoles Bl (Am), Landskill, Loudscales Am, Summersgill SLo, Baskell, Cockenshell, 
Elliscales, North Scale, Sandscale NLo. The el. is often found in hybrids. 

O.N. skard " notch, cleft, mountain pass " : Scarth Hill De. 

O.N. sker " skerry," etc. ; Norw. sker, also " rock, rocky hill " : Billinge Scar Bl, Stone- 
star, Seawood Scar NLo. Cf. Skerton Lo. 

O.E. scir : Lancashire, Wilpshire. The word -shire is often added to names of hundreds, 
as Salfordshire. 

O.N. skogr " wood " : ? Myerscough Bl, Bur-, Cun-, Tarlscough De, Blainscough, Roscoe, 
Sarscow Le, Humble-, Myerscough, Liscoe Am, Gascow, Greenscoe NLo. The first el. is, 
or may be, Scand., except in Burscough, where it seems to be a place-name. 

M.E. set, sat (in place-names) apparently " a shieling, a pasture " : Cadishead, Summer- 
seat Sa, Barnside, Belsetenab Bl, Stephen's Head, Swainshead, Yarlside SLo, Arnside, 
Hawkshead, Roshead, Whelpshead, Yarlside NLo, perh. Ayside NLo. Original -set has often 
been changed to -side or -ahead owing to the tendency of final -d to pass into -t, which caused 
-set and -side to fall together in pronunciation. According to Ellis V. 606, names such as 
Selside, Ormside (no doubt originally -set) are pronounced [selsit, ormsit]. 

Names in -set usually denote places in a high situation or on hill slopes, sometimes even 
hills. An exception is Cadishead (see infra). The el. -set, -sat is clearly identical with dial. 
seat " a dwelling ; a pasturage ; usually a farmhouse on the lower slope of the mountain, 
with a right of pasture above, and the rest of the farm around" (Cumb., Wml.; see EDD). 
The seats are no doubt old shielings, and this is, as a rule, also the case with the Lane, (and 
Cumb., Wml.) places with names in -set, -sat. The distribution of the word renders a Scand. 
origin probable. It is difficult to believe that (except in isolated cases, as Cadishead) it can 
go back to O.E. set "a fold " ; the interchange of the forms -set and -sat could hardly be 
explained if O.E. set were the source. The el. has been derived from O.N. scetr " shieling." 
This word has exactly the sense wanted. It explains the interchange of -set and -sat, as ce 
could be shortened to e and a. The only difficulty about the derivation is the absence of the 
r of scetr. But O.N. scetr is an old -stem, and s-stems often exhibit an interchange of forms 


with and without r. A form *scet may very well once have been common by the side of sodr. 
I believe there are still traces of such a form in Norw. place-names. Here may belong isolated 
names found in NG passim (e.g., i Hafuoscete ii. 180) ; but especially important is the name 
Sommerscet, which is common in the North of Norway and apparently means " a shieling 
or deserted homestead used ^only in the summer " (NG xvi.), I do not believe that seat, 
-set, -sat can go back to O.N. sceti " seat." This word does not mean " a shieling, a temporary 
dwelling." It means " permanent residence," and is particularly used in the compound 
Herrescete, which (like Swed. herresdte) means " mansion." Cf. also Scandinavians, p. 32f. 

O.E. sett " dwelling." See Seattle NLo. 

O.E. sic " a streamlet " : Gorsuch De. 

O.E. side " side " : Facit, Gartside, Moss Side Sa. Cf. set. 

O.N. slakki " valley," M.E., Mn.E. slack " a small shallow dell or valley ; a hollow or 
dip in the ground," etc. (common in Lane., W.Yks., Cumb., Scotl.) : Slack Sa, NLo, Ayneslack, 
Hay Slacks Bl, Ashlack, Nettleslack NLo. O.N. slakki seems to go back to *slankan-, cognate 
with Dan. slank " a hollow " (Noreen, Urg. Lautl., p. 172, Torp, NynorskEt. Ordbog s. v. slakke). 

O.E. slsed " a valley, dell, or dingle ; a forest glade " : Slade, Bagslate Sa. 

O.N. sletta " a plain, a level field," Engl. dial, sleet " a flat meadow, a level moor " : 
Bracelet NLo, Deerslet SLo. 

O.E. snaJd "apiece." See Halsnead De. 

M.E. snape " pasture " ? : Snape De, Boysnope Sa, Blacksnape' Bl, Snubsnape Le, Bui-, 
Fair-, Kid-, Winsnape Am. M.E. snape (snyppand snawe pat in pe snape li^tis Alex.) is 
rendered in Stratmann-Bradley by ? " whiter -pasture " ; in NED the word is not explained. 
A meaning " pasture " is rendered probable by names with the name of an animal as first el. 
(Boysnope, etc. ; cf. also Coltesnape De CC 596). Snape has been derived from Icel. snap, 
pi. sndp (so rather than snop f.) " a ' nip,' scanty grass for sheep to nibble at in snow-covered 
fields " (Vigfusson), or "poor, insufficient grazing " (f>orkelson, Supplement til Isl. Ordb. III.). 
Though snap is never found in old Scand. dialects or in Norw. or Icel. place-names, I think 
this derivation is very probably correct. The meaning of snape would then be " inferior 
pasture " or " winter-pasture." Another possible source (suggested by Goodall) is Dan. 
snabe " projecting point, part (of a wood)," etc., Swed. dial, snape " point ; cape," etc. 
The first alternative seems distinctly preferable. 

O.E. stall (steall) " place " : Tunstall SLo ; " pool " : Rawtenstall Bl, perh. Stalmine 
Am. A further example of O.E. stall " a pool " is (piscaria de) Depestale, mentioned together 
with Hawkshead FC I. 438, 440 (1208). 

O.E. stan " stone " : Blackstone Edge, Harsenden Sa, Baxenden, Hastingley, Simonstone, 
Wolfstones Bl, Garston, Whiston De. 

O.N. stadr " place," stpd " landing-place," O.E. staep " bank, shore." An el. stath is 
found in Bickerstaffe, Croxteth, Toxteth De, Hubbersty SLo, which probably or certainly 
have a pers. n. as first el., Birstath (in Birstath Bryning, now Bryning Am), Todderstaffe 
Am. Birstath has as second el. O.N. stadr " place." This el. is impossible in the others, as 
in Scand. place-names it occurs only in such compounds as Kvernstadr " place of a mill," 
B6lstadr " dwelling-place," etc. O.E. steep is improbable, because the first el. is in no case 
with certainty English. We have to choose between O.N. -stadir pi. (ace. -stadi) common in 
Icel. place-names, also in combination with pers. names, and O.N. stpd. It is difficult to 
decide which of these is more probable. The situation allows of no definite conclusion. On 
the whole, the early forms point rather to a monosyllabic than to a dissyllabic second el. 
(Stochestede DB is too corrupt to carry much weight), but apocope of the final vowel may have 
taken place early, and, moreover, in early texts a final -e was often denoted by an abbreviation- 
mark, which may have been forgotten or lost in copying. 

O.E. stede, styde " place," esp. " site of a building " : Stidd Bl (Am), High Halstead Bl, 
Tunstead Bl, De, Abbeystead SLo, Kirkstead NLo, in all of which the meaning " site " (hi 
the last two " deserted site ") is obvious ; cf. Burscough De. Rogerstead in Heaton Sa 
(Rogersted 1419 VHL v. 11) stands by itself. Either -stead has the later meaning " estate, 
farm" (1338f., NED) or the name goes back to * Rogershusstede ; cf. Rogerishustude (Caton) 
CC 873, Cadiave-hustude (Tarnacre) CC 248. 

O.N. stigr, O.E. stig " path " : Ravensty, Thorfinsty NLo ; cf. Swaintley SLo. O.E. 
stigu " sty " is a possible, though less probable, source. 

O.E. stoc " place " (cf. names such as Stoke, Basingstoke) : Lostock Sa (2), Le, Poolstock 
De. See on the word B-T, who, however, mark the vowel as long. 



O.N. stord " brushwood " : Storrs, Yealand Stores SLo. 

O.N. stpng "pole " : Garstang Am, Stank Top Bl. 

O.E. stret " street ; Roman road " : Street Le, Stanystreet Sa, Stret-, Trafford Sa. 

O.E. swira, O.N. sviri " neck " : Boulsworth Bl. 

O.E. taegl " tail " : Bartle Am. 

O.E. *tang, *twang: Tonge (2), Tong End, Taunton Sa, Tongue Moor SLo. The places in 
question are in or close to a tongue of land formed by the junction of two streams. The obvious 
source of the el. Tong would seem to be O.N. tangi " spit of land." But the places in question 
with the exception of Tongue Moor are in districts where Scand. names are rare. In one 
case we find an early form Twannge, which can hardly be explained if the source is O.N. tangi. 
And names such as Tong(e), in early sources sometimes Twang and the like, are found in 
other parts of England, as Kent, Surrey, Salop, where we do not expect to find Scand. names. 
Examples : 

Tong (Kent, near Sittingbourne) : Tanga 1160-2 RB, 1167, 1187 PR, Tange 1212 RB, 
Tonge 1306 IPM. Tong (Salop) : Tuange DB, Twanga 1167 PR, Tonge 1280 IPM, Tunge 
1326 IPM. Tonge (Leic.) : ? cet Twongan 1002 Thorpe, Tunge DB, Tong 1499 AD (D 850). 
Tonge (Yks.) : Tuinc (no doubt for Tuanc) DB, Tanga 1166 RB, 1167 PR. Tangley 
(Sur.) : de Tangele 1293 RB, Tangelee 1316 IPM. Tonghain (Sur.) : Twangham 1299 IPM. 
? Tangmere (Sus.) : Tangmere 680 BCS 50. The places, with the exception of Tongham and 
Tangmere, are in a tongue of land formed by the junction of streams. Tongham, however, 
is near a sharp bend formed by a river, and consequently stands near a tongue of land, too. 
The original situation of Tangmere is doubtful. The place was named from a lake, which has 
now disappeared. A satisfactory explanation must account for both forms : tang and twang. 
Twang may be compared with M.H.G. zwange " tongs." The corresponding word is not 
found in English, but O.E. twengan " to tweak " is a derivative of *twang "tongs," or contains 
the same base. I take Twang as a place-name to be an O.E. *twang " tongs," used in a 
transferred sense of the fork of a river ; the similarity between the fork of a river and a 
pair of fire-tongs is obvious. I see no reason to doubt that tang in place-names is O.E. tang 
"tongs" in a similar transferred sense. It remains to explain why Twang- is replaced by 
later Tange, Tonge. In some cases, as in Tongham, M.E. loss of w may be assumed ; thong 
(o 1205 Lay, etc.)<O.E. pwang may be compared. In some cases we have apparently to 
assume that an original Twang was transformed to Tang owing to association with and influ- 
ence from the synonymous tang, or that Tang was substituted for original Twang. As the 
word twang must have been lost at an early period as a living element of the language such 
refashioning is easy to understand. 

O.N. tiorn " tarn " : Blelham Tarn, Standing (Green) Tarn, Tarn Flat, Tarn Hows NLo, 
perh. Tarnbrook SLo ; cf. also under Martin Lo. 

O.E. treo(w), O.N. tr6 " tree " : Aintree, Wavertree De, Langtree Le, Hareappletree SLo. 
Names in -tree are common in England, esp. as names of hundreds, these having been named 
from some conspicuous tree at the place where the hundred moot was held. 

O.E. trog " trough," later also " a hollow or valley resembling a trough ; bed or channel 
of .a stream " (1513, etc., NED) : Trough Sa, SLo, Trawden Bl, Troughton NLo. 

O.E. tun " manor, farm ; village, hamlet." These are no doubt the usual meanings in 
Lane, place-names. A meaning " garden " is plausible in Leighton, perhaps in Appleton. 
O.N. tun " enclosure ; yard ; homestead " is quite common in Icel. place-names. In Lane, 
place-names the first el. is usually English, but in some cases it is Scand., once even French 

A. The first el. is English (or pre-Scand.). It is (1) usually a common noun, as the name 
of a tree or plant (Ash-, Roy-, Win-, Withington Sa, Aigh-, Rishton Bl, Aller-, Apple-, Ash-, 
Augh-, Thornton De, ? Faring-, Ollerton Le, Ash- (2), Plump- (2), Thistle-, Thorn-, Weeton 
Am, Ash-, Augh-, Leighton SLo, Plumpton NLo ; Barton Sa, De, Am, perh. Pemberton De) ; 
some other topographical feature or a place-name (Clay-, Clif-, Den-, Foxden-, Gor-, Haugh-, 
Hough-, Westhough-, Hul-, ? Huy-, Mos-, Pendle-, Riving-, Taunton ; Edenfield, perh. 
Wharton Sa, Clay- (2), Clif-, Hap-, Mit-, More-, Pendle-, Twiston Bl ; Dal-, Den-, Dit-, Hough-, 
Huy-, Low-, Mar-, Poulton De ; Clay-, Hogh-, Hut-, Wheelton Le ; Brough-, Clif-, Comp-, 
Haigh-, Lay-, Mar-, Poul-, Ribbleton Am ; Forton Lo (Am), Dal-, Hal-, Hut- (3), Over-, 
Poulton SLo, Brough- (3), Dal-, Gleaston, Martin, Troughton NLo) ; the name of some 
building (Eccleston De, Le, Am ; Bolton Sa (2), SLo, NLo ; Burton De, Broughton Sa) ; 
or some other word (Swinton Sa, Singleton Am, Warton Am, SLo, Pennington NLo). (2) 


A personal name (Balders-, Chorl-, Elton Sa, Balders-, Osbaldes-, Wit-, Worston Bl, 
Ather-, E1-, Ethers-, Harle-, Rix-, Wools-, Woolton De, Ander-, Euxton Le ; Dutton Bl (Am), 
Als-, Els-, Hambleton Am, Hilderston SLo), or a derivative in -ing (Alkring-, Pilking-, 
Tottington Sa, Billing-, Pleasington Bl, Penning-, Warrington De, Adlington Le, ? Adding-, 
Wenning-, Whittington SLo ; perh. Dumplington, Monton Sa, Cronton De, Worthington Le), 
or some other noun designating persons (Chorlton Sa, Walton Bl, De, Le, NLo (2) ; Wright- 
ington Le, Preston Am). (3) An adjective or adverb : Hea- (3), Middle-, Newton Sa, A1-, 
Middle-, Nether-, New-, Sut-, Upton De ; Longton Le ; Middle-, Newton (2) Am, Hea-, 
Middle-, Newton (2) SLo, Hea-, Newton (2) NLo. 

B. The first el. is Scandinavian. It is : (1) A common noun (Sefton De, Croston Le, 
Scorton Am, Sker-, Wrayton SLo, perh. Stainton NLo) ; (2) a pers. name (Flix-, Tur-, 
Urmston Sa, Tarleton Le, ? Ulverston NLo), or some other noun designating a person 
(? Bretherton Le, Carleton Am, Coniston NLo) ; (3) uncertain in Claughton Am, SLo. 

More or less doubtful cases : Chadder-, Chatter-, Crompton Sa, Accrington Bl, Everton 
De, Shevington Le, Dur-, Freckleton Am, Caton, Farleton SLo, Anger-, Col-, Crivel-, Egton 

The exact meaning of tun cannot be determined in each case. 

The form -town is met with in some late names : Churchtown Am, NLo, Old Town SLo, 
Newtown NLo. 

O.E. twisla " fork of a river " : Entwisle Sa, Bastwell, Birtwisle, Ex-, Oswaldtwistle, 
Twiston Bl. The fact that -tivisle is usually combined with pers. names points to the exact 
meaning being " tongue of land at the junction of two streams." Cf. also Twiss De. 

O.E., O.N. pom " thornbush " : Rishton Thorns, Worsthorne Bl, Hubberthorn SLo, 
Daughtarn NLo. Bel-, Gaulkthorn Bl have not been found in early sources. Both are near 
hills (c 900ft.). Cf. Bellthorn-moor 1771 Whitaker, Hist. Manch. I. 121. It is a remarkable 
fact that thorn often occurs in names of hills. Cf. Crowthorn (S. of Harcles Hill Sa), Shap 
Thorn (a prominent hill near Shap in Wml.). 

O.N. porp " a group of homesteads, a village," perh. also " a farm, croft " (cf. Swed. torp 
" a croft "), O.Dan, thorp " a smaller village due to colonization from a larger one." The el. 
is rare in Lane. : Thorpe Sa, Gawthorpe Bl (old estates), Thorp Le (an old v. or h.), Thorp 
De (lost) ; cf. Cracanethorp (cultura ; SLo) CC 840. 

O.N. pveit ? " a meadow ; a piece of land," Norw. tveit " a piece of meadow in a wood, a 
cleared meadow, a clearing," etc., Engl. dial, thwaite " a forest clearing ; a piece of land fenced 
off or enclosed ; a low meadow ; a fell ; a single house ; a small hamlet," etc. The history and 
etymology of the word are fully discussed by Lindkvist, p. 96ff. The exact meaning in Lane. 
names is by no means clear. According to Ellwood, Lakeland and Iceland, p. 61, the word 
thwaite is applied to meadows on the margin of Coniston lake. Mr. Collingwood points out 
to me that in Lane, names thwaite always refers to a piece of land sloping down towards a 
stream or a marsh ; this observation is certainly quite true. In Iceland, according to Ellwood, 
a pveit is the brim of dry meadow-land that gradually inclines towards bogland. It seems 
very probable that in many Lane, names thwaite meant originally " a low meadow," but 
meanings such as " clearing " or " enclosure " are also possible. The word may have had 
different applications in different periods. 

The Lane, thwaites are mostly in rather remote, sometimes in hilly districts, but they are 
not as a rule in a high situation ; few are found at a higher altitude than some 300 or 400ft. 
above sea-level, and many, as Allithwaite, Haverthwaite, Outerthwaite, are situated quite 
low. So are many Cumb. thwaites. 

Some names in -thwaite have as first part the name of a cereal, as Bean-, Big-, Haverthwaite 
Lo ; this shows that the places were of old cultivated. The three Rosthwaites must have 
been used as horse -pastures ; Scarthwaite SLo may be a similar case. Other names in 
-thwaite have as first el. a (descriptive) common noun, as Hawthornthwaite SLo, Haw-, 
Icken-, Kirk-, Rais-, Satter-, Scri-, Sea-, Walthwaite NLo ; or an adj., as Fair-, Langthwaite 
SLo, ? Es-, Hoa-, Honey-, Outerthwaite NLo ; or a place-name, as Nib-, Subber-, Tilber- 
thwaite NLo ; or a pers. n., as Gunner-, Outhwaite SLo, Alii-, Finsthwaite NLo. Other 
examples : Laithwaite De, Gubberford Am, Laithwaite Lo (Am), Burble-, Gaw-, Gray-, 
Hea-, Lone-, Scathwaite NLo. The first el. as a rule is, or may be, a Scand. word. One 
certain exception is Beanthwaite. 

? O.E. *pwit or O.N. *pvit : Inglewhite Am. The same el. seems to occur in Little White 
(Litilwhite 1365) in Durh., Trewhitt (Tyrewyt 1229, Tirwhite 1327, etc.) in Nhb. (see Mawer). 


It is apparently a word cognate with thwaite, derived from O.E. pwitan " to cut " or a corres- 
ponding O.N. verb, meaning perh. " a detached piece " or the like. 

O.E. pyrne, O.N. pyrnir " thornbush " : Henthorn Bl, Thurnham, Stapleton Terne SLo. 

O.N. vardi, varda " cairn, heap of stones " : Warbreck De, Am. 

O.N. vafl " ford " : Byrewath, Howath Am, Priest-, Lang-, Scamwath SLo, Skelwith, 
Tunwath NLo ; cf. Hala Carr SLo. 

O.N. veidr " fishing, hunting ; place for fishing or hunting " : Ingoe De, Waitholme SLo, 
Waitham NLo. 

O.N. vik " bay," etc. : Blowick, Wyke De, Lowick Lo. 

O.N. vidr " forest " : Blawith NLo. 

O.N. VQllr " level meadow, grazing ground, open field '* : Thingwall De, Walthwaite Lo. 

O.N. (v)ra, O.Swed. vra " corner," Engl. dial, wray " corner " (Wml.). Norw., Swed. 
vra (vra) occurs in names of places with a remote or secluded situation, as surrounded by hills 
or merely isolated from other homesteads. The same description applies to Lane, places 
with names in vra : Wray, -ton, Capernwray, Whiteray SLo, Wray, Birkwray, Holbiggerah 
NLo, are in more or less remote valleys. In the case of Wrea Am a meaning " outlying 
place " seems plausible. 

O.E. wl " a weel, a deep pool, a gulf, deep water of a stream or of the sea," dial, weel 
(Sc., Yks., Lane., etc.) " a whirlpool, an eddy ; a deep, still part of a river ": Sale Wheel Bl ; 
cf. Freckleton Am. Whitaker, Hist, of Manchester (1771) I. p. 122, mentions Bolton-weel 
near Strangeways, Scarweel above Broughton-Ford (Manchester). 

O.E. waella, wselle (wella, etc.) " well, spring ; stream." In place-names both meanings 
are evidenced. River-names : Irwell, ? Milkwall Sa. Names of places : Halliwell Sa, WisweU, 
Winewall Bl, Aspin-, Childwall, Thatto De, Colloway SLo, Hawkswell NLo. In the last 
the first part seems to be a Scand. pers. n. 

O.E. gewsesc : Strangeways Sa. 

O.E. wseter " water," i.e., " stream " : Blackwater, Colne, Pendle Water Bl ; or " lake " : 
Hawes Water SLo, Elterwater, Thurston Water, etc., NLo. 

M.E. whin " saliunoa, ruscus," Mn.E. whin " furze," etc. : Winfold Fell SLo, Whinfield 
NLo (second el. O.N. fell " fell "), perh. WindhiU NLo. The etymology of whin is not quite 
certain. It is considered by Torp, Nynorsk Et. Ordb. (s.v. kvein) to be related to Norw. 
kvein " thin grasses," Swed. hven, Dan. hvene, used of various species of agrostis, etc., and 
of tall, stiff grasses, all cognate with Swed. dial, hven " low-lying meadow," and belonging to a 
base *hvin- " marsh, bog." Whatever the ultimate etymology may be, it seems probable to 
me that whin is a Scand. word, in ablaut relation to kvein, etc. ; cf. early Dan. hvinegrces, 
hvinestraa, hvine " festuca prior " (Kalkar), Dan. dial, hvene, hveneknop (Feilberg), Icel. 
hvingras " agrostis." A third grade with short i may have existed, but I may have been 
shortened in compounds such as hvingras. A change of meaning from " tall, stiff grass," etc., 
to " rush " (a M.E. sense) and " furze " seems plausible. The late appearance of the word 
in English rather suggests Scand. origin. 

O.E. wlC " dwelling-place, residence ; village, town," etc., prob. also " farm, cattle-farm " 
(e.g., cealf-, gatawic) ; cf. dial, wick " a dairy-farm." The el. is fairly common in Sa, where 
it is always combined with a pers. n. : Ard-, Bes-, Chad-, Gothers-, Whittleswick, Prestwich. 
The only example in De, Win wick, and Elswick Am also have a pers. n. as first part. The 
meaning here seems to be " dwelling-place, manor," in Prestwich perhaps " village." In 
Killerwick NLo the first el. is a Scand. pers. n. On Borwick SLo see p. 8. Fish-, Salwick Am, 
perh. Ho wick Le have a common noun, Urswick NLo prob. the name of a lake, as first el. 
These latter names denote old villages. 

O.E. wice " witchelm " : Horwich, Wicheves Sa. 

O.E. widig, M.E. wipin (prob. formed with the O.E. adjectival suffix -in) " willow." Dial. 
withen (Lane., Ches., Der.) also means " willow holt ; a piece of wet land where willows 
grow " : Win-, Withington Sa, Weeton Am. 

O.E. worp m., wyrp f. " enclosure ; homestead, farm." The first el. is (1) a common 
noun : Ash-, Butter-, ? Edge-, Farn-, Holling-, Shores-, Shuttleworth Sa, Shuttle-, Town- 
worth Bl, Cle-, Farn-, Shuttleworth De, Stanworth Le, Dilworth Bl (Am), Appletreeworth 
NLo ; (2) a pers. n. : Ains-, Chads-, Pils-, Uns-, ? Whitworth Sa, Beardwood, Snod-, Tottle- 
worth Bl, Roddlesworth Le ; (3) an adj. : Long-, Rumworth Sa, Southworth De ; (4) a 
place-name : Wardleworth Sa ; (5) more or less doubtful in Blatchin-, Fails-, Haworth Sa, 
Duckworth Bl, Lentworth SLo. In no case does the first el. seem to be a Scand. word. The 


el. is most common in Salford (esp. Rochdale) and in Blackburn par. Yareswurthebroc (Dean) 
1227 LF iv., Noggarth (Barrowford: Nugworth bancke 1551 LP), and Shads-, Wilworth, near 
Blackburn, may be added. The De -worths are in the part adjoining Salford, and the Le 
ones close to the E. border, not far from Blackburn town. 

Few names in -worth denote old townships or villages. Most of the places in question 
are comparatively insignificant or in a somewhat remote situation (Roddlesworth, Snod- 
worth, Lentworth, etc.). Hennewurthe (Pemberton) De is said to be a toft LF 1202. 

O.E. worp (<*wurpa-) and wyrp (<*wurpi-) correspond to O.Sax. wurd, app. "soil" 
(Heliand 2478), M.L.G. wurt, wort " homestead," L.G. word, wurt " open place in a village," 
etc. See Torp-Fick p. 395, also Forstemann, Namenbuch and Die deutschen Ortsnamen, 
p. 40. The original meaning of the words is very likely " enclosure, fence " (Torp). In Engl. 
place-names the usual meaning is very likely " homestead," but " close, enclosure " seems 
very probable in some cases, e.g., in the curious name Shuttlesworth. 

The second el. of Faldworthings Le may be O.E. wordign, a word apparently of much 
the same meaning as worp, or wyrding " a cultivated field " ? (B-T). The original meaning 
of the latter may be " enclosure." It seems to be a derivative of an O.E. *wyrdan " to enclose "; 
of. O.E. wyrdeland " novale," i.e., " land ploughed for the first time, cultivated field," and the 
apparently synonymous O.E. wyrden. 

O.E. wudu " wood " : Brand-, Cheet-, Har-, Hey-, Hopwood Sa, Har-, Hurstwood Bl, 
Burton-, Gars-, Hale-, Simonswood De, Holmes Wood Le, Fulwood Am, Cawood SLo, Brant- 
wood, Sea Wood NLo. The first el. seems to be English or pre-Scand. in all cases exc. Holmes 

Notes on the Phonology of Lancashire Place-Names 

me changes e 
in the material are con 

Only some changes especially characteristic of the Lane, dialects and frequently exemplified 


O.E. a before I frequently becomes o S. of the Ribble, especially in O.E. alor " alder " : 
Lightollers Sa, Ollerton Le ; Colne, Hollowhead Bl. The same change is found in Ches. 
(Ollerton), Yks. W.R. (Owlerton), Derby (Ollersett) and elsewhere in the West-Midlands. 

O.E. a becomes p S. of the Ribble : Coldcoats, Fenniscowles, Low, Oakenhead Bl, Roby 
De, etc., also in Bl N. of the Ribble : Davyscoles, but in the rest of the county a remains : 
Loudscales, Scales, Wrea Am. 

O.E. ce, i- mutation of a before I + a consonant as a rule appears as a S. of the Ribble, as in 
West-Midland generally : Falinge Sa, Falling De, Winewall Bl, Aspinwall, Cbildwall De, etc. 
N. of the Ribble examples are few. Some examples of a occur in Am, as Eedwalle (Carlton) 
CO 148, Sewallesike (Preston) CO 217. But e is found in Colloway Lo ; cf. Keldbrekewelle 
(Stalmine) CC 106, Quitewellebroc (Claughton) CC 261, Welleker (Forton) CC 341. 

O.E. o in an open syllable sometimes becomes oi, as it does in W.Yks. : Boy sn ope Sa, 
Monk-, Langroyd Bl. 

O.E. y frequently appears as u (uy) in early sources, especially S. of the Ribble. Some- 
times u (uy) is preserved in the modern form : Bruche, Huyton De, Hulton Sa. 

O.E. ow, 03 sometimes appear as aw : Trawden Bl ; cf. fawerhokes " four oaks " (Am) 
CC 298. O.N. ou (au) often becomes au (aw) as in Rawcliffe Am, Hawes Lo ; cf. -hall<-haw 
(O.N. haugr) under I. 


O.E. d often becomes t in a final position : Breightmet, Facit Sa, Lunt De. On confusion 
between -head, -side and -set, see under set p. 16. On -forth for -ford, see p. 11. 

O.E. 3 after a often appears as i, y instead of w, as in Haigh Sa, Crookhey, Stodday Lo, 
earlier Bradshaigh for Bradshaw and the like. Shawforth Sa is pronounced locally (Je'fep]. 
Note Aighton Bl, Haighton Am. 

O.E., O.N. h [x] occasionally becomes k : Alkrington, Anglezark, Lomax Sa, Pex Hill De, 
Arkholme Lo. It often disappears finally after r : Medlar Am, Ortner, Torver, Winder Lo 
(-ergh " a shieling "), Scaleber Lo (bergh " a hill "). 

Initial h- has disappeared in Unsworth Sa, Audley, Elmridge Bl, perh. Inchfield Sa. 
Loss of h- in early sources, as in Apton for Hapton is partly due to A.N. influence. The same 


explanation probably applies to inorganic H-, as Hinne for Ince DB. Inorganic h is very 
common before the second el. of compounds, as Fyfhokis " five oaks " CC 716, Dodithak 
" dodded oak " CC 516 ; -hergh often for -ergh. This is hardly due to A.N. influence. 

O.E., O.N. k (c) sometimes appears as t before I, n : Birtle, Birtenshaw, Whittleswick Sa, 
Artlebeck Lo. The opposite change seems evidenced in Alkincoats Bl. 

O.E. cw and Jiw seem to have fallen together, qu being often written for O.E. hw and wh 
for O.E. cw. Whiston is often Quistan, Quick De often Whike in early sources. Whittleswick 
Sa seems to have originally begun in Qu- (Cw-). This confusion is due to the change [kw]> 
[hw]>[w] common in Lane. dial. ; cf. Wright, E.D.Gr. 241. 

I is frequently lost after au, ou, u, as in Audenshaw Sa, Gooden Sa, Audley Bl, Lickow, 
Mowbrick, Todderstaffe Am ; cf. further Marsden, Twiston Bl ; also Knowsley De, Scaitcliffe 
Sa, Bl (dissimilation). But early au for al (as Sauford for Salford) is due to A.N. influence. 
An inorganic I has often been added after au, ou, etc., as in Nuttall Sa, Becconsall Le, Hackin- 
sall, Preesall Am, Walney Lo. In Lonsdale N. of the Sands -hall has often replaced earlier 
-haw (O.N. haugr). An intrusive I is found also in Fallowfield, Quarlton Sa. 

n in weak forms of nouns and adjectives as the first part of compounds as a rule disappears 
except before a vowel and h, as in Chadwick, Tetlow Sa, Elton Sa, De, Entwisle Bl, Bedford 
De ; Bradley, Newton De, etc., Heaton Sa, etc. But n remains e.g. in Cockney Sa, Kinknall 
De, Wignall Le. It is doubtful if n ever remains before a consonant (other than h). There are 
a very few isolated instances in the earliest sources (Woolton De). Possible cases of preserva- 
tion of n are Blatchinworth, Monton Sa, Cronton De. 

ng h)] often appears as n before d, t in early forms. Cf. e.g. Tottington Sa, Whittington 
SLo. Later ng is usually reintroduced and original n in the same position often becomes ng. 
The genuine modern pronunciation is probably as a rule [n]. Loss of ng is found in Padiham. 

p>t in Lingart Am, Kellet, Sellet SLo (cf. also infra). It has disappeared in Adgarley, 
Bleansley, Stennerley NLo. 

d has been lost in Bolton, Winton, Weeton, Elston, Elswick, etc. 

w, of course, often disappears. This is usually the case in the genuine pronunciation of 
thwaite [pdf]. 

Anglo-Norman Spellings 

Only some of the more important and frequently exemplified deviations from normal 
spelling due to A.N. influence are here pointed out. I refer to Skeat, Notes on English 
Etymology, p. 471ff., Stolze, Lautlehre der ae Ortsnamen in Domesday Book, and especially 
to Zachrisson, Anglo-Norman Influence and Notes on Early English Personal Names (Studier 
i modern sprakvetenskap vi., Uppsala 1917). 


au replaces a before n. Cf. Bamford Sa, Sankey De, Cantsfield Lo. 

e is occasionally written for ai, ei, as in Oherestanc, Suenesat DB (Garstang, Swainshead). 
A prosthetic vowel is sometimes added before s + a cons. : Esmedune DB (Smithdown). 


c often stands for O.E. c, M.E. ch [tj], as in Cildeuuelle, Recedham, Mamecestre DB (Child- 
wall, Rochdale, Manchester). Before t, c sometimes replaces O.E. h, as in Licthurst for 

ch is a common symbol for [k] before e, i, as in Blacheburn, Cherchebi, Chellet, Schelmersdale 
DB (for Blackburn, etc.). 

d is substituted for th [5], as in Bodeltone (for Bothelton> Bolton), Liderlant (Litherland) 

n replaces m in the end of words : Lidun, Tiernun DB (Lytham, Thurnham). 

s (ss) is a common spelling for sch, sh: Estonior Ashton, Suttelesworth for Shuttlesworth, etc. 

t frequently replaces th [f>] especially in the beginning of words. Tarbock, Tarleton, 
Tarlscough, Torrisholme, Turton, Trinkeld still have t. But to some extent (at least in 
Trinkeld) an English or a Scand. sound-change may account for t. 

w for wh, as in Witul (Whittle), Walelega (Whalley) is probably a Norman spelling, as wh 
is long kept apart from w in Northern dialects. 


Lancashire : (honor de) Lancastre 1140 Ch, (honor de) Lancastro 1158 Gh 
(orig.), Lancastra 1162, 1165 LPR, (Comitatus de) Lancastra 1169 LPR, etc., 
(Comitatus) Lancastrian 1199 LPR, etc., (Comitatus) Lancastrce 1202 LPR ; 
Lancastreshire 14 cent. Higden, -schire 1387 Trevisa, Lancasterschire 14 cent. 
Eulogium Historiarum (Lancastshire in a 15 cent. MS), Loncastyr schyr 1441 
RSB, Lancaster 1464 Paston L II. 152, Lancastreshir(e) c 1540 Leland, Lan- 
kashire, Lonkashire 1586 Camden. 

The earliest quotations really refer to the honour of Lancaster. The full 
status of a county appears to have been attained by Lancashire in 1194 (Farrer 
LPR 3, VHL II. 187-191). Lancaster is the county town. 

The Lyme. The honour of Lancaster included parts of other counties, as 
Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham. To distinguish the Lancashire part of 
the honour from the rest it became usual to describe it as the honour " infra 
comitatum " or " infra Limam," the other parts being referred to as " extra 
comitatum " or " extra Limam " ; these terms are translated into English 
as " within, without (or beyond) the Lyme." Examples are frequently met 
with in records, e.g., The Book of Fees, pp. 206, 210, Rotuli Litterarum 
Patentium I. 165, etc. 1 

The element Lyme is found in Ashton-under-Lyne q.v. Lyme Wood was in 
S.E. Lane. : Lyme wood 1246 LAR (app. near Ashton-under-Lyne), [in] bosco 
de Lime 1222-68 CC 732 (Chadderton and Foxdenton). Limehurst is in Ashton : 
del Lymehirst 1379 Bardsley, Limehurst 1422 CS 74. Lyme Park, in Ashton, is 
mentioned in 1337 (VHL IV. 341). 

The same element occurs outside Lancashire, viz. in Ches., Staffs., Shrops., 
and perhaps Derby. 2 j" 

Lyme Handley (Ches., N. of Macclesfield, c 10 miles from Ashton-under-Lyne) : 
Lime DB, Lyme 1313 IPM. Church Lawton (S.E. Ches., on the boundary 
against Staffs.) is " anciently called Lauton under lyme" Ormerod (ed. Helsby) 
III. 11. Audlem (S.E. Ches., S.W. of Crewe, not far from the Shropshire 
boundary) : Aldelime DB, 1311 IPM. First el. O.E. Alda pers. n. or old "old." 

In Liber Luciani de laude Cestrie (RS 64), p. 65 (c. 1195), the forest of Lyme 
is said to form the boundary of Cheshire : " Cestrie provincia, Lime nemoris 
limite lateraliter clausa." By a charter of 1259 found in Annales Cestrenses 
(RS 14), p. 76, Edward earl of Chester " licenciavit homines Cestrisire appro- 
viandi se de Bosco qui vocatur Lima." Earl Ranulf III., in a charter of 1215-16 
(Chart. Chester Abbey, p. 105), exempts his barons from doing service extra 

Newcastle-under-Lyme (Staffs.) : now castello subtus Lymam 1173 Ch, etc. 
Whitmore (S.W. of Newcastle) : Wytemore under Lyme 1243 AP 119. Burslem 
(near Newcastle) : Barcardeslim DB, Burwardeslym 1297 IPM ; first el. O.E. 
Burgweard pers. n. 

1 " Hec est inquisicio . . de tenementis datis et alienatis infra limam in comitatu 
Lancastrie." 1212 BF 206. " In baronia de Penuertham sunt feoda v. militum infra limam 
et extra." ib. 210. " Commisimus . . . Ade de Yeland castrum Roberti Greslet . . . et 
totam terram ejusdem Roberti quam habuit infra Lymam." 1216 PatR. 

2 I have to thank Professor Tait for pointing out to me some of the examples given here. 


Betton in Hales (N. Shi., close to the boundary against Staffs.) : Betton under 
Lime 1161-82, Betton suUus Lime 1256, 1294, Betton under Lyne 1 1490, B. subtus 
Lyne 1534 Eyton, Antiquities of Shropshire IX. 1991, Betton subtus Lyme 1316 
FA. Norton in Hales (close to Betton) : Nortona, quce sita est juxta nemus 
quod Lima dicitur 1121-6 Cartulary of St. Peter's Abbey (Collectanea Topo- 
graphica et Genealogica I. 26), Norton subtus Lime 1225 Eyton, op. tit. IX. 367. 

In the Chartulary of Chester Abbey is mentioned, in connection with Weston 
(upon Trent) and Shardlow, a boscus de Lima (p. 169), boscus de Lyme 1228-40 
(p. 179). Prof. Tait takes this Lyme wood to have been in Derby near the 
Trent, which forms a county boundary. 

The Lyme is a difficult name. As the word is often used to denote a county 
boundary and places with names in Lyme are mostly on or near county boundaries, 
it is tempting to ascribe to the word a meaning " boundary." This has also 
been suggested by Sephton and others. Prof. Tait, Mediaeval Manchester, 
p. 180, apparently shares this view. But it is difficult to find an etymology for 
such a word. We should have to assume that a word lyme " boundary " was in 
living use in early M.E. times. As shown bynames such as Lyme Handley, Audi em, 
Burslem, which are in DB, Lyme must date from O.E. time. We can, therefore, 
not derive it from a Romance shortened form of Lat. limes. O.E. loan direct 
from Lat. limes is hardly to be thought of. A native Engl. word of the required 
form and meaning is unknown and has no parallels in cognate languages. In 
Celtic languages I can find no word that may be the source. A Brit, form of 
Lat. limes would hardly have lost the suffix (or really second component). 

In my opinion Lyme was originally the name of a forest. This is sug- 
gested also by Taylor, Introduction to Liber Luciani, p. 29, who thinks 
Lyme Forest was a continuation of Macclesfield Forest to the S.W. In Ormerod's 
Cheshire III. 538, on the other hand, it is stated that the forest of Macclesfield 
was anciently denominated forest of Lyme, " from its position on the boundary 
of the Palatinate." But unless we assume that there were two forests of Lyme 
near each other the forest must have extended all the way along the Cheshire 
border from N.E. Shropshire into S.E. Lancashire, and have embraced Maccles- 
field forest. The forest of Lyme, if this is correct, must have been very extensive, 
and this may seem to tell against the theory. But the forest district would be 
chiefly on the western slope of the Pennine hills, 2 which may be supposed to 
have been to a great extent forest and waste in early days. More serious is, 
perhaps, the objection that we should not expect to find this large forest of Lyme 
mentioned only in local charters and records. I suppose the name Lyme ceased 
at an early date to be applied, at least in official parlance, to the whole district, 
though it lingered on as the name of parts of it. 3 A considerable (perhaps the 
chief) part from early mediaeval times came to be called the Macclesfield 

1 The form Lyne, which appears also in Ashton-under-Lyne, seems to be due to association 
with line, mark ; limit, boundary. The latter sense is found at least from 1595 (NED). 

2 If the Derbyshire examples are trustworthy, we must assume that there was a forest 
of Lyme also in Derby, for the forest of Lyme under discussion here cannot have embraced 
the part of Derby where Shardlow is. 

3 The forest of Lyme mentioned in the charter of 1259 may have been a part of the old 
forest, or the name Lyme may have continued to be locally used of the whole district. 


The phrase under Lyme (in Newcastle-under-Lyme, etc.) rather corroborates 
the theory that Lyme is the name of a forest. The prep, under (Lat. sub, suUus) 
is very frequently combined with names of forests, as in Ascot-under-Wych- 
wood (Oxf.), Heaton-under-Horwich or under the Forest (see p. 44), Newton 
Underwood Nhb. It seems to mean " near." 

The names Lyme, Audlem, Burslem contain the old name of the forest. 
Places in or on the outskirt of the forest were called Lyme. Audlem and Burslem 
were very likely at first called Lyme, and the elements Aide-, Burgweardes were 
added for distinction. 

We come to the phrases infra, extra Limam. These can hardly always mean 
simply " within, beyond the forest of Lyme." In Ranulf's charter extra Lymam 
apparently means " outside the county boundary." I think we have here a 
case of transferred meaning, which is fairly easily explained in the case of 
Cheshire. Lyme Forest is stated c 1195 to be the (eastern) boundary of Cheshire. 
Extra Lymam would mean originally " beyond Lyme Forest." This would be 
tantamount to " beyond (outside) the eastern border." By extension the 
phrase might easily come to mean " outside the boundary of the Palatinate." 
There were circumstances which gave the eastern boundary of Cheshire a special 
significance. The earls of Chester had large possessions outside Cheshire. 
Ranulf I. (d. 1129) was the greatest landowner in Lindsey. Ranulf II. (d. 1153) 
had possessions in Lindsey, Notts., Leicester, Warwick, and Stafford (DNB). 
His son, Hugh, succeeded to his father's possessions. The forest of Lyme thus 
actually separated the Palatinate from the (chief of the) possessions of the 
earls outside it. I suppose the phrase extra Limam was at first used in reference 
to the possessions of the earls of Chester beyond Lyme Forest, not in reference to 
England generally. 

It is more difficult to account for the use of the phrases extra (infra) Limam 
in the case of the honour of Lancaster, because Lyme Forest formed only a small 
part of the Lancashire boundary. Still, Lyme Forest would, in a way, separate 
the Lancashire part of the honour from those in Derbyshire, etc. But it seems to 
me more plausible to assume that the phrases were applied to the honour of 
Lancaster on the analogy of the Cheshire usage. The fact that the forest of 
Lyme actually formed part of the Lancashire boundary would have facilitated 
this transference. 

As Lyme Forest formed an important boundary, a natural consequence is 
that the places with names containing the el. Lyme are all on or near a county 
boundary. It is to be noticed, however, that Newcastle-under-Lyme, Whitmore, 
and Burslem are at some distance at least from the present boundary between 
Ches. and Staffs. 

Lyme is probably a pre-English name of the forest. It may be an old forest 
name, or the forest may have been named from some place. 1 Possibly it belongs 
to the Celt, stem *lemo, *limo " elm " (O.Ir. lem, Gaul, limonum, Welsh llwyf, etc.). 
It may be simply the word for " elm " used in the sense " elm-wood " (cf. 
Jones, p. 221), or a derivative of that word. If the meaning is " elm-wood," 

1 The name of the stream (Lyme) on which Newcastle-under-Lyme stands is probably a 
back-formation. Yet it might be an old stream-name, identical with Lyme in Do., and 
might have given name to the forest. 


this need, of course, not mean that the forest consisted only of elm ; it may imply 
that elms were common in it. 

Lyme in Do. (at Lym 938 GD 372) is probably derived from the river-name 
Lyme (Lim 774 BCS 224). 


Salford hvnd' DB, hundredum de Samford 1200 LPR, Wapentachium de 
Sauford 1203, 1204 LPR, Wapentake of Salford 1226 LI, Salefordesire 1243 LI, 
Saufordschire, Salfordschyre 1246 LAR, Salfordisire 1297 LI, Salfordshire 1327, 
1332 LS ; cf. Salford, p. 32. 

Salford hundred, the S.E. part of the county, is marked off by natural 
boundaries on almost all sides. The S. boundary is formed by the Mersey and 
the Tame. From Yorkshire in the E. and Blackburn hundr. in the N. it is 
separated by high moorlands. In the S.W. the large Chat Moss formerly cut 
Salford off from West Derby hundred. On the N.W. high moorlands, belonging 
to Salford, separate the main body of the hundred from Leyland. But N. of 
Ghat Moss Salford and West Derby hundreds pass into each other without a 
well-defined natural boundary. 

The surface is mainly low and level in the S.W., but rises gradually to the 
E. and N., where considerable altitudes are reached. Deep river valleys 
intersect the rising ground. 

Names of Rivers 

Mersey : Mcerse 1002 Thorpe 544, Mersham DB, Mersam 1094 LC, 1130 
LPR, 1140 Ch ; Morse 1142 Ch, 1224, 1251, 1270 ChR, etc., Merese 1228 C1R, 
Mersee 13 cent. Wh C 560, 1293 AP, 1322 LI, Meresse 1298 LI, Merseie 14 cent. 
Higden, Mersea 1387 Trevisa, Mersey, Marsey c 1540 Leland, Marsee 1577 Saxton, 
Mersey 1577 Harr. 

The name is a compound with O.E. ea " river " as second el. The first el. 
offers difficulties. We expect the name of such an important river (or at least 
its first el.) to be of pre-English origin. But the name has a Germanic appear- 
ance. It is most plausible, as the form of 1002 shows an ce in the first syllable, 
to connect the first el. with O.E. (ge)mcere "boundary." O.E. Mcerse instead of 
Mcerese might be compared with such examples as bocre (< bocere), deoflic 
(<deofollic) Luick, Hist. Gr. 345. As regards a formation Mceres- ea, it is true 
there are examples of apparently analogous kind. Johnston points out Meres- 
brook (Sheffield) and Meresbroc DB (Shrops.), and Middendorff mentions from 
O.E. charters mceres crundel, mceres slced. Anyhow, it would be remarkable if 
such an old name as Mersey must be should have its first el. in the genitive form. 
Possibly we may assume a side-form or derivative of O.E. (ge)mcere with an 
s-suffix, the word being an old s-stem. This would also account for O.E. Mcerse 
instead of Mcerese. If so, we may perhaps compare such names as The Mearse 
(farm, Wore.) ; Mersham (Kent) : Mersaham 1 858 BCS 496 (orig.), 863 BCS 
507 (orig.) ; Maresfield (Suss.) : Mersefelde 1316, Marsefeld 1322 (Roberts). 

1 Mersa- might be the gen. pi. of a word meaning " borderer." 


Tame ,(a trib. of the Mersey) : Thame WhC 149, Tame 1322 LI (p. 65), the 
Tame 1577 Harr. Tame (Thame) is a common river-name ; cf., e.g., Tame 
(Warw., Staffs.) : O.E. Tame, Tamer (Liebermann, Die Heiligen Englands) ; 
Thame (Oxf., Bucks.) : Tame 971 Chr.B ; Thame (Yks.) : Tame Guisb. C. 
It is a Celtic name, identical with Taff, Wales (two different) : Tarn, Taf LL. 
Gore (or Rush or Chorlton) Brook (a trib. of the Mersey) : Gorbroke, Gord- 
broke (Gordeneheued) c 1250 Ch (17 cent, transcript), Gorebrocke 1322 LI. Gore 
is O.E. gor " dung, dirt." 

Cringlebrook (falls into Gore Brook) : Kryngelbroke 1322 LI. Cringlebrook 
is (or was) also the name of a place : Cringlebrooke 1593 Didsbury R. The name 
means " the winding brook." The brook makes innumerable twists and turns, too 
small to be shown even in the one-inch map. The first el. may be compared 
with cringle-crangle adj. " winding in and out, twisted " (1606 etc.), cringle vb. 
" to curve, twist, wind," especially of a brook (Lakel. ; EDD). We may assume 
an O.E. adj. *cringol or *cryngel (<*krungila-) " twisting " from cringan " to die," 
lit. " to contract spasmodically, to twist " ; cf. cringe, which preserves the 
original meaning. 

Irwell (the most important trib. of the Mersey ; runs diagonally from N.E. 
to S.W. practically through the whole hundred ; it is 30 miles long) : Urwil 
a 1190, c 1200 CO, Vrwill a 1250 CC, Irwel 1246 LAR, 13 cent. WhC 42, Irrewelk 
1277 LAR, Irwel c 1540 Leland. It would seem most natural to identify the 
first el. of this name, whose second el. is O.E. wcella, wella " stream," with that 
of Ireby, Irton, etc., i.e., with Ire pers. n. (probably Scand.) or the gen. of 
O.N. Irar or O.E. Iras " Irishmen." But the CC forms tell against this, and such 
an etymology is in itself improbable. I believe Ir- is a pre-English name of the 
river. If so, we may compare O.E. Yr 959 BCS 1052, an old form of Aire (Yks.), 
no doubt a Celtic name. The etymology of the name is too difficult to be entered 
into here. 

The simple name Ire is possibly found in Irinford 13 cent. WhC 796, Irefford 
ib. 785, Irifford, Yrefford 1329 ib. 260f. (Chadwick, Rochdale). The ford was 
on the Roch, the most important tributary of the Irwell, which may originally 
have been called Ire. 

Gilda Brook (a trib. of the Irwell) : cf. le Guldenaleford, Gildenhaleford 
13 cent. WhC 878, 880, de Gyldenale 1324 LF. Gilda is a place-name containing 
as its second el. O.E. halh " haugh." The first may be the O.E. adj. gylden, 
possibly in the sense " covered with golden flowers " (e.g., marigolds). Cf. 
gyldeburne 843 BCS 442 (orig.) and Giltbrook (Notts.). Or possibly it may be 
a lost O.E. pers. n. Gylda, a derivative of Gold- in Goldwine, etc. 
Cornbrook (joins the Irwell near Manchester) : Le Cornebroke 1322 LI 
(p. 66), Come Brooke c 1540 Leland. Identical with Cornbrook, Wore, (coma 
broc c 957 BCS 1007 ; cf. corna wudu, corna lip ib.). Corna is the gen. pi. of 
O.E. *corn, a form with metathesis of cron, cran " a crane " ; cf . cornuc=cranoc 
B-T (Suppl.). Cornbrook is also the name of a ward in Stretford. 
Medlock (joins the Irwell in Manchester) : Medeloke, Medelake 1322 LI, 
Medlok c 1540 Leland, the Medlocke 1577 Harr. Probably O.E. med " meadow " 
and lacu " stream." If so, the change to -lock must be due to association with 
lock sb. 


The Shooter (a trib. of the Medlock) : (aqua de) Schiter 1334 VHL IV% 252 ; 

cf. Shiter-flat M 552. Identical with Sciter (or Scitere) river-name, in O.E. 

sciteres stream, sciteres flod, sciteres clif (MiddendorS), apparently a derivative 

of O.E. scite " dirt " or scltan vb. 

Irk (joins the Irwell near Manchester) : Irke, Ircke, Hirke 1322 LI, Hirke, 

Hirk c 1540 Leland, the Yrke 1577 Harr. The name is possibly a derivative of 

the first el. of Irwell. 

Roch (joins the Irwell near Bury) : Racked. 13 cent. WhC 757, Roche 13 cent. 

WhC 619, 796, Rack late 12 cent. Ind II., 13 cent. WhC 773, etc., ye Roche 1577 

Harr. Rached. (if not for Rachedale) is probably a back-formation from Rached- 

ham, an early name of Rochdale, the most important place on the Roch. Later 

on arose a new back-formation Roche from Rachedale. See Rochdale p. 54. 

The change a > o is late. The name is sometimes written Roach (e.g. by Waugh) 

and pronounced [ro'tf]. 

Naden (a trib. of the Roch) : Naueden c 1300 WhC 602, 740 etc., Nauedenbrok 

13 cent. ib. 739. See Naden p. 60. 

Spodden Brook : Spotbrok 13 cent. WhC 734, 778, Spodden 1577 Saxton, 

Sprotton water 1577 Harr. See Spotland p. 59. 

Beal (joins the Roch at Rochdale) : Bole 1200-20 CC, Bele c 1300 WhC 611, 

the Beyle 1577 Harr. Cf. Belfield, Beal Moor pp. 52, 56. The name is perhaps 

to be identified with the O.E. river-name (in) boele, (ondlang) lodes (Wore.) 

851 BCS 462. This is possibly a Celtic name, but the etymology is doubtful. 

Names of Hills 

Very few hill-names, apart from those which have given names to 
places, are found in early sources. Most hills are named from adjacent 

Blackstone Edge (on the Yks. border) : The Uacke stony hilks 1577 Harr., 
Blakeston edge hill 1577 Saxton. Edge means " ridge or summit of a hill or 
range of hills ; a steep hill or hillside." Blackstone is said to refer to a boundary 
stone between Yks. and Lane. 

Harcles Hill (a prominent hill W. of the Irwell and Ramsbottom) : Arkil(is)hou 
a 1236, Arkell-, Arkeleshow c 1236 Whit. I. 324f. O.N. Arnkell pers. n. and 
haugr " hill." 

Rivington Pike (1,156 ft.) : Rovyng 1325 LI, Rivenpike c 1540 Leland, Riuen- 
pike hill 1577 Saxton, Rauenpike 1577 Harr. Johnston gives Roinpik a 1290, 
Rivenpike a 1552. Cf. Rivington p. 48. I imagine the name is a derivative of 
O.E. hreof "rough, rugged," O.E. *hreofing "rugged one," i.e., rugged hill. 
This base would account fairly well for the variation in the vowel (e, o, i). 
Association with the adj. rough may account for some forms of Rivington. 
The name seems to suit the hill. As regards the suffix cf. Kluge, Stammbil- 
dungslehre, 100. Leland gives the alternative name Faierlokke. 
Scout Moor (1,534 ft., N.E. of Ramsbottom) : Scoute 1610 Bury R (a place). 
Dial, scout (< O.N. skuti " projecting cliff ") means " a high rock or hill ; a pro- 
jecting ridge, a precipice." 



This parish is in the south-east corner of the county, and is separated by the 
Tame from Cheshire and Yorkshire. The ground is fairly flat in the W., the 
altitude varying from c 275 to c 350 ft., but rises in the E., where an elevation 
of over 1,000 ft. is reached. The par. contains only one township. 
Ashton-under-Lyne : Haistune, Haystuna c 1160 Ch, Eston 1212 LI, Asheton 
1276 LAR, Aston 1278 LF, Asshton under Lyme 1305 LF, Assheton under Lyme 
1355 LF, Asshton under Lyne 1319 LF, Asshton 1327, 1332 LS, etc. " Ashtree 
town." As regards the addition under Lyne see p. 23. Ashton town stands 
on the Tame. 

Alt (N. of Ashton) : de Alt c 1200 Ch, de Halt 1222-6 LI, de Alte (Hakh) 1246 
LAR, de Akhe (Hache) 1276 LAR, Alte 1322 LI, Alt Hey 1422 CS 74. Alt 
is on a spur of hill reaching 600 ft. ; near it are Alt Hill and Alt Edge. Under 
the circumstances the name may be derived from Celt. *alto- " hill," etc. ; cf. 
Welsh allt " hill-side, hill, cliff, woodland," O.Ir. alt " shore, cliff." Allt is 
common in Welsh place-names. 

Audenshaw : Aldenshade, Aldenesawe c 1200 Ch, Aldenshagh c 1250 ib. (LPR 
332), de Aldewainestath 1246 LAR, Aldewynshagh 1422 HS II. O.E. Aldwine 
p.n. and scaga " shaw." The early forms in Alden are found in a 17th cent, 
transcript and are no doubt to be disregarded. Other MSS. have the variants 
Aldwynshawe, -shay (LPR 329, 332). 

Bardsley : Bard(e}sley, de Berdesley 1422 CS 74. The first el. is apparently a 
pers. name, perhaps O.E. Beard ; cf. Beardshaw, Beardwood, Bardsea infra. 
Hartshead (in the N.E.) : Hertesheued 1200 LPR, Hertesheved 1203 ib. The name 
no doubt means " hart hill " (O.E. heorot " hart " and heafod " hill "). Harts- 
head is a district comprising a steep hill or ridge reaching c 1,000 ft. 
Heyrod (N.E. of Ashton, on the slope of a hill) : de Heyerode 1246 LAR, del 
Heghrode 1422 CS 74, the Herode 1603 CW 6. " High clearing " (O.E. rod p. 16). 
Lees or Hey : del Heye 1332 LS ; the Leese 1604 CW 4. Hey seems to be O.E. 
hege " enclosure," while Lees appears to be the plur. of O.E. leah " lea." 
Luzzley : de Luseleg, -legh 1246 LAR, Loseley 13 cent. VHL IV. 341, Lusley 
1422 CS 74. In spite of the early u- forms, I think the first el. is O.E. hlose 
" a pig-sty," the u being due to the early northern change of 6 to a sound 
written u. 

Mossley : de Moselegh 1319 LF, Mossley 1422 CS 74. " Moss lea." 
Shepley : de Shepelegh 1332 LS, Shepley 1422 CS 74. " Sheep lea." 
Staly bridge (now in Cheshire). Named from Stayley, an old hamlet : de Stavelegh 
1389 Bardsley, Stayley 1422 CS 74. O.E. *stcef-leah ; stcef " staff " may also 
have meant " a boundary mark." 

Sunderland (or Cinderland) : Sunderland 1422 CS 74, Synderlande 1564 DL. 
The name represents O.E. sundorland, literally " separate land." The exact 
meaning in this case is not clear. Cf . the same name in Bl. and Lo. 
Taunton or Tongton : de Tongton 1246 LAR, de Tounton 1276 LAR, Taunton 
1422 CS 74, Tongton 1585 DL. Taunton stands S. of the junction of Taunton 
brook with the Medlock ; a long narrow tongue of land is formed by the streams. 
The first el. of the name is no doubt O.E. tang " fork of a river " ; cf. p. 18. 



The district round Manchester city. Most of the thirty townships are now 
wholly or partly urban or suburban. The surface is low and level in the S., 
especially the S.W., but rises somewhat in the E. and N. 

1. Haughton (E. of Manchester, in a bend of the Tame ; v.) : Halghton 1307 
LF, 1322 LI, Halcton 1322 LI. The village stands fairly high over the Tame 
and some small " haughs " or flat pieces of ground in the bends of the river. 
First el. O.E. halh " haugh," on which see p. 11. 

2. Denton (E. of Manchester, W. of Haughton) : Denton 1255, 1278 LAR, 
1282 LF, etc. First el. O.E. denu " valley." A small brook rises close to the 
church and runs in a slight valley S.W. Denton Hall is close to the brook. 

3. Reddish (S.E. of Manchester, on the Tame) : Rediche 1212 RB, 1262 LF, 
1284 LAR, Redich 1212 LI, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Reddich 1262 LF, Redyche 
1322 LI, Reedyche 1325 LCR ; Radich 1226 LI, Raddic 1227 LI, Radiche 1324 LI, 
Radyshe 1550 LF ; de Redissh 1404 CR, Reddish 1577 Harr. The name probably 
means " reed ditch " (O.E. hreod-dlc), and refers to the old Nico Ditch (no doubt 
a corruption of MyJceldiche 1190-1212 LPR 329), which forms the N. boundary 
of the township. Some early forms apparently point rather to a first el. O.E. 
read " red," but this etymology seems less probable. The change [tf]>[J] 
is late. 

Hulme Hall : de Hulme 1343 VHL IV. 328, Hulme 1553 DL. O.Dan, hulm 
" holm " ; cf. p. 13. 

4. Heaton Norris (S. of Manchester, on the Mersey) : Hetton 1196 LF, Heton 
1212 LI, 1276 LAR, Heton Norays 1282 IPM, Heton Norreis 1322 LI, 1332 LS. 
" The high town." Heaton occupies a piece of land which rises to over 200 ft. 
above sea-level and slopes steeply S. and W. The manor was held from the 12th 
cent, onwards by the Norreys family. 

5. Burnage (N.W. of Heaton Norris, v.) : Bronadge, Bronage, Bronnegge (var. 
Brownegg) 1322 LI (copy). Etymology doubtful. The ground of the township 
slopes slightly from S. to N. ; but it seems improbable that this slope could 
have been called an edge. If the second el. of the name is edge (O.E. ecg), the 
first might be O.E. burna " brook " and the name might be due to the position 
of the place near Cringle Brook. As regards the form -adge, we may compare 
agge " edge" in Layamon (NED). If, as one of the forms seems to suggest, the 
first el. is the adj. brown, the second is perhaps the word hedge. Cf . Burnedge p. 52. 

6. Withington (S. of Manchester) : Wythinton 1212, 1243 LI, 1332 LS, etc., 
de Witheton 1219, 1222 LAR, Withinton 1255 LAR, 1325 LF, etc., Wythington 
1246 LAR, Whytinton 1303 FA. Other variants occur. The first el. is dial. 
withen " willow." 

FaUowfield : Fallufeld 1317 M, FalofeU 1417 CR, Falowfelde 1530 DL. The 
name no doubt means literally " fallow field," fallow being here perhaps 
used in the sense " uncultivated " (cf. NED). Falfield, in Gloucester, seems 
to have the same origin. A somewhat different explanation of the name is 
given by Gray, English Field Systems, 1915. 

Healdhouses : Yheldhouse 1317 M 574, la Zeldehouses 1417 CR. " Guild 
houses " ; first el. O.E. gild " guild." 


Hough End Hall : del Hogh 1323 LF, (manor of) Hoghe, Howghe 1543 AD VI, 
Hughhall 1577 Saxton, the Hough, the Hough End 1587 CW 40, houghes end, ye 
Hoousend 1588 Didsbury R ; now [hirz end] (Prof. Tait) or [(h)ufend (h)o-lj. 
The place stands on Chorlton Brook, which runs in a ravine called Houghend 
Clough (Wythinton Howe 1322 LI). Hough is O.E. hoh, here used in the sense 
" a ravine " ; cf. heugh " a glen ; a deep cleft in the rocks ; a grassy ravine 
without water " (So., Nhb., Wml., etc., EDD). 

7. Levenshulme (S.E. of Manchester, between Nico Ditch and Black Brook) : 
de Lewyneshulm 1246 LAR, Levensholme 1322 LI, Lensom 1587 Didsbury R ; 
now [levenzu'm]. "Leofwine's holm." Leofwine is a common O.E. pers. n. 

8. Rusholme (S. of Manchester) : Russum WhC 59, 1235 LF, Ryssham 1316 
M, Rysum 1320 ib., Resshum 1417 CR, Rysshulme, Rysholme 1551 LF; now 
[rufam]. The name seems to be O.E. ryscum dat. pi. of rise, rysc " rush." 
Through the township runs Gore Brook, also called Rushbrook. 

Birch : de Birches 1246 LAR, de(l) Byrches 1277, 1284 LAR, Byrches 1322 LI. 

" The birches " (O.E. birce " birch "). 

Platt : Plat 1292 PW, del Plat 1300 OR, 1312 AP. The name may be identical 

with plat 1 "a piece of ground," or perhaps more probably with dial, plat, "a 

foot-bridge " ; cf. Platt p. 102. A bridge over Gore Brook is called Platt 


Slade (formerly MilkwaU Slade) : Milkewalslade 1322 LI, Slade 1600 RS XII. 248. 

Milkwall is presumably the name of a stream, literally " milk well " (O.E. 

wcella " stream "). Slade " valley, glade," etc., is O.E. slced. 

9. Didsbury (on the Mersey, S. of Withington ; v.) : Dedesbiry 1246 LAR, 
Diddisbiry, Diddesbiry, Didesbyri 1276 LAR, Didybiri 1277 ib., Dydesbiry, 
Didesbyry 1278 LAR, Diddesburye, Dutesbure 1322 LI, Doddesbury 1577 Harr., 
Duddesburye 1593 DL. The first el. is apparently an O.E. pers. name, probably 
O.E. *Dydd or *Dyddi, which seems to be found in Dittisham, Dev. (Didis-, 
Dodesham 1286, 1428 FA). Cf. O.E. *Dydda in Didley, Heref. (Duddeleye 1303 
FA), Didbrook, Glo. (Dyddebroke 1316 FA). 

10. Chorlton-with-Hardy (on the Mersey, W. of Withington). 

Chorlton : de Cholreton 1243 LI, 1258 LAR, 1314 LF, Chollerton 1322 LI, 1336 
LF, 1561 DL, Chorleton 1551 LF, Colerton 1555 LF ; here probably belong 
de Cheluerton 1259 LAR, de Chelverton 1260 LAR. It seems the editor of VHL 
is right in taking forms such as Chollerton to refer to Chorlton-cum-Hardy, such 
as Cherleton, Chorleton to Chorlton-upon-Medlock ; yet the two names seem to 
have been confused even in early times. Thus in PR 1260 (LAR p. 297 ff.) 
Richard de Chelverton (i.e., Chorlton c. Hardy) is called de Cherleton, pp. 297, 299. 
Chorlton (cum-Hardy) apparently has as first el. an O.E. pers. name in Ceol, 
if the forms Chelverton, Cheluerton are trustworthy, probably O.E. Ceolferf),-frip. 
Hardy (near the Mersey) : Hardey 1555 LF, 1588 Didsbury R. The second el. 
of the name is probably O.E. eg " island, river-meadow," etc. (p. 10). Cf. Eeas, 
the land by the riverside in the township. The first el. is doubtful. It might, 
of course, be the adj. hard. 

Barlow (old manor) : Barlowe 1254 AP, 1322 LI, 1336 LF, de Berlawe, Barlowe 

1260 LAR. O.E. bere " barley " and hlaw " hill." The surface of the township 

1 First evidenced in NED from 1511, etc. Cf. Adamesplat 1200-38 CC 551. 


is generally level and low, but in the S.E., where Barlow is, it rises to over 100ft. 
above sea-level. 

11. Moss Side (N. of Withington, a late township) : Mossyde 1530, Mosside 
1564 DL, Moss Side 1594 CW 53. The name is self-explaining. There was 
formerly much moss land in Manchester parish. 

12. Chorlton-upon-Medlock (S. of the Medlock, in Manchester) : Cherleton 
1177 LPR, 1196, 1202 LF, Ghorelton 1212 LI, Cherlton 1226 LI, 1278 LF, Chorleton 
1327, 1332 LS, etc. This Chorlton obviously goes back to O.E. ceorla tun, and 
is identical with the common name Charlton. Chorlton occurs also in Ches. 
and Staffs. It is not apparent why villages were called ceorla-tun " the tun of 
the ceorls," but similar names are found elsewhere, e.g., in Sweden (Karlaby, 
etc. ; cf. Hellquist, De svenska ortnamnen pa - by, esp. p. 76 ff.). 

13. Stretford (between the Mersey and the Irwell) : Stretford 1212 LI, 1325 LF, 
1327, 1332 LS, etc., Stratford 1292 PW. The village stands near the ford 
(sometimes called Crosford) by which the Roman road from Chester to Man- 
chester passes the Mersey. Stret- is O.E. stret " street, Roman road." 
Trafford (old manor) : de Trafford c 1200 Ch (orig.), 1212 LI, etc., Trafford 
1226 LI, 1284 ChR, 1325 LF, etc., de Trafforde 1212 RB. Trafford is a doublet 
of Stretford, the form being due to Norman influence. Zachrisson, A.N. Inn. 
p. 67f., gives some similar instances of loss of S- ; also a for e and the assimilation 
of tf to ff may be due to the same cause. That Trafford comes from earlier 
Stratford is obvious. Henry de Trafford, often mentioned in sources from about 

1200 (as LI, RB), is called H. de Stratford in Stafford 1206 LPR, H. de Stratford 
ib. 1207 ; cf . Hugo de Straforde in Straforde 1212 RB. The manor of Trafford was 
carved out of Stretford township. As the manor-house was situated at a 
considerable distance from the village, its Normanized name came at 
an early period to be dissociated from that of the village, and therefore 

14. Salford (town ; before the Conquest a royal manor and the head of Salford 
hundred) : Salford DB, 1177 LPR, 1226 LI, 1332 LS, etc. ; Sauford 1169, 

1201 LPR, etc. Occasional forms are : Sainford 1226 LI, de Selford 1253, 1255 
LAR, Shelford 1260 LPR, Saltford 1257 LI. " Willow ford," .O.E. salh " willow " 
and/or^. Old Salford village was on the Irwell. The name Salford in Beds, 
and Yks. has the same origin. 

Ordsall (old manor) : Ordeshala 1177 LPR, Ordeshal 1201f. LPR, Ordeshale, 
Wurdeshal 1226 LI, Hordessale 1303 FA, Hordeshale 1330 LI, Urdesale 1381 
CR 353. The first el. is apparently an O.E. pers. name Ord, a pet form of names 
such as Ordric, etc., apparently found also in Ordsall, Notts. (Ordeshale DB), and 
perhaps as Orde in DB (Wyld). The second el. is O.E. halh " haugh." Ordsall 
is in a bend of the Irwell. 

15. Broughton (on the Irwell) : Burton 1177, 1201 ff. LPR, Borton 1257 LI, 
Burghton 1323, 1330 LI, 1352 LF, Burghtoun 1341 IN. O.E. Burhtun, the source 
of the numerous English Burtons. The origin of this name is probably not 
always the same. In some cases it may be due to the situation of a place near 
an old disused burh, or to a burh still in use. In other cases it may represent an 
O.E. burhtun, i.e., " a tun with a palisade round it " (Maitland, Domesday 
Book, p. 183). A great man's house had a palisade, apparently called burh. 


In the present case the reason why the name was given the place is not obvious. 
The form Broughton is due to a late change. 

Kersal : Kereshalam 1142 Ch, Kershala c 1175 ib., Kereshal 1199 ChR, Kersall, 
Kersale c 1200 Ch, Kershal 1200 LPR, Kereshole 1212 LI, Kersale, de Kershale 
1246 LAR. The second el. is O.E. halh " haugh " ; Kersal is in a bend of the 
Irwell. The first el. is not so certain. The early forms point most probably 
to a dissyllabic word ; the forms Kershala, Kersall, Kersale are mostly found 
in late transcripts. If so, it may be identified with O.E. Ccer pers. n., found in 
Cceresig, now Kersey, Sufi. But O.E. cerse " cress " is not impossible ; cf. 
Kearsley in Deane, p. 43. A cell of St. Leonard's belonging to the priory of 
Lenton was established here in 1142, hence the name of Kersal Cell, a house 
occupying the site of the cell. 

Tetlow : Tettelagh 1302 LI, Tettelowe 1312 LI, de Tettlawe 1323 LI, de Tettelowe 
1346 FA. The elements of the name are O.E. Tetta pers. n. and O.E. hlaw 
" hill." O.E. Tetta is found in Tedburn, Dev. : (on) tettan burnan 739 BCS 1331. 
Choo (a lost place, considered to have been in Broughton) : Le Choo 1322 LI, 
The Choe 1341, (the) Choo 1343, 1473 M. Cf. Chew in Billington, p. 71. 

16. Hulme (bounded practically by the Medlock, Irwell, and Cornbrook) : 
Ouerholm and Noranholm 1226 LI (Norholm 1227 ib.), Overhulm and Netherhulm 
1324 LI, de Hulm 1246 LAR, Hulm 1310 LF, Hulme 1440 LF, etc., Holme 1577 
Saxton ; now [mrm, hju'm], O.Dan. Tiulm " island," etc. (cf. p. 13). The situ- 
ation of the township sufficiently explains the name. Nor(an)holm 1226, 1227 
appears to be a corruption for Netherholm. 

17. Cheetham (on the W. bank of the Irk, N. of Manchester) : Chetam 1212 
BF, Chetham 1226 LI, 1332 LS, etc. ; de Cheetham 1254 IM, Cheteham 1312 LF. 
The first el. is, in my opinion, identical with Welsh coed, O.Coin.cuit, Bret, koat 
11 wood " from Brit. *ket < Prim. Celt. *kaito. The same word is found, e.g., 
in Chute, Wilts (Ceit 1178, Get 1222 ; cf. Ekblom) and in Chetwode, Bucks. 
(Cetwuda 949 BCS 883, Cetevde DB). The correctness of this etymology is 
corroborated by the fact that the southern part of Cheetham is called Cheetwood : 
Chetewode 1489 PatR, 1522 DL, Chetewood 1597 DL. The second el. is probably 
O.E. ham. 

Strangeways : Strangwas 1322 LI, de Stranways 1323 LI, de Strangways 1326 
LCR, de Strangwas 1326 AP, 1356 CR 331, Strangewayes 1546 LF, Strangwyshe 
1551 LF, Strang wayes 1577 Harr. Wyld aptly suggests a compound of O.E. 
strang " strong," changed by popular etymology to [streindz], and O.E. (ge)wcesc 
" washing up or overflow of water." Strangeways is in a tongue of land between 
the Irk and the Irwell. The abnormal change of the vowel and final consonant 
of the second el. may be due to Norman influence ; but perhaps only the spelling 
is Norman, the pronunciation -s being due to the spelling. As regards the vowel, 
cf. [aij, waif] for ash, wash in Lane, dialects. 

18. Manchester (town) : Mamucio (Iter II.), Mancunio (Iter X.) Ant. It. ; 
Mameceaster 923 Chr. (A), Manigeceaster 923 Chr. (G), Mamecestre DB, 1183, 
1197 LPR, 1212 LI, 1227 ChR, etc., Mammecestre 1184, 1185, 1194 ff. LPR, 
Mamchestre 1385, 1441 LF, Mancestre 1310 LI, 1384 LF, Manchestre 1330 LI, 
Manchester 1480 LF, etc. 

The name contains O.E. ceaster " city," etc., and the Brit, name of the 



place. Of the forms that have the best MS authority, Mamucio and Mancunio, 
the former is obviously the better, and Mamucium is adopted by Parthey and 
Finder in the map of their edition 1848. This form really has better MS authority, 
as it is in the two oldest texts we have (B and L, both 8th cent.), while Man- 
cunio is not in L (L second hand has Mamcunio). The English form (O.E. 
Mameceaster, later Mamechestre, etc.) proves decisively that Mancunium must 
be wrong, while Mamucium may be a correct form. 1 I think it very probable 
that Mamucium is the original form. It may be a derivative with the suffix 
-uk- found in O.W. morcanhuc LL 119, etc. (from Morcant pers. n.). The base 
might be the stem Mam- found in Gaul. Mamus pers. n., Mamacas, Mamacus 
pi. names (Holder). This Brit, form at the time of its adoption would be dis- 
syllabic and end in k, which was lost before O.E. c. An exact parallel is offered 
by O.E. Dorceceastre Chr. (now Dorchester, Oxf.), in Bede dorciccaestrce 4, 23, 
dorcic 3, 7. 

Alport : Aldeport 1282 IPM (Aldeparc in a late transcript LI), 1322 LI, Overald- 
port, Netheraldport 1458 RS XXX., Alparte parke c 1540 Leland. Alport is near 
the site of the old Roman fort, at some distance from which mediaeval Manchester 
grew up. The name means " the old port," port being O.E. port " town," 
esp. perhaps " walled town " or " market town " (Lat. portus ; NED) cf . 
Whitaker, History of Manchester 1. 204, II. 408, Tait, Mediaeval Manchester, p. 3. 

1 The Brit, name of Manchester is dealt with by Dr. Bradley in EHR XV., p. 495f., and, 
with full discussion of the MS forms, by Professor Tait in Roman Fort at Manchester 
(1909), p. 9ff. Both reject Mancunio, Dr. Bradley does not consider it certain that Mamucio 
is correct either. " The probability," he says, " would seem to be that both forms are more 
or less altered from a common archetype." As " the nc of Mancunio must represent an 
original m, analogy would point to the uc of Mamucio being a corruption of the same letter." 
This would give Mammium, which might be a derivative of Celt, mamma " mother." An 
argument in favour of this is that at the time when the Brit, name was adopted Brit, inter- 
vocalic m would probably have been represented by v. 

Dr. Bradley 's arguments are certainly well worth serious consideration, and Professor 
Tait, on account of them, thinks Mamucium " lies under some suspicion." To my mind the 
chief reason for suspecting the form is the preservation of Brit. m. If it can be proved that 
Engl. m may well represent Brit, intervocalic m, the claims of Mamucium to be correct gain 
considerably in strength. Now Brit, intervocalic m did not become v until fairly late. In 
O.W. and O.Bret, it was a loose m or nasalised v, and in Breton the preceding vowel is still 
nasalised (Pedersen L, p. 161ff.). Jones (p. 163) thinks the change to v took place "towards 
the end of the O.W. period." The O.W. period is generally held to have come to an end 
c 1100. That in Welsh a loose m or nasalised v was spoken comparatively late is proved by 
such spellings as O.W. amal (Pedersen I.e.) or Tarn for Taf, etc., in LL. For this nasalised 
v Engl. m or v could be substituted. An example of late substitution of m is Cameleac, which 
certainly looks like an attempt at rendering a spoken Welsh form, in Chr. 918 for O.W. 
Cimeilliauc LL (later Gyfeilliog). It is also an important fact that the name of the river 
Tame, which joins the Mersey a few miles S.E. of Manchester, preserves the m. 

Under these circumstances I do not think there is sufficient reason for rejecting or sus- 
pecting Mamucio, even though Mammio yields a very satisfactory etymology. A corruption 
of Mamucio to Mancunio seems well within the bounds of probability. In my opinion it 
would really be a remarkable coincidence if the short name Mammio should have been 
corrupted in both places where it occurred. 

I even feel some doubt if Mammium accounts well for the O.E. and early M.E. dissyllabic 
form Mame-. Brit. Mammion must have become monosyllabic at a very early date. It 
is even possible that Mammion would have had its vowel umlauted to e. The Brit, t- umlaut 
must have taken place very early, as it is found in all the Brit, languages (Pedersen I. 


Possibly O.E. port also meant " fort " (cf. Portfield in Whalley). A meaning 

" old fort " would, perhaps, be still more suitable. 

Ancoats (h.) : Einecote 1212 LI, de Hanekotes 1243 LI, de Ancoates 1240-59 Ch, 

Ancotes, Ancottes 1322 LI. Ancoats is in the extreme S.E. of the township. 

This renders the meaning " lonely huts " (O.E. ana and cot) probable ; cf. 

especially Onecote, Staffs. (Anecote 1199, 1204 Duignan) ; Onehouse, Sufi. 

(Anhus DB). The form Einecote seems to show Scand. influence. 

Ashley : Asseleie 1320 M, 1322 LI. " Ash lea." 

Clayden : Claidene, -fielde 1322 LI. O.E. c% " clay," and denu " valley." 

Collyhurst : Colyhurst 1322 LI, 1556 LF, 1586 Camden. There were coalmines 

here (VHL IV. 229). The first el. is, perhaps, colly " dirtied with coal dust or 

soot ; grimy ; coalblack " (16 cent. NED) ; M.E. colwen " to make dirty " 

seems to be a derivative of colig, which must consequently be fairly old. On 

hurst see p. 13. The meaning " hill " seems probable here. 

Garrett [Hall] : Garret hall 1577 Saxton, Garret Halle 1577 Harr. M.E. garret 

" a watch-tower " (14 cent.) from O.F. garite (NED). The position of the house 

" was originally one of defence at the junction of two streams " (VHL IV. 240). 

19. Ardwick (S.E. of Manchester and the Medlock) : Atheriswyke 1282 IPM, 
Atherdwic M, Aderwyk 1282 M, Ardewike, Ardwicke 1322 LI, de Ardewyk 1324 
LCR, Ardewyke 1422 HS II. The name is difficult to judge of, as the evidence 
is conflicting. If we may trust the earliest forms, the name has been con- 
siderably worn down. The first el. would seem to be a pers. name in O.E. 
Mdd- or Ead-, most probably JEdelred or Eadred, which became M.E. Atherd, 
later Ather(iswyke) and Ard(wik). As regards the latter development we may 
compare Arreton, Ha. : Adrintone DB, Atherton 1316 FA, Arreton 1234-56 
AD I. (B 115). Cf. further Atherton infra. The second el. is O.E. wic " home- 
stead," etc. 

20. Gorton (between Cornbrook and Nico Ditch) : Gorton 1282 IPM, 1322 LI, 
de Gorton 1332 LS, Goreton 1499 DL. Gore Brook flows through the township. 
The first el. of Gorton, like that of Gore Brook, is no doubt O.E. gor " mud." 
Cf. Horton, in Wore. ( : horh " mud," Duignan). The following name suggests 
that the township was partly marshy. 

Greenlow Marsh : Grenlawemers 1282 IPM, Grenelowmarshe 1422 HS II. O.E. 
grene " green," hldw " hill," mersc " marsh." 

21. Openshaw (N. of Cornbrook, E. of Manchester) : Opinschawe, -sawe 1282 IPM, 
Oponshaghe, Openshagh 1322 LI. The name means " open wood," open being 
used in the sense " unenclosed." Cf. the interesting account of a law-suit in 
1505-6 LP I. 25ff. Opynsha Mor is called a " common pasture." See also Tait, 
Mediaeval Manchester, p. 24. 

22. Beswick (on the S. bank of the Medlock) : Bexwic 1200-23 CC, de Bexwycke, 
Bexwyk 1322 LI, de Bexwik 1359 LF. The first el. looks like a pers. name. 
Searle infers O.E. Beac from Beaces hlawe 955 BCS 917 (late transcr.). This 
may be the name wanted. 

23. Bradford (S. of the Medlock and E. of Manchester) : Bradeford 1196, 1358, 
1359 LF, Bradford 1282 IPM. " The broad ford." 

24. Droylsden (S. of the Medlock, E. of Manchester) : de Drilisden c 1250 Ch 
(17 cent, copy), Drilsden c 1290 M, 1502 LF, Drilesden 1506 DL, Drylesden 


1547 LF. The original form of the name is not sufficiently clear ; apparently 
it was early M.E. Drilesden. Wyld suggests as the first el. a pers. name DrygeL 
Phonetically this suits the case, and possibly in Drigelinghe DB (Yks.) we have 
a derivative of such a name. A derivative Drygel of O.E. dryge " dry," e.g., 
a brook name, might also be thought of. This might refer to Lumb Clough, 
W. of Droylsden. 

Clayton (old manor) : Cleyton c 1250 LI, Clayton 1439, 1441 LF. O.E. dceg 
" clay " and tun. A common E. place-name, denoting a township or homestead 
on clayey ground. 

25. Newton (between Moston Brook and the Medlock) : Newton 1322 LI, 1359 M, 
1546 LF. " The new tun." 

Monsall : Monshalgh 1546 LF. " Monks' haugh " ? 

Kirkmanshulme (a detached part originally perhaps belonging to Gorton) : 
Kyrdmannesholm 1292 VHL IV. 271, Curmesholme, Kirmonsholme 1322 LI, 
Kirdmansholme 1588, Kirdmanhome 1590 DL. Again the early material is 
unsatisfactory. I believe the modern spelling preserves the original form. 
Kyrdmannes- 1292 may well be miswritten for Kyrkmannes- ; Curmesholme is 
probably influenced by early forms of Crumpsall. Kirkman is a northern word 
for " ecclesiastic " ; as a surname le Kirkemon is found 1332 LS (under Harwood). 
As the place belonged to the ecclesiastics of Manchester, the name is to the 
point. On holm, hulm, see p. 13. 

26. Failsworth (E. of Newton, between Moston Brook and the Medlock) : 
Fayleswrthe 1212 RB, Faileswrthe 1212 LI, Felesworde 1226 LI, Failesworthe c 1200 
CC,Failesworth, Thayleswurth 1246 LAR, Faylesworde 1451, 1461 CO. The first 
el. looks like a pers. name, and Wyld suggests O.E. *Fegel or *Fcegel, related to 
O.E. fcegen, " joyful," etc. No such name is otherwise known ; yet there are 
some apparent O.G. names containing a stem Fag. I am not sure the first el. 
is a pers. name. As will be shown infra, Shuttleworth appears to have as first 
member a common noun derived from the verb shut (O.E. scytels). Similarly 
Failsworth might contain a derivative of O.E. fegan " to join, unite, fix " (cf. 
O.TL.G.fuogan, M.H.Q.fuegen " to join together "). O.R.fegels is not recorded, 
but the suffix -isla is very common (cf. Kluge, Stammbildungslehre 98). The 
meaning oifegels might be something like that of scytels, i.e., " a bar serving as 
a lock " or the like. On worth " enclosure," etc., see p. 20. 

Wrigley Head (old hamlet) : Wrigeleyhede, Wriggeleheved 1322 LI. The el. 
Wrig- may belong to the stem in O.E. wrigian " to strive," Engl. wriggle, etc., 
but its meaning is obscure. 

27. Moston (N. of Moston Brook, a tributary of the Irk ; v.) : Moston 1195 
LF, 1235 LAR, de Moston 1272 CC, 1284 LAR, ? de Huston 1246 LAR, 1257 
LAR. " Moss tun" In the township are White Moss and Theale 1 Moor (: Theyl- 
more Waste 1529 DL). First el. O.E. mos " moor, moss." The form Huston, if 
belonging here, is remarkable. 

Nuthurst : Nuthurst 1322 LI, 1552 LF. Hurst presumably means " a copse." 

28. Harpurhey (small township N. of the junction of the Irk and Moston Brook) : 
Harpourhey 1320 M, Harperhey 1509 DL. Harpurhey may derive its name from 

1 Theale may be O.E. pel " plank," the name referring to a path across the moor formed 
by planks. 


the 80 acres demised for life to William Harpour before 1322 (M 384). The 
second el. is O.E. hege " hay, enclosure." 

Gotherswick (old h. ; the name is now lost) : Gothereswicke 1322 LI, Goderswick, 
Goddyriswike 1473 M, Groderswyk 1502 DL. This seems to be " Godhere's wic." 
Godhere is a common O.E. pers. name. Godric is perhaps also possible. The 
change of d to d before er is a common phenomenon (Wright, EJXGr. 297). 
The second el. is O.E. wic " homestead," etc. 

29. Crumpsall (S. and W. of the Irk, N. of Manchester) : de Cormeshal 1235 LAR, 
Curmisale 1282 IPM, Curmesalle, Curmeshale, Curmesale 1322 LI, Curmeshale 
1444 LF, Cormesall 1500 LF, Cromshall 1548 LF. The second el. of the name is 
O.E. halh " haugh." The first el. would seem to be a pers. name. It may be 
an original nickname from O.E. crum (cf. crumb) " crooked," corresponding to 
O.N. Krumr pers. n., which is very likely from a lost adjective meaning " crooked." 
O.E. crum " crooked " seems to be evidenced in Cromhall, Glo. ( : Cromhal, 
Cromale DB). This place is in a bend of a stream. 

30. Blackley (N. of Manchester ; v.) : Blakeley 1282 IPM, Blakeley 1322 LI, 
1547 LF, 1577 Saxton, Blackeley 1577 Harr. Pronounced " Blakeley " (Slater's 
Directory, 1920). " The black lea," O.E. Ucec and leak. 


This small parish is situated S.W. of Manchester on the Mersey, being 
bounded on the W. by the Irwell. It seems formerly to have belonged to Eccles 
parish. The surface is low and level. 

1. Flixton (v.) : Flixton 1177, 1201 f. LPR, 1212 LI, 1253 LF, etc., fflixton 
1332 LS, Flyxton 1262 LAR, 1341 IN, tic., ffluxton 1327 LS, Fluxion 1506 DL. 
The isolated spellings with u are probably to be disregarded. The name is 
identical with Flixton, Suff. (Flixtuna DB), derived by Skeat from O.Dan. 
Flik (Flic, Fliic 13 cent., Nielsen) &ndtun, and Flixton, Yks. (Flixtona 1180-1200 
YCh 1221, Flixton 1254 IPM). The same first el. is seen in Flixborough, Line. 
(Flixeburch HR, Flikesburgh 1316 FA). . 

2. Urmston (v.) : Wermeston 1194 LPR, Urmeston 1212 LI, 1278, 1284 LAR, 
1341 IN, etc., Wurmeston 1219 LAR, de Urmiston 1246 LAR, Ormeston 1284 
LAR, Vrmeston 1327, 1332 LS. The first el. is O.Dan. Urm (Einhard c 800 ; 
cf. Noreen, Aisl. Gr. 227, 1, a.), found also in Urmisruth (see Nielsen under 
Urmar). The form Urm, which occurs also in O.E. charters as the name of a 
Danish earl (BCS 665, 677, etc., A.D. 929-958), is distinctly East Scandinavian ; 
the West Scandinavian form is regularly Ormr. Wermeston, Wurmeston seem to 
show influence from the native word wyrm. 

Hillam Farm : Hylland 1548 VHL V. 55. O.E. hyll-land " hill land " ; the 
modern -m is due to assimilation to F- in (Hillam) Farm. The land rises 
slightly in the E. 


The parish takes its name from the church of St. Mary in Barton-upon- 
Irwell, round which stands the town of Eccles : Eccles c 1200 CO, a 1185, 1235, 
etc. WhC 36 ff., 1357 LF, etc., Ecclis c 1250 CO, de Redes 1246 LAR, de 


Hekkeles 1257 LAR, de Eckles 1276 LAR, de Eckelles 1278 LAR, ecils 1590 
Burghley ; now [eklz]. The name goes back to a Brit. Ecles " church " (cf. O.W. 
eccluys, Welsh eglwys, O.Corn. eglos, O.Ir. eclis, etc.) from Lat. ecclesia (cf . Pedersen 
I. p. 198). This Celtic word is found in several Lane, names : Eccleshill (Bl.), 
Eccleston (Leyl., Am., De.). Identical with Eccles in Lane, are Eccles in 
Kent and Norf. Names in Eccles- are e.g. Ecclesfield (Yks.), Eccleshall (Staffs.), 
Eccleshill (Yks.), Eccleswall (Heref.), Eccleston (Ches.), Exhall (Warw. : Eccles- 
hale 710 BCS 127). There have been different opinions as regards the names 
mentioned. Derivation from a Brit, form of Lat. ecclesia is ably defended by 
Moorman, West Riding Place Names, p. vii. f. 

The S. part of the township is low, and partly mossy. The N. half is occupied 
by a long, broad ridge running from N.W. to S.E. along the Irwell and coming to 
an end near Salford. The townships of Clifton, Pendlebury, Pendleton, and 
(most of) Worsley are in this part, Barton-upon-Irwell being in the S. part. 
1. Barton-upon-Irwell (bounded on the W. by the Glazebrook, on the S. by 
Flixton par., the Irwell and Mersey ; v.) : Barton 1196 LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 
LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Barton on Irrewelle 1277 LAR. Barton is a common 
place-name, which goes back to O.E. beretun, bcertun " barton," i.e., literally, 
" a corn farm," " a settlement connected with barns for the collection of corn 
and other produce," later " a detached portion of a manor," or " demesne 
farm " (NED). See on this word and the synonymous berewlc, e.g., Maitland, 
Domesday Book, p. 114, Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 224, and Engl. Soc. 
in the Xlth Cent., p. 365 f. Barton-upon-Irwell may have been a barton of 
the royal manor of Salford. 

The S.E. part (S. of the Irwell) is called Davyhulme. 

Davyhulme (v.) : Hulme 1276 LAR, 1322 LI, de Hulm 1339 LF, Dewhulm 1313 VHL 
IV. 372, Defehulme 1434 CR, Deffhulme 1528 LF, Deuelhom 1577 Harr., Deuaholme 
1577 Saxton, deaffe hulme 1600 RS XII, Deviholme 1599 DL ; now [de'vhrm]. 
Davyhulme stands S. of Bent Lanes Brook, a trib. of the Irwell. On hulm 
" holm " see p. 13. The first el. is doubtful. I suspect it is simply the adj. 
deaf in one of its senses. Possibly it means " lonely " ; cf. deavely adj. " lonely, 
solitary " (deauelie habitations 1611), found in the dialects of Yks., Chs., etc. 
(EDD), corresponding to O.N. daufligr " lonely." Or deaf, like O.H.G. doub, 
M.L.G. dof (Forstemann 736) may have meant " wet." Later the el. was 
associated with the personal name Davy. The original name is still preserved 
in Hulme Bridge Farm. 

Bromyhurst (on the Irwell) : Bromhirst, Bromyhirst 1276 LAR, de Bromhurst 
1246 LAR, Bromyhurst, -heth 1322 LI. O.E. brom "broom" or bromig adj. 
and hyrst " hurst " (cf. p. 13). Hurst cannot well in this case mean " a hill." 
Cockney (in Bromyhurst) : Kokeney 1253 LF. The material is too scanty. 
O.E. Cocca in Coccan burh (Searle) and O.E. eg " island," etc., may be the 

Dumplington : Dumplinton 1229, 1253 LF, de Dumplinton, de Dumplynton 
13 cent. WhC 47, 145. I would compare this name with Dimple (p. 47), Dimples 
(p. 163), and with the name Kerlingdimpil, Kerlingedimpel 1200-10 FC II. 229 ff. 
(Forton). This dimpel cannot be separated from M.E. dimple " a hollow in the 
chin," also " a dip in the surface of land," and from O.H.G. dumphilo " a pool." 


There must have been an O.E. *dympel or *dympla " a pool " or " a hollow." 
Kerlingdimpil may well mean " ducking pool " (kerling is O.N. for " old 
woman "). From dympel the first el. of Dumplington may be a derivative : 
O.E. Dymplingas " dwellers by the pool." Cf. Lakenheath, Sufi., containing 
O.E. Lacingas " stream-dwellers " (Skeat), also Winterburninga gemcere 951 
BCS 892, etc. Dumplington lies on a plain not far from the Irwell. There is 
no marked hollow near the place, but the existence of a pool in the neighbourhood 
is proved by the name Wilderspool, designating a place c m. from Dumplington. 
Lostock [Hall] : Lostoke 1322 LI. The same name is found in Bolton (Sa.), 
and as a river-name in Leyland. Lostock Gralam is a parish in Ches. : Lostoc 
c 1200 CC. I take the name to be a compound of O.E. hlose " pig-sty " (cf. 
p. 12) and stoc " place." Cf. O.E. hlosstede 966 BCS 1186, " place of a pig-sty." 
Whittleswick (now Trafford Park) : de Quitliswic, de Quicliswic 1251 CC, de 
Quikleswyk 13 cent. WhC 67, Whikelswike, Wykleswyke 1322 LI, Whicleswyc 
1577 Harr., Whickleswick 1577 Saxton. Perhaps Cwichelmes wlc. Cwichelm 
is a well-known O.E. name. On the changes of O.E. cw- to M.E. wh- and kl 
> tl cf. p. 22. O.E. wlc means " homestead," etc. The estate was acquired 
by the Trafiords in the 17th cent. 

The S.W. part was formerly called Chat Moss : Catemosse 1277 LAR, Chatmos 
1322 LI, Chatmosse 1577 Saxton. Probably the first el. is O.E. Ceatta pers. n. 
Cadishead (old manor, v.) : Cadwalesate 1212 LI, Cadwalsete 1212 RB, 1271 CC, 
Cadewalkssiete 1226 LI, Cadewallisete 1329 WhC 253, Cadewalleheved, Cadewelleghe 
1322 LI, Cadyswalhede 1538 LR. Cadishead stands near the confluence of 
the Glazebrook and the Irwell. The first el. of the name may be the O.E. 
pers. name C(e)adwalla ; this is Wyld's opinion. Yet we rather expect O.E. 
Ceadwalla to have become Chadwalle in S. Lane. It is, therefore, possible that 
it is itself a compound of O.E. Coda and wcella " well " or " stream." The 
lower part of Glazebrook may have been called Cadewalle, or this name may have 
denoted a well. The second el. may be the word set, sat, " pasture," discussed 
p. 16. But perhaps O.E. set " stall, fold " or " pasture " (B-T.) is a more 
probable source. The meaning " fold " or " pasture " would be suitable. The 
place was formerly in a lonely position in the far end of Chat Moss. 
Irlam (v. on the Irwell) : Urwilham, Urwelham, Uruuelham c 1190 CC, Irwelham, 
Yrewelham 1259 LAR, Irrewilham 1277 LAR, Irewelham 1292 PW, Irwilham 
1451 CC. First el. the river-name Irwell ; second probably O.E. ham. 
Woolden, Great and Little (on the bank of the Glazebrook) : Vulueden 1299 
VHL IV. 372, Woldene 1538 LR. The first el. seems to be more probably 
wulfa g. pi. of O.E. wulf " wolf " than Wulfa pers. name. The second is O.E. 
denu " valley." The valley of the Glazebrook is fairly deep where Gt. Woolden is. 

In the N.E. part (N. of the Irwell), near Barton and Eccles, are : 
Boysnope (on the N. bank of the Irwell) : Boylsnape 1277 LAR, Boylesnape, 
Bolesnape (haia) 13 cent. WhC, Boy-, Boylesnape 1322 LI, Bolessnape 1535 DL. 
The first el. is M.E. Me (O.N. boli, Bjorkman, Loanwords, p. 205) " bull " ; cf. 
Bulsnape Am., etc., under snape p. 17. Snape seems to mean " a pasture." 
The spellings with oy represent a form with oi < o (cf. Wright, E.D.Gr. 93). 
Monton (h. N.W. of Eccles, on a tributary of the Irwell) : Mawinton, (in) ueteri 
Mawinton c 1200 CC, Mawenton 1262 LAR, Maunton 13 cent. WhC 877, 1323 LI, 


Mawyngton 1292 PW, Mauinton 1451 CC. Wyld derives the first el. from the 
pers. name Mawa (Mauua), found in DB. This name is not well evidenced ; 
Redin even suspects a mis-spelling for Manna. However, Mawo is well authen- 
ticated on the Continent, and O.E. Mawa may well be a corresponding name. 
We may derive Monton from O.E. Mawinga tun, or possibly Mawan tun. 
Newhall (near Winton) : Neuham 13 cent. WhC 879, de Newham 1276 LAR, 
Newehume 1322 LI, Newham 1614 CW 42. The second el. is O.E. Jiamm " meadow," 
etc., or possibly O.E. ham. It is difficult to explain why -ham was supplanted 
by -hall 

The Slack (in Monton) : del Slake 1323 LI. Cf . [le] W estslak 13 cent. WhC 878. 
M.E. slack (from O.N. slakki) " a small, shallow dell or valley," etc. 
Winton (h. ; on Worsley Brook) : Wythinton 1322 LI, Wythynton, -heye 1284 
WhC 911, Wythington 13 cent. WhC, Wynton 1535 DL. Identical with Withing- 
ton, p. 30 : " willow town." 

2. Worsley (N. of Eccles town). The name shows much variation : I. a. Wyrke- 
dele 1212 LI, de Wirkedley 1219 LF, Wirkidele, Wirkedel, de Wirkithileg (Wyrki- 
thekye, Wyrkithele, Wurkedeleg, Werkidel) 1246 LAR, de Workedlegh 13 cent. 
WhC 55, de Worketley 1254 LI, de Workedele 1282 LI, Wrkedeleye 1299 LF, 
Workedleye 1292 PW, Wrkedelee c 1225 CC ; I. b. Wurkythesle 1246 LAR, de 
Workedeslegh 1259 LAR, Workedesle, Wrketesle, Worcotesleye 1278 LAR ; II. a. 
de Workeley 1299 AP ; II. b. Werkesleia 1196 LPR, de Wyrkesl 1246 LAR, 
Workesleye 1300 LF, Workeslegh 1332 LS, etc. Other occasional variants are 
given by Wyld and in VHL IV. 376. The types la. and b. clearly best preserve 
the original form (or forms). 

Worsley v. stands at the foot of the ridge mentioned ; the situation of the 
place throws no light on the etymology. This is a very difficult name. It seems 
to have as its second member O.E. leah. The first might be compared with 
that of Worksworth, Derbys. (Werchesuuorde DB), Worksop, Notts. 
(Werchessope DB), Worsborough, Yks. (Wircesbury DB), which seems to be a 
pers. n., perhaps contained in weorces mere 972 BCS 1282, but the second syllable 
of the early forms is not easy to account for. As the name Eccles is British, and 
Pendlebury, Pendleton contain a British word, it is plausible to assume a Celtic 
origin also for Worsley, all the more as there are two similar names, Dinckley 
and Winckley in Bl, which it is extremely difficult to explain as English names. 
All three have a middle el. -ket-, -kith-, -ked-, which may be identified with Brit. 
cet '* wood " (cf. Cheetham). They might be compared with Lichfield, from 
O.E. Lyccidfelth, Liccidfeld (Bede), whose first el. has been identified with Brit. 
Letocetum. It may seem a remarkable coincidence for three Brit, names in 
cet to have been combined with E. leah, but very likely the original meaning of 
this word was " glade, an open place in a forest." But if the suggestion made be 
correct, the first el. of the Brit, name must remain doubtful. Holder s.v. ceto- 
and Stokes p. 76 mention Bret. Worcoet, but this name is not given by Loth. 
Even if it occurs, it is not easy to identify the supposed Brit, name in Worsley 
with it. 

Booths Hall : Bothes man. 1500 DL, The Bouthe c 1540 Leland, Soothes hall 
1577 Saxton. " The booths," cf. p. 8. 
Ellenbrook (chapel on Ellenbrook, the W. boundary of Worsley) : Elynbroke 


(chapel) 1544, Ellynbrowghe 1552 LP, Ellingborowe 1558 DL, Ellyngbrugh 1577 
Saxton. The original name was, perhaps, Ellernbrook, the first el. being O.E. 
elren adj. from air " alder " ; the r may have been lost through dissimilation. 
The form -burgh is no doubt due to association with burgh, borough. 
Hazelhurst : de Haselhirst 1325 LCR, de Haselhurst 1332 LS. " Hazel copse." 
The place is on the slope of a hill. 

Little Houghton : Halughton 1253 LF, Halghton, parua Halghton 1310 WhC 
924, Hawghton 1557 LF. The place was in Swinton ; the name has now dis- 
appeared. First el. O.E. halh " haugh." 

Malkins Wood (W. of Worsley) : Mokenes 1278 LAR, 13 cent. WhC 887, Mokenys 
1276 WhC 922. Possibly a compound of O.E. *Moca pers. n. (cf. Mocca and 
Muca, Mucca) and O.E. hces, literally " oak or beech wood " (cf. Heysham). 
For the sound-development cf. Crossens p. 126. 

Stanystreet : Stanistrete (vill) 1246 LAR, (terra de) le Stanystrete 13 cent. WhC 
887. " The paved road." There are traces of a Roman road in Worsley. 
Swinton (the E. part of Worsley, on the ridge mentioned p. 38) : Suinton 1258 
LAR, Swynton 1276, 1278 LAR, 1293 WhC, etc., Svinton 1278 LAR. Swinton 
is a common place-name. It no doubt means " farm where pigs are fed." 
Walkden : de Walkeden 1325 LCR, de Walkedene 1408 Bardsley, Walkeden 
1514 LF. The first el. is perhaps identical with that of Walkley, Yks. (Walkeley 
1270, etc., Goodall). It may be a pers. name, as suggested for Walkley by 
Goodall, who compares Walkingham, Walkington in Yks. Searle has one 
possible example of W ealaca in wealacan die 854 BCS 475. It seems improbable 
that the name contains a word derived from O.E. walcan " to full." 
Wardley (near Swinton) : de Wordeley c 1300 WhC 44, Wordelegh 1292 PW, 
Wordeleywall 1310 WhC, Werdley 1577 Saxton. This seems to be O.E. worp 
" enclosure," etc., and leah, with change of ft > d before I as in Headley (Wore.) : 
in hcedleage 849 BCS 455, Hedleye 1275 (Duignan). 

3. Pendleton (N.W. of Salford, of which it is now a suburb) : Penelton 1200, 
1201 LPR, Pendelton 1201, 1202 LPR, Pennelton 1212 LI, Penilton 1243 LI, 
1246 LAR, Penhulton 13 cent. WhC 52, Penhilton 1332 LS, Pelton Hey 1590 DL. 
The first el. of the name must be a name Penhyll, identical with Pendle, Bl. 
The township is at the end of and partly on the ridge of land mentioned p. 38, 
the highest point in Pendleton being 230ft. I suppose this ridge was once called 
Penhyll. I take pen to be identical with Welsh pen " head, end, top," O.Bret. 
pen " head," etc., found in names such as Penmynydd " top of the mountain," 
Penrhiw ( : rhiw " hill "), Pendinas (a hill near Aberystwyth ; dinas " town "). 
Very likely the old British name was a combination of penn with some other 
word. Anyhow, the Anglian invaders took over the name as Penn and added 
the O.E. hyll just as in the case of Pendle Bl. Possibly there are traces of the 
name Penn too ; see under Pendlebury. 

(Little) Bolton (old manor) : Bothelton 1212 LI, c 1210 CC, Boulton 1201 LPR, 
Bolton 1341 IN. O.E. bopl "dwelling," etc., and tun. Bolton is a very 
common place-name in the N. of England ; there are several in Lancashire. 
Cf. p. 8. 

Brindle Heath : Le Brendlache, Brendelache 1324 LI. The second el. is letch 
(earlier lech, lach) " a stream flowing through boggy land ; a muddy ditch or 


hole ; a bog " (NED), cf. dial, lache " a swamp, a quagmire," etc. (EDD). 
Brend- is very likely M.E. brend " burnt," here " of a tawny or brownish colour." 
Hope (formerly in Swinton) : le Hope (close), hayas del Hope 13 cent. WhC 917f., 
Hope (manor) 1324 LI. O.E. hop (see p. 13), here most probably in the sense 
" a valley." 

Weaste. The name is a form of waste, which in dialects means " uncultivated 
land, common." 

4. Pendlebury (N. of Pendleton, town) : a. Penelbiri, Pinnelberia 1202 LPR, 
Penlebire 1206 ib., Penlibere 1207 ib., Pennilbure 1212 LI, de Pennelbiry (Penel- 
byry, Pennel-, Penelbiry) 1246 LAR, de Penhilbyry (Pennylles-, Pennylbyry) 
1284 LAR, Penhulbury 13 cent. WhC 52, 1332 LS, Penulbury 1311, 1423 LF, 
Pennilbiry 1313 LF, b. Penesbire 1206 LPR, Pennebire 1208 LPR, 1226 LI, 
Penisburia 1212 RB, Pennesbyry 1278 LAR. Pendlebury stands on the N.E. 
slope of the ridge mentioned ; nearly 300ft. elevation is reached in the township. 
Type a. has obviously as first el. the Penhyll suggested under Pendleton as the 
old name of the ridge. Type b. is most probably only a phonetic and graphic 
variant of type a. But as it is found early, and only in early sources, it is just 
possible it contains the uncompounded name Penn, on which see under Pendleton. 
The second el. is O.E. burh ; perhaps there was once a fort on the ridge. 
Agecroft [Hall] : Achecroft 1394 TI, Agecroft c 1540 Leland, Edgecroft 1577 Harr., 
Aggecroft 16 cent. DL. Agecroft Hall stands on the slope of the ridge not far 
from the Irwell. The material is unsatisfactory. The first el. of the name is 
perhaps edge " brink " or Ecga pers. n. For the form Age- cf. Burnage p. 30. 
Shoresworth (old manor, situated on the Irwell S. of Pendleton ; the name 
is now lost) : Snoreswurda (!) 1177 LPR, Schoresworde 1226 LI, Schoresworth 
1241 LF, de Soriswrth 1243 LI, de Schorwurth 1242, 1244 LAR, de Schereswurth 
1246 LAR, de Schoresworth, -wrth 1278 LAR. The first el. is no doubt the word 
shore, here used in the sense " bank " (of a river), a sense first evidenced in Lane, 
texts (Allit. Poems, etc.). Chadeswrthe 1212 RB, 1212 LI is usually identified 
with Shoresworth. If that is correct, it is perhaps an earlier name with O.E. 
Ceadd(a) as first el. On worth see p. 20. 

5. Clifton (N. of Pendlebury and Worsley, v.) : Clifton 1184 LPR, 1212 LI, 
1332 LS ; Clyfton 1185 LPR, 1307 LF. Clifton stands on the slope of the ridge 
mentioned p. 38 ; cliff (O.E. clif) in this case means " a declivity, a slope." 


This parish takes its name from Deane in Rumworth, where the church is : 
Capella de Saynte mariden 13 cent. WhC 60, capellam de Saynte Maridene 1329 
WhC 256, Dene 1292 PW. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. It stands 
on the edge of a narrow valley, Deane Church Clough, near the town of Bolton ; 
hence the name (O.E. denu " valley "). The parish is situated W. of the Irwell 
and W. and S. of Bolton-le-Moors. The ground varies considerably. In the 
S. part is a ridge reaching c 500ft. The northernmost part is on the slope of a 
moorland district, whose highest point (Winter Hill in Bolton par.) rises to 
1,498ft. In the middle is a fairly broad valley occupied by Lostock township in 
Bolton par. 


1. Kearsley (S.E. of Bolton, on the Irwell ; v.) : Cherselawe 1187 LPR, Cherse- 
lawa 1188 LPR, Kersleie c 1220 CC, Keresley 1501 LF. I suppose the name 
means " cress lea " (O.E. ccerse, cerse " cress " and leak). The early forms in 
-lawe, -lawa, if they belong here, are probably corrupt. 

2. Farnworth (S. of Bolton, on the Irwell ; town) : Farnewurd 1185 LPR, 
Ferneworthe c 1220 CC, Farinworth 1253 LF, Farneworth 1278 LAR, 1326 LF, 
etc. O.E. fearn " fern " and worp " enclosure," etc. 

Blindsill : de Blyndeshull 1278 LAR. Possibly the first el. is a pers. name 
derived from blind adj. Cf. Blindbothel, Cumb. 

Prestall (near the Irwell ; the name is preserved in Presto Lane) : de Presthall 
1278 LAR, de Prestal 1324 LCR, Prestall 1514 LF. Probably " the priest's 
hall or farm." 

3. Over, Middle, and Little Hulton (three townships S. of Bolton) : Hilton 1200 if. 
LPR, 1246 LAR, etc., Hiltone 1212 RB, Hylton 1219, 1256 LF, Hulton 1212 LI, 
1327, 1332 LS, etc., Hilton, Over-, Netherhilton 1521 LF, Medyll Hilton 1552 LP. 
O.E. hyll " hill " and tun. The district of Hulton is on the slope of a ridge ; 
in Over Hulton an elevation of c 500ft. is reached. 

Wharton or Warton Hall (in Li. Hilton). An early form is Wauerton (VHL V. 
30). Better material is wanted. Cf. Wavertree (De). 

Wicheves, later Peel Hall (in Li. Hulton) : del Withevse 1323 LI, Wicheves 
VHL V. 30, Le Whiche Eves 1546 LF. The first el. is a name the Wiche, denoting 
a piece of land in Hulton, and found also in Wichard, Wichsike c 1210 LF I. 
p. 216 ; cf. Wichshaw, Wich Brook 13 cent. VHL V. 30. As eaves often means 
" edge of a wood," it is probable that Wich denoted a wood (cf. also Wichshaw) 
and that the name is O.E. wice " witchelm," or rather the plural of that. 
Wicheves is, then, " the edge of the elm- wood." Peel is, of course, peel " a 
palisade, a palisaded enclosure ; a small castle." 

4. Westhoughton (S.W. of Bolton ; v.) : Hakton c 1210, etc. CC, 1258 LAR, 
Halcghton 1246 LAR, Halicton 1258 LAR, Halghton 1332 LS, Westhakton c 
1240 CC, Westhalton 1303 FA, Westhalghton 1327 LS, etc., Westhowftun 1864 
Staton. O.E. halh " haugh " and tun. The village stands near Pennington 
Brook. Westhoughton is W. of Little Hough ton. 

Borsden or Borsdane (on Borsden Brook) : Ballesdenebroc c 1215 CC, lee Balesden 
1451 CC, Basdane 1537 CC. Cf . Ballesleie, Ballislege 13 cent. CC (Westhoughton), 
Ballesley 1560 DL. The first el. is probably O.E. Bcell pers. n. in bcelles wcege 946 
BCS 814, and found also in Balsham, Cambs. (Bellesham 974, Balsham 1286 
FA; cf. Skeat). 

Brinsop (in the N.W.) : Brunsop c 1250 CC, lee Brinsope 1451 CC, Brynsop 1577 
Saxton. The same name is found in Bold De. (Brunsop 14 cent., de Brinsope 
1372 VHL III. 408), and Heref. ( : Bruneshop 1291 TE, etc.). Though it is 
remarkable that hop should be combined so often with the same name, I suppose 
the first el. is the O.E. pers. n. Bryne, found also e.g. in Brinsley, Notts. Hope 
is O.E. hop, here used in the sense " a small valley opening out from the main 
dale." The place stands in a small valley on the upper Borsden Brook. 
Snydale (N.E. of Westhoughton) : ? Slinehal 1212 BF, de Snythehill (Snithull) 
1278 LAR, Snythill 1486 RS XXX. The early forms are too conflicting to 
allow of a definite etymology. Snydale Hall stands close to Snydale Hill, 


which reaches 475 ft. ; so the second el. is probably O.E. hyll " hill." The first 
el. may be O.E. suite " snipe " ; cf. Snydale, Yks. (Snitehala DB). 
WarcockhiU (N. of Westhoughton) : le Werkokhull c 1280 CO, le Werkochul 
c 1250 CO. Warcock- is M.E. wer-cok ? " pheasant " (Stratmann-Bradley). 
The same name is found in Rochdale (Wercokhill 1324 LI) ; cf. Warcockelowe 
(Darwen) VHL VI. 272. On wercock, see Anglia-Beiblatt XXIX. 197. M.E. 
wercok is related to O.E. worhana (glossed phasianus) Du. woerhaan " caper- 

Wingates (h. N. of Westhoughton) : Windyatis 1272 CO, lee Wyndzates 1451 ib. 
Cf. to wind geate 961 BCS 1066. I suppose the name means something like 
" swing-gate." 

5. Rumworth (S.W. of Bolton) : Rumwrth 1205, 1288 LF, -worth 1278 LAR, 
1303 FA, 1327 LS, Rumhworth 1243 LI, Romworth 1332 LS, Romesworth 1341 IN. 
The township occupies the N. slope of the ridge on the S. slope of which is 
Hulton. The first el. of the name is doubtless O.E. rum adj. ; the sense may be 
" roomy, spacious " or " open, unencumbered, cleared." On worth " enclo- 
sure," etc., see p. 20. 

6. Heaton or Heaton-under-Horwich (W. of Bolton) : Heton 1227, 1256 LF, 
1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc. ; Heton under the Forest 1322 LI, Heton under Horewich 
1 332 LF, Heton subtus Horewych 1 346 FA. " The high tun " ( .E . Heaturi) . Heaton 
lies on the slope of a hill ; an elevation of 1,000ft. is reached in the township. 
The addition " under-Horwich " means "in or near the forest of H." ; cf. 

7. Horwich (in the N.W. corner of the parish ; town) : (forest of) Horewych, 
-e 1254 IM, Horewiche (forest) 1282 IPM, Horewich 1322 LI, 1332 LF, -eley 1322 
LI, Horewyche 1331 Ind, Horwyge 1539 DL, Horridge 1641 Blackrod R ; now 
[oridz], Hargreaves, p. 110. Horwich was the forest of the lords of Manchester 
(VHL V. 7). The name probably goes back to O.E. (cet) hdran wican " the grey 
witchelms " (O.E. hdr " grey " and wice " witchelm ") ; cf. Harewych 1277 
VHL V. 6. Or possibly the second el. is a derivative of wice meaning " elm- 
wood " ; cf. Wicheves p. 43. 

Ridley (Wood) : Ridelegebroc 1218-40 CO, Ridlegesich 1227 LF IV., Rydeley 1322 
LI. Searle gives a pers. name Rida (in Ridanfald), which may be the first el. ; 
or it may be rydd p. pple of ryddan " to clear " (cf. ridding p. 16). Note, how- 
ever, the name High Rid Farm in Horwich, which seems to point to an un- 
recorded noun rid with some topographical meaning. 

Wilders Moor (moorland in the N.), Wilderswood (near Horwich) : Wilderhirst 
1322 LI. Wilder is O.E. wilder " wild beast, deer." 

8. Halliwell (N.W. of and partly a suburb of Bolton) : Haliwalle c 1200, etc. 
CO, Haliwell 1246 LAR, Haliwall 1292 PW, Haliwelle 1332 LS. Halliwell 
stands near a brook, called Haliwellebroc c 1200 CO. The name means " the 
holy well." A holy well in Halliwell is in the old Ordnance map (Prof. Tait). 
Smithills (the N. part ; Smithills Moor reaches 1,475ft.) : Smythel, Smythell 
(Snitell) 1322 LI, Smythehill 1505 LF, Smethehill, Smethehylls 1506 DL. The 
first el. is apparently O.E. smepe " smooth." 

Egburden : Egbedene, Egburdene 1322 LI, Egburden 1517 DL. First el. perhaps 
O.E. Ecgbeorht or Ecgburh pers. n. 



This parish occupies the N.W. part of the hundred. The N. part to a great 
extent consists of moorland. In the S. part, in the valleys of the Croal and 
the Tongue, the surface is lower. There are two detached parts, Blackrod and 
Lostock, separated from the body of the parish by parts of Deane par. 

1. Lostock (W. of Bolton town, in the valley of the Croal) : Lostok 1205, 1288 
LF, 1332 LS, etc., Lostoc 1212 LI, c 1220 CO, etc., Lostoke 1451 CO. Cf. the 
same name p. 39. 

Chew Moor : Chow More 16 cent. VHL V. 295. Cf. Chew p. 71. 

2. Blackrod (W. of Lostock and Bolton ; v. and church) : Blakerode 1201 fi. 
LPR, 1212 LI, 1278 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Blacrode 1226 LI, Blakerod 1278 LAR, 
Blakrode 1414 LF. " Black clearing " ; on O.E. rod " clearing," see p. 16. The 
vil. is on a hill of over 500ft. On the slope of the hill is Chauntry Brow (h.) ; Brow 
is brow " a slope, an acclivity." Blackrod ch. was originally a chapel (or chantry). 
Arley (on the Douglas) : Erelegh 1283 VHL V. 302, de Erlegh 1332 LS, Erley 
1394 TI. The name is apparently identical with Arley, Warw. (Arlei DB), 
Earley, Berks. ( : Erlei DB, Erie 1316 FA). Skeat suggests for Earley (Berks.) 
a first el. Earn-, but it is improbable that n should have been lost so early in 
all these names. Also the common occurrence of the combination of Ere- with 
-ley is noteworthy. Ere- may be a derivative (with a suffix -mi) of O.E. erian 
" to plough " ; cf. M.E. yere time " time of ploughing," O.E. eteland " pasture 
land " ( : ettan), ciepestow " market-place " ( iclepan), 

Huyton or Highton. It is not quite clear if the Huyton family in Blackrod is 
a local one or a branch of that of Huyton in De. The name is exemplified in 
VHL V. 301 from 1497. Huyton stands on the Douglas, which suits derivation 
of the name from O.E. hyp-tun (hyp " landing-place"). 

3. Bolton, Great and Little (townships with Bolton-le-Moors town) : Boelton 
1185 LPR, Bothelton 1212 LI (Li. Bolton), Botelton 1257 LI, Magna Boulton 
1285 LAR, Boulton 1288 LI, 1332 LS, etc., Bolton on the Mores 1331 LF, Great 
Boulton on the Moors 1332 LF, Bolton in the More 1577 Harr., [Boutn] Hargreaves. 
O.E. Bopltun ; cf. p. 8. 

4. Tonge-with-Haulgh (between Bolton and Bradshaw Brook). 

Tonge (v.) : Tange 1212 LI, Twannge 1212 RB, Tonge 1226 LI, 1323 LI, long, 
Toung 1285 LAR, de Thonge 1332 LS. It is not always easy to keep the forms 
of Tonge in Bolton and Tonge in Prestwich apart. Tonge is in a tongue of land 
between the Bradshaw and Tonge brooks. The name is the word twang " fork 
of a river," discussed p. 18. 

Haulgh (between the Croal and the Tonge) : del Halgh 1332 LF, 1417 CR, 
Halgh 1421 TI, Haughe, Tonge Halgh 1556 DL. O.E. halh " haugh." 

5. Little Lever, Darcy Lever (townships S.E. of Bolton, E. of the Croal and the 
Irwell). Great Lever is a detached township of Middleton par. situated W. of 
the Croal. The three obviously once formed a whole. 1 It is difficult to dis- 
tinguish the early forms of the names, which are therefore dealt with together 
here : Parva Lefre 1212 BF, Little Lethre 1221 LI (1. 130), Leoure 1227 LF, Lever, 
Leure 1246 LAR, Little Levere 1331 LF, Parva Lever 1341 IN ; Magna Leure 

1 Great Lever was in Bolton par. as late as 1627 ; cf. Deane E, p. 16. 


1285 LAR, Great Leure 1326 LF, Leuermore, Leuerlesse 1577 Harr., Darcye Lever 
1590 Bolton R. The name may be the plur. of O.E. Icefer (leber) f. glossed 
" scirpea, gladiolus," Mn.E. levers, lavers " Iris Pseudacorus." The supposition 
is necessary that O.E. Icefer had a long vowel (Icefer, lefer) ; Mn.E. levers bears 
out this assumption. This derivation would suit the situation of the townships ; 
no doubt flags and other water-plants grew on the banks of the Irwell and Croal. 
Or Lever may be an old river-name ; in that case perhaps originally that of the 
Croal. Of. O.E. Icefer (Icefre) name of a river in Wilts. 949 BCS 879, and Lear- 
mouth, Nhb. (Levermuth 1346 FA), Leber Alsace (Forstemann). The river-name 
may be British or a derivative of O.E. Icefer " flag." 

Burnden (in Gr. Lever, on the Croal) : de Bornden (Burnderi) 1285 LAR, Burne- 
deyn 1547 DL. O.E. burna " brook " and denu " valley." 
Hacking or Hacken (in Li. Lever, in a bend of the Croal) : de la Hackyng 1278 
LF, Hackinge 1591 Bolton R. Possibly the estate was named from a branch 
of the family resident at Hacking in Billington (BL). The etymology will be 
discussed p. 71. 

6. Breightmet (E. of the Tonge and Bolton) : de Brihtsmete (Brithemet) 1246 
LAR, Brigdtmed 1257 LAR, Brihtmede 1257 LF, Brightmete 1312 LI, Breghtmete, 
-mede 13231 LI. " Bright (i.e., beautiful) meadow," O.E. beorht " bright " and 
meed, med " meadow." On -t for final -d see p. 21. 

Oakenbottom (on Bradshaw Brook) : ? de Akinbothun 1246 LAR, Okynbothu 
in Breghtmeyt 1486 RS XXX. Second el. O.E. *bopm " bottom, valley." 

7. Harwood (N.E. of Bolton. E. of Bradshaw Brook) : Harewode 1212 LI, 
1241, 1292 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Harwude 1227 LF, Harwode 1327 LS. The same 
name is found in Bl. and in Devon ; cf. Harewood, Yks. (Harawuda 10 cent., 
Hareuuode DB ; cf . Moorman), Horwood, Bucks. The most probable meaning 
is " grey (or old) wood," O.E. hdr " grey ; old " and wudu. But in some cases 
the first el. may be O.E. hara " hare." 

8. Bradshaw (N.E. of Bolton, N. of Harwood ; v.) : de Bradeshawe, -shagh[e] 
1246 LAR, Bradeshagh 1312, 1324 LF, de Bradeshagh 1332 LS, Bradsha (stream) 
1577 Harr. " Broad_(*.e., extensive) wood " ; O.E. brad " broad " is used 
with such words as see, rice, etc. 

9. Quarlton (N.E. of Bolton, N. of Bradshaw, h.) : de Querendon 1246 LAR, 
Querdon 1304 ChR, Quordone 1309 LF, de Quernedon, de Querndoun 1332 LS, 
Quarnton, Quarton 1587 Bolton R. Quarlton is on the slope of a considerable 
hill. The name was obviously originally a hill-name ; second el. O.E. dun 
" hill." The first is O.E. cweorn. The name may mean " windmill (or 
water- mill) hill " ; cweorn, to judge by such names as cwyrnburna, cweornwella 
(Middendorff), must at least have been used of water-mills. Sephton suggests 
the meaning " a hill producing mill-stones." O.E. cweorn is not evidenced in 
the sense " mill-stone," but O.N. kvern is. The same name is found in Leic. 
(Quordon: Querndon 1402 FA, etc.), Bucks. (Quarrendon: Querndone 1286 
FA), Derby (Quarndon : Querndon 1275, Walker). Cf. also Whernside, Yks. 
( : Querneside c 1200 AP), and see Quernmore, Lo. The second alternative is, 
to some extent, supported by the name W hernstonescliff (Rivington, Sa.) VHL V. 
291, which means " millstone cliff." Mines of mill-stones are mentioned in 
Horwich (Sa.) 1322 LI (II. p. 59).f 


Wickenlow (in the N.) : de Quicken(s)lawe 1246 LAR, de Quykenlowe 1284 LAR, 
Quykenlawe 1324 LI. The first el. is probably M.E. quiken (a 1387) " the 
mountain ash ; the service tree ; the juniper." The word is still used in Lane, 
in the sense " mountain ash." Second el. O.E. hldw " hill." Wickenlow Hill 
reaches 800ft. 

10. Edgeworth (N. of Bolton between Bradshaw and Quarlton brooks, v.) : 
Eggewrthe 1212 LI, Egewrthe 1212 RB, Eggeworth 1276 LAR, 1327, 1332 LS, 
Egworth 1505 LF. Edgeworth is at the foot of Edgeworth Moor, where an 
elevation of 1,250ft. is reached. The first el. of the name may be O.E. ecg 
" edge," here used in the sense " ridge of a hill ; a steep hill or hillside " (cf. 
EDD). In the neighbouring Entwisle township are Edge, Edgefold, Edgefoot. 
Another possibility is O.E. Eccjan worp. On worp see p. 20. 

11. Entwisle (N. of Bolton, W.' of Edgeworth, h.) : Hennetwisel 1212 LI, En(n)e- 
tivysel, de Hennetwysel, Ennutwesille, Emmetwesille 1276 IM, de Entletwisil 1297 
LI, de Entwissell 1311 LI, Entwysel 1341 IN. The S. part of Entwisle is a tongue 
of land between Edgeworth Brook and a tributary brook. The second el. of 
the name is O.E. twisla " fork of a river," the first being probably O.E. Enna 
pers. n. 

Wayoh Fold (h. on a spur of hill near Edgeworth brook) : Wao 1546, 1551 LF, 
Weoh 1650 Bolton R. The second el. may be O.E. hoh " spur of hill," the 
first being possibly O.E. weg " way." 

Wheatshaw Croft : de Weteshagh 1246 LAR (71), (R.) Of-the-wetschawe 1285 
LAR. "Wetshaw." 

12. Turton (W. of Bradshaw brook, N. of Bolton) : Turton 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 
1332 LS.. etc., Torton, Turtun 1246 LAR, Thurton 1257 ChR, 1303 FA, Torton, 
Terton 1282 LI, Tureton 1577 Harr. The township embraces wide moorlands, 
Turton Heights (1,100ft.) and Turton Moor (1,280ft.). The first el. of the name 
is a pers. n.pur,por, orpuri, Thori (Scand. names, cf. Bjorkman), identical with 
that of Thurton, Norf. (Thurton HR, etc.). On T- for Th- see p. 22. 
Birtenshaw or Birkenshaw (h.) : de Byrkeneshawe (Byrkenhaw) 1277 LAR, 
de Byrcheneshaghe (Birchensagh) 1278 ib., de Birchynesagh 1292 LF. O.E. 
bircen " of birch " and scaga " shaw." As regards t for k cf. p. 22. 

Dimple (on a small brook ; h.) : Cf. p. 38. 

Egerton or Walmesley (v.) : Walmesley becke 1577 Harr. According to VHL V. 

278f. probably named from previous owners. 

13. Longworth (N.W. of Bolton, W. of Turton) : Langeworthe c 1210 CC, de 
Langewurth (Lungewurth) 1246 LAR, de Longeworthe 1254 LI, Lungewrthe 1276 
LAR, Longeworth 1309 LF. O.E. lang " long " and worp. The forms with u 
reflect a sound-change o > u before ng, common in Lane, dialects. 

14. Sharpies (a long, narrow strip stretching W. of Tonge Brook from Bolton 
to the Leyland boundary) : Charples 1212 LI, Scharples 1246 LAR, Sharpes, 
de Sharpies 1259 LAR, de Scharplis c 1250 CC, de Scarples 1254 LI, de Scharples 
1261 LI, de Sharpies 1332 LS. The ground slopes from some 1,275ft. in the 
N. or Higher End to some 350 in the S. Sharpies Hall is in the S. part, near 
Barley Brook. There is no village Sharpies. The name seems to be connected 
with sharp adj., perhaps in the sense " rough, rugged " (used of a road by Alfred, 
cf. sharp places Wiclif), or possibly " steep," a sense assumed by Middendorfl 


for compounds such as (on) scearpannesse 956 BCS 964 (Sharpness, Glo.), etc. 
Sharpenhoe, Beds. (Sharpenho 1286 FA), may contain this word. Sharpies is 
either an old compound (e.g., with O.E. Ices " meadow," or leas, pi. of leak), 
or a derivative of O.E. scearp, analogous to hwltel " cloak " ( : hwit), stlepel 
"steeple" ( : steap), pyrel "hole" ( : purh). O.E. *scerpel, *scearpol "peak" 
or " rough place " might have existed. 

Hordera (upper Sharpies) : Great, Little Hordern 1322 LI. O.E. hordern " store- 
house." The same name is Hardhorn, Am. (q.v.) and Hordron, Yks. (Horderon 
1323, etc.). 

Ravden (or Raveden) Clough (divides Halliwell from Sharpies) : Rapeden 
(stream), Rapeden Hey 1429 VHL V. 262, Rapheden Hey 1560 ib. The name 
exhibits an interesting change of p to b > v ; cf. Pavenham, Beds, (earlier 
Pabenham, Skeat). The etymology is obscure. It may be the first el. is O.N. 
hrapi " small shrubs on fells," Norw. rape the same, especially " dwarf birch." 
But Rape- may also be the name of the brook ; perhaps it may be derived from 
O.N. hrapa " to rush along," from which M.E. rape " to rush " seems to have 
been borrowed. Rape adj. (c 1400, etc.) seems to be a new formation from 
rapely adv. (< O.N. hrapaliga). Another Scand. name in the district is Folescalis 
1246 LAR, whose second el. is O.N. skali "hut." First el. perhaps O.N. foli 
" foal." 

15. Rivington (on the N. and W. slopes of Rivington Moor, on the border of 
Leyland hundred ; v.) : Rowinton, Rawinton, Revington 1202 LF, Ruhwinton 
1212 LI, Riuiton 1226 LI, Rouington 1227 LF (IV.), de Rouin[g]ton, Rowington, 
Ruynton, Ruwinton, de Rowinton 1246 LAR, Rowynton 1278 LAR, Rovinton 
1323 LT, Rovyngton 1324 LI, 1448 LF, Reuuiton 1325 LCR, Rouynton 1327 LS, 
Roynton 1332 LS, Reuynton 1338 HS XIJ. 225, Riven or Riventon'c 1540 Leland. 
The village stands at the foot of Rivington Moor. The first el. is the old name of 
that hill. See p. 28. The old form Roynton still occurs in Roynton Cottage. 
Gamelsley: de Gameleslegh 1332 LS. Gamel pers. n. is probably O.N. GamalL 

16. Anglezark (in the N.W. corner of Bolton par., N. of Rivington) : Ande- 
levesarewe 1202 LF, Anlauesargh 1224 LF, Anlawesaregh, Anlawesarwe (de 
Annelesherg) 1246 LAR, Anlaseharghe 1285 LAR, Anlasargh 1341 IN. " Anlaf's 
ergh (argh) or shieling " ; see p. 10. O.E. Anlafis derived from O.N. Oldfr, etc. 
(< *AnulaibaR). The greater part of the township is occupied by Anglezark 
Moor, which reaches 1 ,000ft. There is no village. 

Bullough : de Bolhal 1307 LI, de Bolehalgh 1325 LCR, de Bulhalgh 1332 LS, 
Bulloghes More 1551 DL. Parson's Bullough is on the Yarrow. The first el. 
is probably O.E. Bula pers. n. ; the second is O.E. halh " haugh." 


E. of Bolton, on the N. bank of the Irwell. 

Radcliffe (town) : Radeclive DB, 1200ff. LPR, 1202 LF, etc., Radecliva 1194 
LPR, Radecliue 1226 LI, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, Radedyue 1246 LAR, Radcliffe 
1500 LF, Ratcliffe 1577 Harr. ; Redeclifc 1200 Ch (orig.). " The red cliff." The place 
is said to take its name from a cliff of red sandstone on the side of the Irwell 
(VHL V. 56). 



This parish consists of two distinct parts. Prestwich proper is a district 
N. of Manchester, separated from Eccles by the Irwell. The greater part of the 
E. portion (the district round Oldham) is partly independent, and is called 
Oldham chapelry. 


The surface is undulating. Altitudes of c 350ft. are reached. 

1. Pilkington (in the W., on the Irwell and the Roch) : Pulkinton 1202f. LPR, 
1202 LF, Pilkenton 1204 LPR, 1277 LAR, etc., Pilketon 1206 LPR, pilkiton 
c 1200 Ch, Pilkinton 1212 LI, 1226 LI, 1277 LAR, de Pilkington 1246 LAR, 
Pynkelton 1277 LAR, Pylkington ib., de Pilkington 1299 AP, Pilkynton 1312 LF, 
1332 LS, Pilkyngton 1311 IPM, Pilketon c 1540 Leland. Pilkington Hall stands 
S. of the Irwell, on level ground. The first el. of the name may be a patronymic 
in -ing, formed from an O.E. Pileca or Piloc, a derivative of Pil- in Pilheard, 
etc. (cf. Pilsworth, p. 54), and perhaps found in Pilton (Nhp.) : Pilketon 1346, 
Pylketon 1428 FA. The early form Pulkinton, which apparently points to 
O.E. Pyl-, may have been misread for Pilkinton ; moreover, between p and I an i 
may have become rounded occasionally. Cf. Fulking 1229 C1R for Filkins, 
Oxf., a derivative of O.E. Filica (Alexander). 

Prestolee (on the Irwell) : Prestawe alias Prestall Lee 1618 DL. Named after 

Prestall in Farn worth on the other side of the Irwell (p. 43). 

Rhodes : del Rodes 1332 LS. " The clearings." O.E. rod, p. 16. 

Unsworth (the E. part ; v.) : Hundeswrth 1291 ChR, 1292 PW, Undesworth 

1322 LI, 1522 DL. Cf. Hunsley, Yks. (: Hundesleie 1109-28 YCh 966), Hunsworth, 

Yks. ( : Hundesworth 1285, etc., Goodall), Houndsfield, Wore. ( : Hundesfelde 

DB). The first el. can hardly be anything else than O.E. hund " hound," most 

probably used as a pers. n. O.E. Hund is not unequivocally evidenced ; a 

possible example is Hundes hlcew (Searle). The loss of H- is regular in Lane. 


Whitefield : Whitefeld 1292 PW. No doubt " the white field." 

2. Prestwich (N. of Manchester, on the Irwell; v.) : Prestwich 1194 LPR, 1226 
LI, 1327 LS, Prestwych 1212 LI, Prestwike 1212 RB, de Prestwych, -wyche, 
-wik 1246 LAR, Prestewyk 1277, 1278 LAR, Prestewych 1313 LF, -wich 1332 LS, 
Prestiche c 1500 DL, Prest(w]idge 1598 Middleton R. O.E. preostwlc " priest's 
dwelling, rectory," or " village where there was a priest." Cf. Prestwick 
Nhb. and Ayrshire. 

Rooden Lane (h. ; on a slight hill) : Roden 1340 M, Rodoun 1341 VHL V. 79. 
Possibly " rood hill," O.E. rod-dun ; cf. Lane. Ant. Soc. XXXVI. 91 ff. 

3. Great Heaton, or Over Heaton, or H. Reddish, Little Heaton, or H.-in-Fallow- 
field (townships N. of Manchester, on the Irk). Formerly one township, some- 
times called Heaton-upon-Fallowfield : Heton c 1200 CC, 1212 LI, 1292 PW, 
1292 LF, etc., Hetone 1212 RB ; Little Heton 1235 LF, Heiton 1226 LI, Baton 
1246 LAR, Heton near Faufeld 1327 LI, Heton super Faufeld 1404 TI, Heaton hill 
1577 Harr., Yetton 1872 Staton. O.E. heatun " the high town." Heaton is 
mostly on fairly high ground. Heaton House stands in a commanding situation. 


Fallowfield (said to be the old name of the district occupied by the Heatons, 
VHL V. 80) : deffaghfelde 1325 LCR, (Heaton supra) Faghfild 1523 DL. The 
first el. isfaw adj. (O.E. fag) " coloured, variegated," used especially of fields. 
Cf. c 1440 Gaw. and Galaron : Ferly fayr wes the feild, flekerit and faw (NED). 
The Heaton district is not really a plain ; perhaps Fallowfield was originally a 
part of the district, e.g., the land S.W. of Heaton House. 

4. Alkrington (E. of Heaton, S. of Middleton town) : Alkinton 1212 LI, Alkeryng- 
ton 1313 LF, Akrington 1322 LI, Ocrington 1608 Middleton R. Like Alkerton, 
Oxf. and Glo. (Alcrintone DB) obviously O.E. Alhheringa tun, Alhheringas 
being a patronymic derived from the O.E. pers. n. Alhhere (Ealhhere). The 
same change of h > k is seen in Alconbury, Hunts, and Alkmonton, Derby, 
containing O.E. Ealhmund. 

5. Tonge (N. of Alkrington, in a tongue of land between the Irk and Wince 
Brook, now a suburb of Middleton) : de Thoong 1246 LAR, Tong in Prestwhich 
1506 DL. See Tonge, p. 45. 


This part is hilly, especially in the E., where elevations of over 1,200ft. are 

6. Chadderton : Chaderton c 1200 WhC 48, 1224, 1270, 1276 LAR, 1303 FA, 
1332 LS, etc., Kaderton c 1250 CC,de Chathirtonl2S2 IPM, Chaterton 1224 Pat R, 
1292 PW, Chadreden 1311 LI, Chadirton, Chathirton 1322f. LI, Chadreton 1327 
LS. It might seem most plausible to derive the first el. from a pers. name con- 
nected with O.E. Ceadda. But the name Hanging Chadder in Thornham cannot 
be so explained, and it is reasonable to identify the first el. of Chadderton with 
that name. Chadder may be a Brit, name identical with Welsh coder " a hill 
fort " (=Ir. cathir), from earlier *cater (cognate with L. caterva). This etymology 
perhaps accounts for the variation between t and d in early forms. The same el. 
may enter into Catterton, Yks. (Cadretune DB, Cadartuna c 1140-8 YCh 539). 
Chadderton township is hilly ; elevations of 500ft. are reached at Chadderton 
Heights and elsewhere. 

Coldshaw : Canleschagh c 1200 WhC 48, Colesha 1577 VHL V. 121. Etymology 

doubtful. The first el. looks like O.E. cawol " cole." If so, it refers to wild cole. 

Foxdenton Farm (in the S.): Denton[a] 1222-68 CC, Denton 1224 ChR, 1224 

LAR, Foxdenton 1282 IPM, 1322 LI. " The tun in the dean " (O.E. denu). 

F. stands on a brook. 

Ogden : de OJceden 1332 LS. O.E. dc-denu " oak valley." 

Scowcroft (in the N.W.) : ? de Schalecroft 1246 LAR, de Scolecrofle 1332 LS, 

de Scokroft 1412 FC. Scole- is O.N. skdli " hut " ; cf. p. 16. 

7. Oldham (with Oldham town) : de Aldholm 1222-6 LI, de Aldhulm 1227 LAR, 
Aldholm (vill) 1246 LAR, Oldelum 1276 LAR, Oldum 1327 LS, 1347 LF, Oldom 
1332 LS, 1537 LF, etc., Owdam 1546 LF, Oldhm 1577 Saxton, Owdham Waugh. 
" The old holm " rather than " holm of Alda." On holm, hulm, see p. 13. 
The early loss of I before m is due to dissimilation. Oldham is in the old district 
of Kaskenmoor (see infra) ; it was no doubt originally a " holm " or piece of 
dry land in mossland. 


Kaskenmoor (comprised practically the present Oldham and Crompton town- 
ships) : Kaskinemor 1210f. LPR, Kaskenemore 1212 LI, Caskenemore 1212 RB, 
Haskesmores 1222-26 LI. Kasken- I take to be an adj. derived from O.E. 
cassuc, cassoc " hassock-grass, rushes, sedge or coarse grass " (B-T), practically 
identical in meaning with O.E. hassuc, found in hcessucmor, hassukes more 
(Middendorff). But it may also be the pers. n. Caschin DB, Kaskin (gen. -') 
1180-1200 YCh 1576, 1579. 

Oldham was anciently divided into Werneth, Glodwick, and 

Werneth (S.W. part ; the old manor is in the S.W. of Oldham town) : de Wornyth 
c 1200 WhC, Vernet 1222-6 LI, Wernit' TN, Wyrnith 1323 LI, Wernyth 1352 LF. 
This is no doubt a Brit, name, identical with Gaul. Vernetum (> Vernet, Vernois> 
etc., cf. Holder, who gives 91 examples), O.Bret. (Pen)uuernet (Loth 173), 
derived from *verno- " alder " (O.Bret, uuern " aulnes, marais "). The same 
name is no doubt Werneth, Ches. (Warnet DB). For final -th, cf. Penketh, 

Copster Hill : the Coppedhyrst 1422 HS LXXIV., Copthirst 1507 TI. First eL 
copped adj. " peaked." Hurst no doubt means " hill." There is a small hill 
close to the place. 

Hathershaw : Hasellenshagh 1427, Haslinshaw 1558 VHL V. 95, Haihersay 
(Hardshawe) More 1554 DL, Hasteshawe 1633 DL. " Hazel copse." The sound 
development is remarkable. 

Horsedge: Overhorssage 1559 DL, Horsedge 1600 RS XII. Really an earlier name 
of Oldham Edge, a ridge (800ft.) stretching into Oldham town. " Horse 
ridge"; edge is used in the sense " a sharp ridge," etc. The ridge may have 
been used as a pasture for horses. 

Glodwick (the S.E. part) : Glodic 1190-8 HS LXVII. 211, Glothic 1212 LI, 
de Glothiche 1246 LAR, Glodyke, Glothik 1323 LI, Glotheyk 1307, 1347 LF, Glothyk 
1347 LR ; Glodyght 1474 VHL V. 93, Glodethe, Glodyth 1540 DL, Glodight 1587 
DL, Glodith, Glodighte 1591 DL, Glodwicke 1633 DL; now [glodik]. Glodwick 
is in a fairly high situation ; at Glodwick Lows an elevation of 725ft. is 
reached. There are old quarries in the district. The place is near a Roman 

The variation in the early forms is most curious, and is perhaps best explained 
if we may assume that the name is not English. There is a Welsh place-name 
which at least looks rather like Glodwick, viz., Gloddaeth (Carnarvon) : Glodeyth 
1353 Rec.C. This name, I suppose, consists of Welsh clawdd " ditch ; fence, 
hedge " (early Bret, cloed, clod, cloz, Ir. clad) with lenition after certain preposi- 
tions, and aeth " furze." Glodd- would exactly correspond to Engl. Gloth- ; 
as regards Glod- we may compare the material adduced under Haydock, De. 
Welsh aeth goes back to earlier (*akto-). This would hardly have given E. -ight 
or -ic, but there may have been a derivative with ^-mutation : cf . the examples 
given under Ightenhill, Bl. The most difficult task is to explain the interchange 
of -ic (-ik) and (later) -ight, etc., in the forms of Glodwick. Glodight may be 
fairly easily derived from a Brit, name similar to Welsh Gloddaeth, but Glodik, 
Glothic are hard to account for. Sound-substitution may have taken place. 
Perhaps two forms, due to different substitution, have come down from early 


times. In favour of Brit, origin it may be pointed out that Werneth near 
Glodwick seems to have a Brit. name. 

However, the forms in -ight, etc., are late, and may perhaps be disregarded. 
If so, I am inclined to believe that the name is a hybrid, O.E. die " ditch " having 
been added to a Brit, name identical with Welsh clawdd " ditch," etc. The name 
might refer to a fosse by the Roman road. The O.E. base *Glod-dic might 
explain the interchange of d and th in the early forms. 

Sholver (the N. part) : Solhher 1202 LF, Shollerg, Sholleregh, Shollere, Chalwer 
(de Shollere, Sholuer, Shollers, Shalwer, Sholwer, Choller)' 1246 LAR, Sholver 
1278 LF, Sholgher 1291 ChR, de Swlher 13 cent. WhC 164, Scholmer, Sholler 
1323 LI, de Sholghre 1332 LS. The second el. of the name is clearly ergh (argh) 
" a shieling " (O.K. erg < O.Ir. airge, p. 10). The first el. is difficult. It may be 
O.E. sceolh adj. " oblique," possibly used as a pers. name. As O.E. Sceolh is 
not evidenced, whereas O.N. Skialgr is common, it is reasonable to suppose 
that Sholver is a refashioning of a Scand. name. The development of the 
guttural is remarkable ; apparently 3 > w > v. The place stands c 850 ft. 
above sea-level on a hill-slope. 

Beal Moor : Bellemor, Belemore 1323 LI. First el. Beal, the river-name. 
Polden or Paulden : ? de Paldene 1305 Lacy C, 1324 LI. First el. probably 
O.E. pal " pole." 

8. Crompton (N. of Oldham, on the Beal) : Crumpton 1246 LAR, Crompton 
1246 LAR, 1292 LF, 1327 LS, etc., Cromton c 1210 CC, 1332 LS. I suppose 
Crompton was named from the sharp bend formed by the Beal at the N. end of 
the township. It is true High Crompton h. is c 1m. S. of the bend, but the 
original vil. may have been further N. We may, then, compare Croome, Wore. 
( : Cromban, Cromman 969, Crumbe DB) according to Duignan named from a 
bend of the Severn ; an O.E. *crumbe " bend " (derived from crumb " crooked ") 
may be assumed for both names. Or the Beal may have had the name Crumbe 
in part of its course, owing to the bend alluded to. 

Birshaw : Burshou, Burshagh 1323 LI, Birchouer 1430 LI I. 65. Perhaps 

" birch shaw," but the early forms are not conclusive. 

Burnedge (on the slope of a hill and near Sudden Brook) : Brynege 1609 CW 

202. Earlier forms are needed. Cf. Burnage, p. 30. 

Cowlishaw : Colleshawe, Cowleshawe 1558 DL. First el. perhaps as in Collyhurst 

p. 35. 

Gartside or Garside (on the slope of a hill) : Garteside 13 cent. WhC 163 ff., 

de Garteside 1285 LAR, de Gartesside 1332 LS, de Garthside Whit. II. 448. Garth 

" enclosure," etc. (O.N. gardr) and O.E. side in the sense " hill-side " seem to 

be the elements of the name. 

Shaw (town) : Shaghe 1555 Ind II, Shay chap. 1577 Saxton, Shaie, Saye 

1580 DL, Shawe 1600 RS XII. O.E. scaga " shaw." For the form Shay cf. 

p. 21. 

9. Eoyton (N. of Oldham, town) : Ritton 1226 LI, Ryton 1260, 1369 LF, 1323 
LI, Riton 1269 LAR, Ruyton 1327, 1332 LS, Royton 1577 Harr. O.E. ryge-tun 
" rye town." Royton is in the Irk valley. 

Royley : de Rylegh 1325 LCR, 1332 LS (Ashton). " Rye lea." 
Thorpe (h.) : Thorp 1260 LF. O.Scand. porp " homestead ; village." 



This parish consists of several distinct parts. The chief part, with the church, 
is due W. of Oldham. A little to the N. are Ash worth and Birtle-with-Bamford. 
Further W., beyond Radcliffe, is Ainsworth, and still further off is Great Lever 
(see p. 45). 

1. Ainsworth (c 6m. N.W. of Middleton church, midway between Bury and 
Bolton, v.) : Haineswrthe c 1200 CC 733, de Aynesworth 1285 LAR, de Haynes- 
worth 1284 LAR, Aynesworth 1292 PW, de Aynesworth 1332 LS. The first el. 
seems to be a pet form of names such as dEgenbeald, -here, -wulf. On worth see 
p. 20. Ainsworth stands on high ground, over 500ft. above sea-level. 
Cockey Moor (the B. part) : Cokkaye Chapel (Moor) 1545 DL, Cockley chap. 
1577 Saxtou, Cockly iuxta Bury 1586 Camden, Cokhey 1613 Bury R. Cockey 
Moor must be an old name of the district, as the chapel, which is in the centre 
of the township, is said to be here. Probably O.E. cocc " cock, wild bird " 
(or possibly Cocca pers. n.) and hege " enclosure," etc. 

2. Middleton (N. of the Irk, town) : Middelton 1194 LPR, 1278 LF, 1332 LS, etc., 
Midelton 1212 LI, 1317 LF, etc., Middilton 1327 LS. " The middle tun," 
O.E. middel adj. and tun. 

Langley : de Longele 1246 LAR, de Langde ib., de Longelegh 1332 LS. Self- 

3. Thornham (N.E. of Middleton) : Thornham, Tornham 1246 LAR, O.E. 
porn " thornbush " and ham (or hamm " enclosure "). Sometimes called 
Thornton ; see VHL V. 173. 

Hanging Chadder : Hingrandchadir 1347 LF (II. 97), de Henyandechadre 1324 
LCR, 1332 LS. Hanging means " steep," cf. Hanging Heaton, Yks. ( : Hingande 
Heton 1266, etc., Goodall), Hengandehill Percy C 154, le Hengendebank 13 cent. 
WhC 42. On Chadder see p. 50. The place is at an altitude of 700ft. Chadder- 
ton and Hanging Chadder, though in different parishes, are not far apart. 
Hanging Chadder is now in Royton, a township adjoining Chadderton. 
Stakehill : Stakehull 1246 LAR, Stdkil 1291 Ind II, de Stakil 1322 LI, de 
Stakehill 1332 LS, Stakehil 1342 LF (II. 97). Stakehill is on a hill. The first 
el. of the name is no doubt O.E. staca " a stake," perhaps used of a boundary 

4. Hopwood (N. of Middleton) : de Hopwode 1278 LAR, de Hopewode 1285 LAR, 
de Hoppewode 1299 LI, Hoppewoode 1322 LI. Cf. Hopwood, Wore. : Hopwuda 
848, 934 (Duignan). Hopwood Hall stands in a little wooded valley (Hopwood 
Clough), through which runs a brook. The name means " the wood in the 
valley," O.E. hop (cf. p. 13) and wudu. 

Gooden : de Gulden, -e 1282 LF, de Gulden 1324 LCR. The first el. is, in my 
opinion, gool " a small stream, a ditch ; a sluice " (1552, etc., NED), probably 
identical with gole a 1400 Morte Arthure 3725. This word is found in dialects 
meaning " whirlpool, ditch " etc., and a side-form gull means " fissure, chasm ; 
a watercourse," etc. (EDD). The word is usually derived from O.F. goule, gole 
" throat." In my opinion it is native and belongs to Swed. got " pond," Norw. 
(di'dl)gyl "chasm, ravine," M.H.G. guile "pool" (< *gulja-), M.L.G. gole "marsh" 
(cf. Noreen, Svenska etymologier p. 35 f.), L.G., E. Fris. gole, gdl " hole, pool," 


M.Du. guile " palus, volutabrum, vorago, gurges " (Doornkaat Koolman). 

Also the Continental words mentioned have been derived from a Romance 

source (Lat. gula), but this seems very improbable in view of their senses and 

the fact that they occur in place-names (cf. Gulia river-name, etc.,F6rstemann). 

Gool seems to occur as a place-name in Goole, Yks. (Gowle 1553, Goodall) and 

Goole, Line. 

Siddal (apparently on Whittle Brook) : Sydall 1548 LF, Sided 1611 CW 111. 

O.B. sU " wide " and halh " haugh." 

Stanicliffe : de Staniclive 13 cent. VHL V. 173, Stanidiffe 1611 Middleton R. 


5. Pilsworth (S.E. of Bury) : Pylesworth 1243, Pilliswrthe c 1270 VHL V. 169, 
de Pillesworth c 1370 OR 348, de Pyllysworthe 1548 Bardsley, Pillsworth 1590 
CW 14. The first el. seems to be an O.E. pers. n. Pil, apparently a pet form of 
Pilheard, etc. ; cf. Pilkington. 

6. Birtle-with-Bamford (N. of Middleton, N.E. of Bury). 

Birtle (h.) : de BirJcel 1246 LAR, de Birkil 1324 LCR, BirJeehill 1347 LF (II. 97), 

Birtle 1609 Middleton R. " Birch hill " ; first el. O.E. birce. The absence 

of palatalization may be due to influence from O.E. beorc " birch." Birtle 

stands on a hill of 925ft. 

Bamford : Baunford 1282 LF, de Bamford 1322 LI, de Baunford 1324 LCR. 

First el. no doubt O.E. beam " tree, beam " ; cf. O.E. beamford 882 BCS 

550. There may have been a beam to assist wayfarers in crossing the ford or 

to mark its place ; cf. stapolford, wuduford (Middendorff). Bamford Hall is 

near the Roch. 

Gristlehurst (on a hill in a sharp bend of the Roch) : Gristelyhyrst 1336 VHL 

V. 175, Gristelhurst 1407 TI, de Gristleyhurst 1408 DD, Gristylhurst 1549 LP 

III. 55, Grystlehurst 1562 DL, Grisehirst 1577 Harr., Gryselhurst 1577 Saxton. 

Possibly the first el. is a derivative of O.E. gristle " gristle " in some transferred 


Kershaw Bridge (on Cheesden Brook) : de Kirkeshagh 1324 LCR, 1332 LS. 

" Church shaw." 

Sillinghurst (near Birtle) : ? de Salinghurst 1246 LAR, Sillinhurste 1589 DL, 

Sillinhurst 1611 Bury R. Etymology obscure. 

Smethurst : de Smethehirst 1324 LCR." " Smooth hurst." i.e., no doubt, " hill." 

7. Ashworth (N. of Birtle-w.-Bamford) : Assewrthe 1236 LF, de Esworde c 1200 
CC, Asheworth 1347 LF (II. 97), Ash'orth Waugh. O.E. cesc " ash " and worp 
" enclosure/' etc. 


Recedham DB, Rachetham a 1193 Whit. II. 412, Rachitham 12 cent. Ind II, 
Rachedham a 1193, etc., WhC, 1292 PW, Rechedham 1195-1211 Ind II, Roche- 
dam 1296 Lacy C, Racheham 13 cent. WhC; RachedaV 1190-8 HS LXVII. 210, 
Rachedale 1242 LI, 1322 LI, etc., Raehedal 1246 LAR, 1341 IN, Rechedale 
1276 AP, Rochedale 1246 LAR, 1292 PW, Rachdall 1598 Middleton R ; [rat/da, 
rat/it] Ellis V. 322, Ratchda 1865 Staton. 

The name is used of the parish, lordship, and town of Rochdale. Its etymo- 
logy is closely bound up with that of the river-name Roch. Rochdale is no doubt 


" the valley of the Roch " ; the river flows through the parish, and on it stands 
Rochdale town. If the early form of the river-name was Racked, Rachedham 
may be explained as " the Mm on the Rached." In this case Racked would 
probably have to be explained as a Celtic name. I am inclined to believe, 
however, that Rachedham is an altogether English name. Rached- (DB Reced-) 
corresponds exactly to O.E. rceced, a side-form of reced " house, hall, palace " 
(<C *rakid-). The word is used in O.E. only in poetry, but must, of course, once 
have been an everyday word. *Rcecedham I explain as " the village by (or with) 
the hall." When O.E. rceced went out of use Rached- was supposed to be the 
name of the river on which the place stands, and the river-name Rached arose. 
The valley of the Roch now began to be called Rached-dale (whence Rackedale), 
Rachedham being used particularly of the village and church. Finally Rachedale 
supplanted Rachedham altogether, and a new back-formation Roche " the Roch " 
took the place of Rached. 

Rochdale parish forms the N.E. part of Salford hundred. Except in the 
valley of the Roch the surface is hilly, especially in the N. and E., where there 
are large moorland districts. There are numerous rivers and streams, in the 
deep valleys of which villages and homesteads are situated. 
1. Castleton (the S.W. part, on the Roch ; v. ; Rochdale town is here) : Castelton 
1246 LAR, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Castleton 1311 LI ; Villa Castelli de Rachekam 
13 cent. WhC 599. Said to be named from a castle on the Roch near the church ; 
Castleton vil. stands a good way further south. The name means literally 
" castle town." E. castle (< O.F. castel) is evidenced from c 1075. It does not 
seem probable that the first el. is O.E. castel " village " (< Lat. castellum). The 
name Castleton is also found in Derbyshire. 

Balderstone (S. of Rochdale, on a small tributary of the Roch) : de Baldreston 
1323 LCR, Balderston 1556 LF. First el. O.E. Baldhere pers. n. 
Brimrod : Bromyrode 13 cent. WhC 607 ff., Brymerood 1582 DL. f " Broomy 
clearing." Cf. Brimmicroft, p. 132. 

Buersill : Berdeshull 1292 PW, de Berdeshille 1296 Lacy C, de Berdeshull 1305 ib., 
1361 LF, de Birdishill (Birdeshille) 1324 LCR, de Birdeshull 1332 LS, Burdssell 
More 1543 LF, Netherburdsell 1554 LF. Here perhaps belong : de Burdeshull 
1218 LAR, de Brideshull 1228 ib. Buersill stands at the foot of a hill (600ft.). 
The variation in the early forms renders the name difficult to explain. Perhaps 
the first el. is O.E. Brid, pers. n. ; cf. Birtwisle in Bl. 

Hartley : de Hertelegh 1323 LCR, de Hertilegh 1324 ib. First el. O.E. heorot 
" hart." 

Marland (old manor) : Merlande c 1200 Ind I, Merland 13 cent. WhC 590, de 
Merlond 1323 LI. This is probably O.E. Mereland from mere " mere " ; there 
is a small lake near Marland. Cf. Mereside Farm N. of Marland. But the name 
may also contain O.E. gemcere " boundary." Marland is on the border of Bury. 
Newbold : de Neubolt c 1200 WhC 596, Newbold c 1300 WhC 161, de Neubold 
1322 LI, de Neubald 1324 LCR. On O.E. bold " dwelling," etc., see p. 8. 
Sudden (S.W. of Rochdale) : Sothden 13 cent. WhC 606, Sudden 13 cent. WhC 
597. Sudden stands near Sudden Brook, called aqua de Sothden, Suthden 
13 cent. WhC 602, 607. " South dene." 
2. Butterworth (E. of Rochdale, adjoining Yorkshire) : Buterwrth 1235 LF, 


Butter-, Buterwurth 1246 LAR, Butterworth 1278, 1285 LAR, 1332 LS, Boter- 

worth 1310 LF, Boterworth 1439, 1441 LF. " Butter worth " (O.E. butere and 

worp " homestead," etc.), i.e., " the dairy farm." Butterworth is also found 

in W. Yorks. ; cf. Butterwick, Chiswick (< O.E. cesewlc), etc. 

Belfield : de Belefeld 1310 LF, 1311 WhC 629, 1324 LCR. The place is near 

the Beal ; the name means " the field by the Beal." 

Clegg : Clegg c 1200 Whit. II. 413, de Cleg 1285 LAR, de Clege (Kleg) 1246 LAR, 

de Clegge 1369 LF, Clegge 1577 Harr., 1577 Saxton. Clegg Hall stands at the 

foot of Owl Hill (575ft.) ; Clegg Moor reaches 1,400ft. The word cleg is found 

also in Waterfalclegges 1246 LAR. Cf. Cleggcliffe, Yks. ( : Clegclyve 1275 

Groodall). There is an O.N. word kleggi " haystack," which may have meant 

also " a hill, hillock," and be the source of the name. Cleggswood (Cleggiswod 

1549 LP III. 58) is near Clegg. Cleggswood Hill reaches 650ft. 

Haugh (on the Beal) : de le Hakht Whit. II. 448, the Halghe 1549 LP III. 55. 

O.E. halh " haugh." 

Hollingworth : Holyenworth 1278 LF, Hollinworth 1582 DL. O.E. hole(g)n 

" holly " and worp " enclosure," etc. 

Milnrow (on the Beal ; v.) : Mylnerowe 1554 DL, Mylneraw 1577 Saxton. 

" Mill row " ; row (raw] means " a row of houses, a street." An earlier name is 

Milnehouses 13 cent. WhC, Milnehus 1292 PW. 

Ogden : de Akeden 1246 LAR, de Aggeden ib., de Okedene 1324 LCR. Probably 

" Oak valley." 

Roughbank : Roughbank 1596 CW 38. " Rough hill." Cf. bank, p. 7. 

Scholefleld, or Schofield : de Scholfele 1212 LI, de Scolefeld 1374 LF, Scolfeld 

1582 DL. O.N. skdli " hut " &nd field. 

Turnagh or Turner : de Turnhagh 1274 WhC 606, de Turnehagh, de Tornhagh 

13 cent. WhC 158, 665, de Turnaghe 1299 LF, de Turnagh 1332 LS. The second 

el. is O.E. haga " enclosure." The first el. is found in a number of Lane, names, 

e.g., Turnebuttes (Stainall, Am.) CC 123, Turnebuthsike (Hutton, Le.) ib. 394, 

Turnecroft (Wrightington, Le.) ib. 503, Turneholm (Caton, Lo.) ib. 868. All 

these cannot well contain O.E. pyrne " thorn bush " with t instead of th. The 

only known Engl. word that it seems possible to think of is turn sb. in the sense 

" bend, curve of a road," etc. But this does not seem quite satisfactory. 

If Turn- goes back to Trun- it may be the adj. *trun "round" suggested under 

Trunnah, Am. Turnagh is no doubt identical with Turnough on the 6-inch 

map ; this stands near Turnough Hill (650ft.). 

3. Hundersfield (N. of Castleton and Butterworth ; Honresfeld is a small place 

E. of Littleborough) : Hunnordesfeld 1202 LF, Hunewrthefeld 1235 LF, Hone- 

worthesfeld, Hunwurthefield, de Hunneswurthefeld, Humfridesfeld 1246 LAR, 

de Hundredefeld 13 cent, WhC 732, Hunnresfeld 1311 LI, Hunresfeld 1332 LS, 

Honeresfeld 1361 LF, HunersfeU 1369 Ind II, Hundersfeld 1509 LF. " The 

(town-)field of Hunworth." Hun worth is a lost place-name compounded of 

O.E. Huna pers. n. and worp " enclosure," etc. The form Humfridesfeld 1246 

is apparently due to association with the O.E. pers. n. Hunfrith. This old 

township was divided into four townships : 

(a) Wardleworth (the S.W. part, N. of Rochdale) : Wordelword c 1200 WhC, 

de Werleworth 1246 LAR, Wordeword 13 cent. WhC. Wardleworth is situated 


near Wuerdle. The name seems to mean " the ' worth ' by or belonging to 


Buckley : de Bukele 1246 LAR, 1323 LCR, de Bukkelegh 1332 LS. O.E. bucca 

" buck " (less probably Bucca pers. n.) and leak. 

Foxholes : del foxholes 1325 LCR. " Foxes' burrows." 

(b) Wuerdle and Wardle (N. of Wardleworth). 

Wuerdle (N.E. of Rochdale) : de Werdull c 1180 WhC 728, Wordehull, parua 
Wordehull, Werdel 13 cent. WhC 156, 625, Wordehull 1292 PW, de Wordehull 
1285 LAR, de Wordhille 1296 Lacy C, de Wordhull 1299 LF, 1332 LS, de Word(e)- 
hill (Wirdehill, Werdhill) 1324f. LCR; now [wu'dl]. Wuerdle stands near 
Birch Hill (793ft.). Perhaps the first el. of the name is O.E. weorod " troop, 
host," M.E. weord, werd, word, wird. Close to Wuerdle is Wardle, which 
obviously means " lookout hill." Wuerdle may have been the hill where the 
host was stationed or assembled. 

Wardle (N. of Rochdale ; v.) : de Wardhul a 1193 Whit. II. 412, Wardhil 1190-8 
HS LXVII. 210, de Wardhill 1218, 1221 LAR, de Warthull 1246 LAR, parua 
Wardhull 13 cent. WhC 783, Wardhull 1329 ib. 262 ; now [wa'dl, wcrdl]. The 
name means " ward-hill, lookout hill," and referred originally to Brown Wardle 
Hill 1 (1,300ft.) to the N.W. ( : Brown Wardle 1580 DL). 

Dearnley : de Dernylegh 1324 LCR, Derneyley 1581 DL. " The hidden, solitary 
lea." O.E. derne, M.E. dern " hidden," etc. 

Hades : hades 1600 RS XII ; now [e'dz]. No doubt O.E. heafdu " heads," 
i.e., "hills." Hades is on the slope of Middle Hill (1,300ft.), while Higher 
and Lower Hades are on Hades Hill (1,400ft.). 

Hamer : Earner 1572, 1597 CW 80, Haimer 1631 RS XII. The name is identical 
with O.N. hamarr " steep rock, cliff," O.H.G. hamar in place-names (Forstemann). 
There is no reason to doubt that O.E. hamor had also the sense " a rock, cliff." 
Hamer stands N.E. of Rochdale, near a hill. Cf. Hamer Hill in Whitworth 

Howarth or Haworth (Great and Little) : de Haword, de Howord c 1200 Whit. 
II. 412f., de Hawurth 1246 LAR, Haword 13 cent. WhC 156f., de Houworth, 
de Ha(u}worth 1324 ff. LCR. I am inclined to believe that here belong : Hawerld- 
word ? c 1200 WhC 125, Halwerdewerd, -word 13 cent. ib. 155. In that case the 
name must have been considerably shortened by haplology. The first el. would 
seem to be a pers. n., e.g., O.E. Hcehward 996 CD 695, or the O.N. pers. n. 
Hallvardr (Halwcerth c 1023 Searle). If we have to start from the early forms 
Ha-, Howord, the first el. may be O.E. hoh, and aw may be due to the change 
ou > au p. 21. On worth see p. 20. 

(c) Blatchinworth and Calderbrook 2 (E. of Wuerdle and Wardle). 
Blatchinworth : Blackenworthe 1276 LAR. The material hardly allows of a 
definite etymology. The first el. would seem to be O.E. Blcecca pers. n. ; cf. 
Blatchington, Suss. ( : Bechingetone DB, etc.), Bletchley, Bucks. (Blechele 

1 Wardle vil. is at some distance from Brown Wardle, but in Yates's map 1786 the present 
Wardle is called Little Wardle, while Wardle is considerably further N., near Brown Wardle. 
The latter place is High Wardle O.M. 1846-51. 

2 Of Calderbrook, name of a vil. on the Roch, no early forms have been found. A place 
S.W. of it, not far from the Roch, is called Caldermoor. ' 


1316 FA), etc. But preservation of the -n of the ending -an in n-stems is rare 
in Lancashire, and Blceccinga worp seems improbable. Perhaps Blatchen- 
represents some O.E. common noun derived from blcec "black," or an O.E. 
*Ucecen " bleaching " derived from Ucecan vb. Of. Blachinefeld 1342 SO. 
Lightollers : de Lightholevers 1246 LAR, de Lightolres 13 cent. WhC, 1322 LI, 
de Ligh(t)alleres 1323 LCR, de Lighteholrs, Leghtolrs, Lightolrs 1325 LCR. "Light 
alders " (O.E. air " alder "). On the form oiler see p. 21. As regards Light- 
holevers cf. Wycoller, Bl. 

Littleborough (v. ; on the Roch) : Littlebrough 1577 Harr., Lyttlebrugh 1577 
Saxton. Second el. apparently O.E. burh, but its meaning is obscure. A chapel 
was built here in the 15th century.f 

Shore : del (dil) Shore 1324 LCR, 1332 LS, 1374 LF. Shore stands N.W. of Little- 
borough on the slope of the steep spur of hill called East Hill at c 700ft. elevation. 
The name is clearly identical with dial, shore " a steep rock " Sc. (EDD), which 
is related to O.E. scorian " to project " (of stones from a cliff). The same 
meaning is no doubt to be attributed to other Shores, as Shore Head (960ft.) 
E. of Whitworth (le Schore WhC 688), Shore near Cornholme (Yks.). Cf. Schor 
WhC 777 in the boundary of Whalley par., Sheremore 1580 DL. 
Sladen (by Lydgate Clough) : de Slaneden (!) 1246 LAR, de Slaueden 13 cent. 
WhC 665, 1332 LS, de Slauedene 1324 LCR. Cf. Slaley, Nhb. : Slaveleye Percy 
C 284 ; also Slauilache (Abram) CC 665. I suppose the first el. is a lost O.E. 
word meaning " mud " or the like and connected with slaver " saliva," slaver 
vb., O.N. slafra " to slaver," E. slab " muddy place, puddle," Icel. slevja sb. 
" slaver," etc. The stem is *slab- ; cf. Dan. dial, slaf " mud." 
Stansfield (near Calderbrook) : de Stanesfeld 1246 LAR. de Stanisfeld 1311 LI. 
Possibly " stone field," though the regular genitive -s is against such an 

Windy Bank : de Wyndibonk c 1300 WhC 692, del WyndybonJc, del Wyndibonck 
1324f. LCR. The place stands near Littleborough on the slope of a hill (750ft.). 
Bank means " hill." 

(d) Todmorden and Walsden (the N. part, now in Yks.). 

Todmorden (town) : Tottemerden, de Totmardene 1246 LAR, Todmarden c 1300 
WhC 625, Todmereden 1298 (Goodall), Todmerden 1546 LF. The town stands 
in the valley of the Calder on the old boundary between Yks. and Lane. W. of 
Todmorden is Todmorden Moor (1,302ft.). The etymology of the name is 
difficult. The first el. appears to be O.E. 'lotta pers. n. (cf. Tottington). The 
second may be O.E. mor with weakening of the vowel ; if so, the name means 
" the valley by Tottan mor." Or the second el. is O.E. gemaire " boundary." 
This would give the meaning " Totta's boundary valley." 
Walsden (v. S. of Todmorden, in a valley) : Walseden 1235 LF. The first el. 
is apparently a pers. name; Wyld suggests O.E. *Walsa or Wcels, and compares 
the place-names Walsingham and Wcelslegh 1065 CD. This is perhaps correct. 
Yet the first el. may be Wales, gen. of Walh ; cf. Walshall, Staffs., Walsham, Suss. 
Bernshaw Tower (on a hill) : Besyngshawe 1556 LF. First el. Besing pers. n. 
as in Besingby, Yks. ; Besing' de HudesweW is mentioned YFF 67 (1202). 
Gawksholme (S. of Todmorden) : Gawkeholme 1521 DL. First el. the O.N. pers. 
n. Gaukr. 


Inchfield : Inchefeld 1521 DL, Inchefeld 1551 LF. Inchfield Moor reaches 
nearly 1,500ft. Very likely the first el. was originally Hinge- (O.E. heng-}; cf. 
Hinchliffe, Yks. : Hynchedyff 1379 (Goodall) < O.E. hengeclif-, and Hengeland 
(Tatham, Lo.) CO 935. The [dz] would become [tf] before/. If this is right, the 
name means " sloping field." 

Scaitcliffe : Scatecliffe 1575, Scatdiff 1596 DL. " Slate cliff." Slate often 
appears as sclate, sklate in early sources (<C O.P. esclate) and I was lost owing to 
dissimilation. Cf. p. 90. 

4. Spotland (the W. part ; on both sides of the river Spodden) : Spotlond c 1 180 
WhC 728, Spotland 1285 LAR, 1341 IN, -etc., Spotieland 1311 LI, Spotlond 1327, 
1332 LS, 1369, 1391 LF. The name is only used of the district, but probably 
to begin with denoted some special place. 

Spotland township is hilly, the highest land being in the east and west. 
The S. part on the Roch is comparatively level. The name must be compared 
with the river name Spodden, earlier Spotbrok. The most probable explanation 
is perhaps that Spot- represents the old name of the river ; such a river-name 
might belong to spout sb., vb. See Torp-Fick, p. 513. Spottesdala (W. Yks.) c 1320 
FC II, may contain the same river name. It is also possible, however, that 
Spot- is identical with spot sb. " a small space or extent of ground " ; cf. O.E. 
splott, O.N. spotti " piece, particle," Norw. spott " piece of land." If so, we 
may compare Spott, the name of a vil. in Haddingtonshire. Perhaps a place 
in Spotland was originally called Spot, and the other names were derived from 

Bagslate Moor (in the S.W.) : Bagslade 13 cent. WhC 667. The second el. 
is O.E. slced " valley." The first may be O.E. Bacga pers. n. 
Brandwood (the N.W. part) : Brendewod c 1200 WhC 154, Brendewode 1324 LI. 
" The burnt wood " (M.E. brend " burnt "). 

Broadhalgh (in Chadwick) : Brodehalgh 13 cent. WhC 772f., le Brodhalgh c 1300 
WhC 622. " The broad haugh." The place is near the Roch. 
Brotherod (on the Spodden) : Broderod(e) 13 cent. WhC 678, 752. " The broad 
clearing " (O.E. rod p. 16). 

Chadwick (the S. part, W. of Rochdale) : Chaddewyk c 1180 WhC 728, Chadewik 
1246 LAR, Chadewyk 13 cent. WhC 796, Litelchadeswyk 1277 WhC 788. O.E. 
Ceadda pers. n. and wic " dwelling," etc. The church of Rochdale was dedicated 
to St. Chad ; the name of the saint may enter into Chadwick. 
Cheesden (in the S.W.) : Chesden Water 1543 DL, Chesden 1546 LF, Cheseden 
1549 LP III. ; Cheisdenlomme ib. is now Cheesden Lumb. On the probable 
first el. of Cheesden see Chesham, p. 61. 

Coptrod (N.W. of Rochdale) : Coppedrod, Copperode 13 cent. WhC 752, 764. 
" The peaked clearing." Cf. Coppedhurst WhC 736 (in Spotland). 
Cowclough (in Whitworth) : Colledogh 13 cent. WhC 643. The place stands 
near a brook. Perhaps the first el. is a name of that brook. Cf. Cole (river 
Wore.) : (on) Colle 972 BCS 1282 ; also aqua de Colle (Cole] 1247, 1257 FC 
(Wml.). O.E. col " coal," and Cola pers. n. may also be thought of. 
Cowm (in the deep valley of Cowm Brook) : magnam Cumbam, paruum Cumbe 
13 cent. WhC 643, 675, le Mikekoumbebrok, Litekumbe c 1300 ib. 698, 691. All 
these examples refer to brooks. The source is O.E. cumb " valley." 


Dunnishbooth (on the Spodden) : Donyngbothe c 1180 WhC 728, Donnynges- 

botherodes 13 cent. ib. 763. O.E. Dunning pers. n., and M.E. bothe " booth " 

(< O.Dan, both). 

EUenrod (N.W. of Rochdale) : de Ailwarderod 1329 WhC 261, Elwodrowde 

1549 LP III. 59. " The clearing of Mgelweard or JEfelweard (Ailward)." The 

-n- was introduced at a late period, perhaps owing to some popular etymology. 

Facit (N. of Whitworth, E. of Spodden Brook) : ffagheside 13 cent. WhC 654, 

664 ; now [re'sit]. O.E. fag (M.E. faw, etc.) " coloured, variegated " (cf. 

Fallowfield, p. 50) and side " side " : " the bright (? ' flowery ' ) slope." The 

name is identical with Fawcett, Wml. ( : Faxide 1247, Fawside 1374 ; differently 

explained by Sedgefield). There is also a Fawside in Kincardineshire. 

Falinge (N.W. of Rochdale) : ffaleng 13 cent. WhC 638, le Faleng, ffalenges 

(villa) c 1300 WhC 256, 794 ; de Falynge 1323 LCR. O.ft.f edging " fallow land." 

See p. 10. 

Harsenden : Harstanden 13 cent. WhC 664, aq. de Haristanden 1284 ib. 166, 

Harestancroft 1275 ib. 648, Harstandencroft 13 cent. ib. 663. " Grey stone (or, 

boundary stone) valley." O.E. hdr " grey " and stdn. " Hoar stones " are 

often mentioned as boundary marks in O.E. charters (cf. NED s.v. hoar-stone). 

Healey (district E. of Spodden Brook) : Hayleg 1260 LF, villa de Helay, Heleye, 

Heleya, Heleyden 13 cent. WhC, de Heghlegh 1332 LS. Healey is on the slope 

of a hill of 1,042ft. I suppose the name means " the high lea " ; Hayleg 1260 

seems to be mis written. 

Masseycroft (S. of Whitworth) : Maxicroft, Maxicroftschore 13 cent. WhC 661, 

688 (stated to be in Whitworth). The name probably means " manured croft," 

the first el. being derived from O.E. me(o)x " dung." As regards a, cf. Scottish 

sax f. six (O.E. seox). 

Naden (in the W.) : de Naueden[e] 1323f. LCR, de Neuedene 1325 ib. Higher and 

Lower Naden are situated above Naden Brook at an elevation of c 800ft. on 

the slope of Knoll Hill (1,375ft.). The name was no doubt at first used of the 

valley and the brook, and was given in reference to the high hill near it. Cf. 

Norw. Naava, the name of a river (from Nof, gen. Nafar), derived from nof 

" projecting peak " (Rygh, Elvenavne). Very likely O.E. nafu " nave " was 

used in a topographical sense too (cf. Middendorff) and may be the first el. of 


Oakenrod (in Chadwick) : Akenrode 13 cent. WhC 607, del OJcenrode 1324 LCR. 

" Oak clearing " (O.E. rod, p. 16). 

Prickshaw (Whitworth) : Prikkeschagh 1292 WhC 689, Prikkeschaghsiche 13 cent. 

ib. 663. Cf. O.E. pricporn 956 BCS 945. The first el. is no doubt prick sb. (O.E. 

prica) " prickle, thorn," but the exact meaning is not apparent. Prickhedge 

(1601ff.) means " a thorn hedge." Cf. Prickley, Wore. : Prieleye, Prielea (for 

Pric- ?) 1275 (Duignan), Prickwillow (vil. near Ely). 

Redfern (near the Spodden) : le Redefern 13 cent. WhC 667. Self-explaining. 

Rockliffe : de Roclif 1296 Lacy C, Roclyf 1324 LI. Probably " roe cliff " (O.E. 

rd " roe " and clif). 

Tonacliffe (Healey) : de Tunwal(e)dif 1246 LAR, 1412 FC 367, Tunewalldif, 

Tunwaldif 13 cent. WhC 654, 658. The name means " the town brook (or well) 

cliff." The tun referred to may be Healey, close to which the place is. 


Tong End (in a tongue of land between Spodden and Tong End Brooks) : Tonge, 
Tong 13 cent. WhC 643, 653, Tongend 1489 Ind II. O.E. tang " fork of a river," 
p. 18. 

Trough (Gate) : le Trogh, Troghbrok WhC 697f. O.E. trog " trough," here in 
the sense " valley." 

Whitworth (on Spodden Brook, N. of Healey) : Whiteword 13 cent. WhC 637, 
643, 1322 LI, Whiteworth 13 cent. WhC 668, de Wytewurth(e) 1246 LAR. " The 
white worj? " or " the wor]? of Hwita " ; Hwita is a common O.E. pers. n. 
Wolstenholme (in the W.) : de Wolstonholme c 1180 Whit. II. 412, de Wlstanhwlm 
a 1193 Whit. II. 412, Wlstanesholme 1278 LF, de Wolstaneshulm c 1200 WhC 597, 
Wolstanesholm 1326 AP, de Wolstonholm 1332 LS. " The holm of Wulfstdn" 
Wolstenholme stands near the Naden and Royds Brooks. 


This parish may be described as the district of the Upper Irwell valley ; 
yet also part of the lower Roch valley belongs to it. The northernmost parts are 
in Blackburn hundred, but are dealt with here as they belong geographically 
and ecclesiastically to Salford. 

In the S. the surface is level, especially in the tongue of land between the Roch 
and the Irwell. The ground rises to the north, the highest elevations being on 
the E. and W. borders, where large moorland districts are found. The villages 
and homesteads are chiefly in the valleys of the Irwell and its tributaries. 

1. Bury (town, in the tongue of land between the Irwell and the Roch) : Biri 
1194 LPR ; Bury c 1190 Ch, 1243 LI, 1256 LF, 1332 LS, etc. ; Buri 1212 LI, 
Eire 1228 C1R, Sure, Byry, de Biry 1246 LAR, Byry 1296 Lacy C, Berye 1551 
CCR, Birrie Hamett 1591 Bury R. O.E. burh (dat. byrig) " fortified place ; 
fortified town, city." The situation of the town is suited for a fortification. 
Chesham (N.E. of Bury, on Gipsy Brook) : Chesum 1429 LF, Cheasom, 
Cheesam 1610 CW 80. The early forms are not old enough to tell us whether 
this is an old dative in -um or a compound with O.E. hamm (or possibly ham). 
Anyhow, the element dies- is obviously identical with that of Cheesden (p. 59) 
and probably a lost O.E. sb. identical with M.H.G kis " gravel" perhaps preserved 
in O.E Cisburne 816 BCS 356 (Wore.), and Chishill (Kent), and found in the 
derivatives O.E. ceosol " gravel " and cisen adj. in Chisnall, Le. (p. 129). If 
Chesham is an old dat. pi., the vowel e is most easily explained (O.E. ceosum). 
Cf. Swed. Kisa, the gen. pi. of a related word. 

Haslam (Haslam Brow, S.E. of Bury) : de Haselum 1235, 1256 LF, de Haslum 
(Hesellum) 1246 LAR. O.E. hceslum " (at) the hazels." 

Redvales (in the S., in the flat land between the Roch and the Irwell) : Redives- 
hale 1185 LPR, Redinall 1246 LAR, de Redyval 1296 LF, Ridevalls 1542 CW 
xxviii. O.E. *Redgifu pers. n. (fern.) and halh " haugh." 

2. Heap (E. of Bury, on the Roch) : de Hep 1226 (Bardsley), Hepe 1278 VHL V. 
136, the Heipp brige 1551 CCR. There is no longer any village or estate of the 
name. The original Heap may have been at Heap Bridge, a place on the Roch. 
I suppose Heap is O.E. heap " heap, pile," in the sense " a hill." If so, the 
hill E. of Heap Bridge may be supposed to have given name to the place. O.E. 


heap " a hill " I take to be the origin of Shap, Wml. (Hep 1231, 1293 Sedgefield) ; 

cf. Studier tillegnade Esaias Tegner den 13 Jan. 1918, p. 437 ff. Cf. also Hapton 


Heywood (town) : Hewude, de Heghwode 1246 LAR, dil Hewod 1323 LCR, 

de Hayewode (Hewode) 1324f. LCR, del Hewode 1330 LF, Yewood 1865 Staton. 

Here perhaps belong de Haywod 1246 LAR, de Hawod 1285 LAR. The first el., 

as suggested by Wyld, may be O.E. hege "enclosure." But some forms point 

rather to O.E. hea-wudu "high wood." 

Lomax (now lost name of the district S. of the Roch, where Charlestown and 

Heady Hill are) : de Lumhalghs 1324 LCR, Loumals 1546 LF, lomax 1592 

Bury R. Second el. the plur. of O.E. halh " haugh," which suits the situation 

of the place. The first el. may be identical with Lumb infra, or the pers. n. 

apparently found in Lumley, Durh. (Mawer). 

Whittle : de Quitul 1292 VHL V. 138, Whittle 1612 Middleton R. " White hill." 

3. Elton (W. of Bury and the Irwell) : Elleton 1246 LAR, de Holton (Helton) ib., 
de Elton 1277, 1278 LAR. O.E. Elian tun ; cf. Eltonhead, p. 108. Ella was a 
common O.E. name. 

Brandlesome (between the Irwell and Kirklees Brook) : de Brandolfholm 1285 
LAR, Brandilsholme More 1515 CCR, Brandlesome 1556 LF, Brandlesham 
1577 Harr. " Brandulf's holme." Brandulf pers. n. occurs in D.B. ; it is 
probably a Scand. name (O.N. Brondulfr), as Brand is hardly with certainty 
evidenced as an O.E. name-element. Holm is O.N. holmr " island," etc. 
Summerseat (near the Irwell) : Sumersett 1556 CCR, Somerseat 1618 CW 158. 
The name seems to have as second el. set, sat, " a shieling " (cf. p. 16), or O.E. 
set, " fold." The first el. is O.E. sumor or O.N. sumarr, " summer." Sommerscet 
is a common place-name in N. Norway (NGr XVII. 56). 

Woodhill (in a bend of the Irwell) : Wyddell 1563 CW xv, Wodditt 1564 CCR, 
widdell 1598 Bury R. " Wide haugh " (O.E. wld adj. and halh). 

4. Walmersley-with-Shuttleworth (E. of the Irwell, N. of Bury). 
Walmersley (the S. part; v.) : Walmeresley 1262 LAR, de Walmereslegh 1318 LI, 
de Walm'eslegh 1332 LS, Womersley 1552 LF, Wamessley Hamell 1555 LF. I sup- 
pose the first el. is O.E. Waldmer, a name possibly evidenced in O.E. (cf. Wald- 
meres scorn 824 BCS 381), or Walhmer. A compound of O.E. wcella "well; brook," 
and 'mere " mere " is also possible. 

Cobhouse (N.E. of Walmersley) : de Cobalres 1359 LF. Second el. clearly the 
plur. of O.E. air " alder." Cob- may be a pers. name (O.E. Cobba) or cob sb. in 
one of its senses. 

Lumb or Lumn Mill (near Walmersley) : ? lumcar 1591 Bury R. The name is 
identical with Lumb (Tottington), Lumb, Yks. (Lorn 1307, 1308, Lum 1370, 
Goodall) ; cf. the Cowlomme 1549 LP III. 53, Lomme, Crawelomme 1564 CCR, 
Lomax supra. Bardsley correctly identifies the name with dial, lum, " a 
woody valley, a deep pool." Cf. lumb " a well for the collection of water in a 
mine ; a deep pool in the bed of a river " (18 cent.) NED ; lum " a deep pool in 
the bed of a river " NCy, Lakel., Yks., etc. (EDD). The etymology of the word 
is obscure. Lumb is situated close to two small tarns and Pigsley Brook. 
Pigsden, Pigsley (on Pigsley Brook). Cf. Pedeksdene Kuerden MS, Pigkisdene 
1360 VHL V. 142, Petekesdene ib. 174 Pedkesdene 1287 ib. 177. The first el. appears 


to be a pers. n. identical with that found in Pickwell (Dev.) : Pedicheswelle 
DB, perhaps a diminutive in -uc of O.E. Piuda (cf. Redin). 
Shipperbottom : de Schyppewelle-, Schyppewallebothem 1 285 LAR, de Shipwalle- 
bothum 1323 LI, Shippalbothum 1489 PatR, O.E. scepwcella ' stream (or well) 
where sheep are washed," and O.E. *bopm, M.E. bothem "valley, dell." Ship- 
goes back to the rare O.E. form scip for seep, sceap " sheep." The place is in a 
small valley. 

Shuttleworth (the N. part, v.) : Sutteksworth 1227 LF, Shyotlesworth 1241 LF, 
Shitleswurth, de Shytleswurth 1246 LAR, Shuttelesworthe 1296 Lacy G, Schuttles- 
wurthe 1305 ib., Shotles worth 1311 LI, Shuttlesworth 1324 LI. The same name 
occurs in Bedford (De), Hapton (Bl), and in Yks.; the latter appears as Schutles- 
wrtha, Sutleswrtha 1209. The first el. of the name is derived by Wyld and Goodall 
from an O.E. Scyttel or Scytel, 1 pers. n. But it would be a curious coincidence for 
this rare name to appear at least four times combined with O.E. worp. In my 
opinion the first el. is O.E. scyt(t)els " bar, bolt." If O.E. worp meant " en- 
closure," this seems to give a good sense ; perhaps the name means " barred 
enclosure." But scyttels may have had some special sense not preserved in the 
sources. It may have been used e.g. of a gate of some sort. In dialects shuttle 
(< O.E. scytel, a side-form of scyttels) means " a horizontal bar of a gate or 
hurdle " ; also " a flood-gate." Norw. skutil, Swed. skyttel denote a pole that 
may be pulled backwards and forwards across an opening in a fence. Swed. 
skyttlegap means an opening in a fence that may be shut by means of loose poles 

5. Tottington (Higher End and Lower End, townships) : Totinton 1212 LI, 
1235 ChR, Totington 1233 LF, 1278 LAR, 1327 LS, etc., Todington 1242 LI, 
Totingdon 1251 ChR, Totyngton 1274 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Tottyngton 1285 LAR, 
Totynton 1330 LF. O.E. Totinga tun. Totingas is a patronymic formed from 
the O.E. pers. n. Tola. 

Affeside : Affetside 1504, Affetsid 1509, Affaythsyde 1523, Affedsyd common 1531, 
Avesyde 1556 OCR, Affetyside 1542 DL, Offyside 1771 Whitaker, Manchester, 
Aviside Waugh. Affeside stands on a hill (896ft.) over which runs a Roman 
road (Watling-street). The forms are too late to allow of an etymology. 
Croichlow Fold (S.W. of Holcombe Brook, near a hill) : de Cruchelowe 1324 LCR, 
Crychelow 1525, Crychelaw 1529, Croichelay 1563 OCR. The first el. looks like 
the Brit, word found in Welsh crug " a hill " ; cf . Creech, Som. (S. of the Quantock 
Hills ; Crucian apud nos Crycbeorh 680 BCS 62, Crice DB), Creech Do. (Cric, 
Criz DB), Penkridge, Staffs. (Pennocrucium Ant. It., Pancriz DB). 
Hawkshaw (h.) : Howkeshagh 1509, Hawkesey 1527, Hawckeshey 1530 CCR. O.E. 
hafoc " hawk," and scaga " shaw." 

Holcombe, Holcombe Brook (h.) : Holecumbam a 1236 Whit. I. 324, Holcumbhevet 
c 1236 ib. 325, de Holcoumbe 1296 Lacy C, de Holecombe 1305 ib. O.E. hol(h) 
" hollow " and cumb " valley." The name refers to the deep valley of Hol- 
combe Brook. 
Nuttall (h.) : de Noteho 1256 LF, de Notehogh 1318 LI, 1332 LI, de Notehugh 

1 From Scyt(t)el the first el. of Shitlington, Nhb., Yks., Shillington, Beds., may be derived, 
and Scytlescester, an earlv form of Cheaters, Nh?;., may contain the name ficytel itself 


1323 LCR, the Nutto 1545 OCR. O.E. hnutu " nut " and hoh " spur of land," 

etc. Nuttall stands at a slight spur of hill near the Irwell. 

Ramsbottom (town) : de Romesbothum 1324 LCR, Romsbothum 1509, Ramys- 

bothom 1540 CCR. O.E. ram sb. " ram " or Ram pers. n. and M.E. bothem "valley." 

Cf. Ramsgreave (Bl.), Ramsden (Ess.), Romsley (Wore.). Ramsbottom stands 

in the valley of the Irwell. 

Tittleshaw (near Holcombe Brook) : Tyteleshou a 1236, Tuttelleshou c 1236 

Whit. I. 324f., Tetilsey More 1523, Tetlesaw 1544 CCR. O.E. *Tytel pers. n., 

a side-form of Tyttla (found in Bede), and O.N. haugr " hill." The place is close 

to a hill. In the earliest instances the name denotes a hill. 

In Tottington Higher End are : 

Alden (valley, brook, the boundary against Musbury) : Aldenehevet a 1234 
Whit. I. 324, Alvedene 1296 Lacy C, Aldene 1305 ib., 1324 LI. The first el. may 
be O.E. Mlfa pers. n., or perhaps more likely the gen. pi. of O.E. celf " fairy, 
elf." The second is O.E. denu "valley." 

BaUaden (on Balladen Brook, E. of the Irwell) : Baleden 1522, Balyden 1525, 
Balidene 1562 CCR, Ballydeyne 1549 LP III. 56. First el. M.E. balgh " smooth, 
rounded," p. 7. Second O.E. denu. 

Buckden (h.) : de Bukedene 1324 LCR. O.E. bucca " buck " and denu. 
Chatterton : Chatterton 1523, Chatterton Hey 1547 CCR, Chatterton 16 cent. 
WhC 1226. The place stands E. of the Irwell on a steep projecting ridge. The 
name is apparently identical in origin with Chadderton, p. 50. 
Dearden Moor (E. of the Irwell) : de Derdene 1325 LCR, Dureden 1509 CCR. 
O.E. deor " deer " and denu. Dearden Brook runs past Edenfield. 
Edenfield (v.) : Aytounfeld 1324 LI, de Aytounfeld 1443, Aytenfeld 1509 CCR, 
Atonfeld 1519 LP I. 86, Aytenfielde 1577 Harr, etenfelde 1591, edenfeld 1615 
Bury R ; now [rdnfrld]. Edenfield stands near the Irwell on fairly high ground. 
Eden Wood is to the S. of it. Eden- is probably O.E. Eg-tun, eg in this case 
meaning " river-meadow " or the like. The place so called may have been on 
the Irwell. Cf. Hundersfield. 

Horncliffe (E. of the Irwell) : de Horneclifl323 LCR, de Hornclyve c 1360 CR 344, 
Horne- y Horneyclyff 1540 CCR. First el. probably horn " a pointed or tapering 
projection " or the like. Horncliffe stands at a steep spur of Dearden Moor. 
Lumb (on the Irwell) : Lumbank 1528, the Lumebonke, Lumbankeheid 1547 CCR, 
Lumme Carre medowe 1563 ib. Cf. the same name p. 62. 

New Hall : Newhalle (vaccary) 1324 LI, Newhall 1577 Harr. Hall may mean 
" farm-house, cottage " (cf. EDD). 

Shillingbottom : Shillingbothim 1296 Lacy C, -botham 1305 ib. The first el. may 
be the O.E. pers. n. Stilling ; but more likely it is the name of a brook derived 
from shill adj. (O.E. scyl) " sonorous, resonant, shrill." Second el. M.E. bothem 

Stubbins (h.) : Stubbyns Halle 1559 CCR ; cf. Stubbyng 1563 ib. M.E. stubbing, 
"j.the action of clearing land of stubs, etc." (1445, etc., NED). Here the 
meaning is concrete : " cleared land." 

6. Musbury (in the N.W. part of the parish ; in Blackburn hundred) : Musbiry 
(park) 1311 LI, -buri, -beri 1324 LI, Park of Musebury 1325 LCR. " Mouse 
burrow," O.E. mus and *burh "burrow." Cf. Coneybury, Wore., "rabbit 


warren " (Duignan). The township chiefly consists of hills (Musbury Heights). 

It was formerly a park. 

Musden, Musden Head : Musedene 1296 Lacy C, Musdene 1305 ib., 1324 LI. 

" Mouse valley." Musden Head is " the head of the Musden (or Musbury 

Brook) valley." 

Ogden (valley in the N. ; Ogden Brook) : Uggedene 1296 Lacy C, Ugdene 1305 ib., 

Uggeden 1324 LI, (aqua de) Uggeden WhC 333, Ugden 1509, Okedenfott, Ogdenfott 

1531 OCR ; Typpet of Ogden (Ugden) 1577, Typpet of Ugden Hill 1580 DL. The 

first el. is no doubt a pers. n.; cf. Uggelowe (hill) WhC 334, Uggecotelawe 

(Whitworth) 13 cent, WhC 654, also Ugley (Ess.) : Oggele 1303, Uggele 1428 FA. 

We may assume an O.E. *Ucga, corresponding to O.N. Uggi. The meaning of 

Typpet (now Trippet) is obscure. 

7. Cowpe, Lench, Newhall Hey, Hall Carr (E. of the Irwell; in Blackburn hundred). 

The district occupies the N. slope of a high hill. 

Cowpe : Cuhope, Cuhopheued c 1200 WhC 154, Couhop 1324 LI. Cowpe stands 

on a stream (called Couhopebrok WhC 334) in a valley, which is a typical " hope," 

i.e., " a smaller opening branching out from the main dale, and running up 

to the mountain ranges." The name means " cow valley " (O.E. cu and hop). 

Lench : the Lenche 1526, Overlynche 1507, Ouerlinche 1527, Overlenche 1532 

CCR. Lench in dialects means " a shelf of rock," etc. ( Derby sh.) ; linch 

1, " rising ground " ; 2, " a ledge ; a hamlet on the side of a hill " (the second sense 

found in Lane. dial.). Lench, linch are obviously connected with O.E. hlinc " ridge, 

slope, hill " ; there must have been an O.E. hlenc with much the same meaning. 

Newhall Hey : Newhalley 1464 Whit. I. 359, Newhal(l)hey 1507, 1514 CCR. 

Cf. New Hall, p. 64. 

Hall Carr (near Newhall Hey) : Hallecarre 1507 CCR. Carr is O.N. kiarr, 

" marsh, bog." 


Blachebvrn hvnd' DB, (de) Blakeburne Wapentachio 1188 LPR, Blakeburnesire 
1243 LI, Blakeburneschyre 1246 LAR, Blakeburneshire 1258 IPM, Blackburnshir 
1332 LS. 

A district N. of Salford hundred and mostly S. of the Ribble, with a small 
portion N. of that river. This latter part, till some time after the Conquest, 
belonged to Amounderness hundred, and Alston-with-Hothersall township, 
though in Ribchester par., does so still. This part is best dealt with in connec- 
tion with Amounderness. 

Names of Rivers 

Kibble (falls into the Irish Sea) : Rippel c 710 Eddi, 1 Ribbel c 930 YCh (? genuine), 
1002 Thorpe, 1229, 1251 ChR, etc., Ripam DB, Ribem 1094 LC 794, Ribam 1130 
LPR, Ribble c 1130 Sim. Durh., Ribliam 1140 Ch, Riblam 1142 Ch, Ribbil(l) 
1189-94 Ch, c 1230 CC, 1252 LI, Rybel 1246 LAR, Ribel 1251, 1270 ChR, Rebel 
1400 FC 201, the Rybell 1577 Harr. Cf. Ribchester p. 144. The Ribble is an 

1 MSS from 11 and 12 cent. 


important river , its name is probably British. Etymology obscure. If, as 

some think, Ptolemy's Belisama should be identified with the Ribble, the name 

may contain the first part (Bel-) of this word. 

Darwen (joins the Ribble near Preston) : Derewente 1227 LF, Darwent c 1540 

Leland. Cf. Over and Lower Darwen, p. 75. The name is identical with 

Derwent in Derby, Gumb., Yks., Nhb. It appears as Derventione Ant. It., 

Not. D., Rav. (Holder), Deruuentionis ( Bede (Deorwenlan, etc., in the 

O.E. translation), Deruuentionem Bede, etc. The name is a derivative of Celt. 


Blackwater (a trib. of the Darwen) : Blak. 12 cent. WhC lOlf. Cf. Blackburn, 

p. 74. " The black brook." 

Calder (falls into the Ribble near Whalley) : Caldre a 1193 Whit. II. 388, 1246 

LAR, WhC 333, Est Caldre WhC 334, Calder c 1200 Whit. II. 189, Kelder 1296 

Lacy C, the Calder, the Chalder 1577 Harr. This river is sometimes called the 

two-forked Calder. It has two head-streams, which join at Burnley. The 

Northern one of these is generally called Pendle Water, the name Calder being 

applied to the Southern one. There is another Calder in Blackburn, which rises 

near the other Calder, but flows S. and E. to the Aire in Yks. : Kelder 1202, 

Keldre 1296, Calder 1308 (Goodall). This is a common river name. Cf. Calder 

in Am. infra, Cumb., Scotland. Caldour near Kelso is said to appear as Caledofre 

in an early doc. (McClure, p. 144). The name is British, and its second el. is 

generally assumed to be Celtic *dubron (Welsh dwfr, etc.) " water." It may be 

identical with the Welsh river names Cletwr, Clettwr ; cf . Kaletur Maur', Kaletur 

Bochan, etc., 1241 AP (in Shr. or Heref .) " the great and little Caletur," the 

first el. of which seems to be Welsh caled " hard, severe," here perhaps " rapid " 

or the like. 

Bushburn (falls into the Calder) : Busceburn(e) 13 cent. WhC 953f., Busseburne 

ib. 1027. First el. obscure. 

Hyndburn (an affluent of the Calder) : Hindeburne a 1193 Whit. II. 388, Hinde- 

burn a 1194 Kirkstall C, Hyndburn 1200-8 DD, Hyndeburn WhC 334, Henburne 

broofo 1577 Harr. Probably Hynd- is O.E. hind " female of the doe." Cf. 

Hindburn in Lo. 

Pendle Water : Penhull water 1516 CCR, The Piddle, Pidle brooke 1577 Harr. 

See Calder supra. 

Colne Water (joins Pendle Water). See Colne, p. 87. 

Wanless Water : Wandles Wayter 1540 CCR. Earlier forms are needed. 

Brun (falls into the Calder at Burnley). See under Burnley. 

Names of Hills 

In Blackburn par. are : 

Billinge (807ft., in Witton) : Billingehill 1429 VHL VI. 340 ; cf. Billingehurst 
13 cent. ib. 266, Billinge Hill 1594 DL, subter Billingg 1622 Blackburn R. The 
etymology of the name is complicated by the fact that a neighbouring hill is 
called Billington Moor (p. 71), earlier Billingahoth. This latter apparently 
means " the hill of the Billings." It would seem most natural to explain Billinge 
in a similar way, that is, to derive it from an O.E. Billingahyll, " the hill of the 


Billings," the later Billinge being elliptical. Another possibility is that Billinge 
is an old hill-name, derived from O.E. bill " sword." Billinge is a conspicuous 
ridge. The early material does not allow of a definite choice between these 
alternatives. From Billinge, the name of the hill, is derived Billinge Scar (the 
name of a place on the hill) : Billins Carr 1615, Billindge Can 1624, Billinges 
1652 Blackburn R. Scar means " a cliff, the ridge of a hill," etc. 
Mellor Moor. See p. 73. 

Revidge (in Over Darwen) apparently has as second el. the word edge (O.E. ecg). 
The first may be O.E. hreof " rough." 

Whalley Nab (606ft., the eastern point of Billington Hill) : Nab (silva) 1579 
Whalley R, The Nabb in Billington 1604 CW 176. An earlier name of this is no 
doubt Belsetenab 13 cent. WhC 133, (mentis) Belsetenabbe 14 cent. ib. 1013. 
Belsete is apparently a place-name whose second el. is set " shieling " (cf. p. 16) ; 
the first el. is very likely a pers. n., e.g., Beli in Belesby, Line., etc. (Bjorkman, 
Namenkunde). Nab is M.E. nabb from O.N. nabbr or nabbi, "a projecting 

In Whalley par. are : 

Blacko (1,018ft., N. of Nelson) : Blacho 12 cent., Blakhow 1329, Blakhou 1335 
Kirkstall C, the Blackoo 1540 CCR ; now [blaka]. " The black hill " (O.N. 
haugr " hill "). 

Boulsworth (1,700ft., S.E. of Colne) : Bulswyre WhC 333, Bulsware 1618, 
Bulswarre 1620 Colne R. The elements of the name are M.E. bule " bull " and 
O.E. swlra or O.N. sviri " neck." The name might mean " the bull's neck," not an 
inapt description of the long massive ridge. But swire may here be used in one 
of the senses " a level spot, or steep pass between mountains, a declivity near the 
summit of a hill, a hill road " (EDD). There is a small place Boulsworth near 
Thursden Clough. 

Brown Hill (E. of Pendle) : Brownhill 1528, le Brownehill 1533 CCR. Self- 

Castercliff (near Nelson) : Castell Clif 1515, the Castydyff 1533 CCR. There are 
remains of an ancient earthwork on the hill. First el. M.E. castel (< O.F.). 
Combe Hill (on the Yks. border) : Cawmhill 1643 Colne R. First el. O.E. camb 
" comb." Dial, comb also means " a crest, ridge of a hill." 
Cribden or Cridden (N.E. of Haslingden, 1,250ft.) : (Lawnd of) Kyrden 1543, 
(Le Launde of) Cryden 1559, Cryddene 1563 CCR. The second el. of the name 
is apparently O.E. denu " valley " ; so the hill seems to have been named from 
a place in the vicinity (cf . Cribden Side, Cribden End), which in its turn took its 
name from a valley. If Cridden is the correct form, as the early forms seem to 
suggest, the first el. might be O.E. Crioda pers. n. 

Crow Hill (Trawderi) : Crowehull WhC 334. Presumably " hill of the crows." 
Great Hill (Trawden) : Greithill 1527 CCR. Probably literally " great hill." 
Hameldon. There are three hills of this name : Black Hameldon (1,573ft., on 
the Yks. border), Hameldon (S. of Extwistle), Great Hameldon (1,343ft., W. of 
Burnley). The last is Hameldon a 1194 Kirkstall C. Hameldon, like Hambledon 
Hill (623ft., on the border of Dorset and Wilts.), has for its first el. the common 
Germ. adj. *hamala- "maimed," etc.: O.N. hamall, O.H.G. hamal etc.; cf. 


O.E. hamelian, "to mutilate, etc." (Torp-Fick p. 73). It is impossible to 
determine the exact meaning of the word in Hameldon. It was certainly not 
" rounded," as the Hameldons are not characterised by a rounded shape. More 
likely it was " treeless, bare," or perhaps " level," a natural development from 
" maimed." Great Hameldon, seen, e.g., from the Calder valley, and the other 
Hameldons make the impression of fairly level ridges. 

Horelaw (1,153ft., S. of Burnley) : Horelaw 1598 Burnley R. " Grey hill." A 
small place Wholaw on the slope of the hill was clearly named from it. Cf. 
le Horelowe 1306 WhC 1013 (near Wiswell). 

Noyna (980ft., N. of Colne) : Noynow Cragg 1589 DL, Noynowe 1602, Noynoe 
1612, Noonow 1614 ff., Nonowe 1627, etc., Colne R, Clearly O.E. non " noon," 
and O.E. hoh or O.N. haugr " hill," a name analogous to Mittaghorn (Switzer- 
land), Middagsfjallet, Nonsberget (North Sweden), Middagshogda (Norway), and 
meaning literally " noon hill," " a hill situated S. of a certain place so that the 
sun is seen above it at noon." Cf. on names of this kind Liden NoB IV. 89, 
124. Noon is [noin] in Lane, dialects. Noyna Hill is almost due S. of Earby and 
Thornton in Yks. 

Pendle Hill (1,831ft.) : Pennul 1258 IPM, Pennehille 1296 Lacy C, Penhul 1305 
Lacy C, Penhull WhC 334, Penhill 1311, 1324 LI. The name is mostly used of 
the forest (foresta de Penhull, etc.). Cf. Pendleton, p. 77. The elements are 
Pen- from Brit, pen (Welsh pen " head ; top," etc. ; cf. Pendlebury, Pendleton, 
Salf.) and O.E. hyll. 

Pike Law (1,189ft., E. of Pendle) : Pikedlawe 1329, Pikedelawe 1333 Kirkstall C. 
M.E. piked " pointed " (from pike " point ; pointed hill ") and hldw. The same 
name occurs in Blackburn (le Pikedlowe WhC 334), and Thieveley Pike (S. of 
Burnley) was formerly called Pykelaw 1528 CCR. 

Stank Top (1,060ft., E. of Pendle) : Stanghend 1524, Stang Toppe 1546 CCR. 
Stonk is O.N. stong " a pole." 

Wolfetones (Trawden ; 1,455ft.) : le Woluestones WhC 333. " The wolf-stones," 
really the name of a county boundary mark. It is doubtful if Wolf is "wolf" 
the animal, or the O.E. pers. n. Wulfa. 


This parish forms the W. part of the hundred, being separated from Whalley 
parish by the Calder, the Hyndburn, and the moors S. of the source of the latter 
river. It consists of a district on the S. bank of the Ribble and a broad area 
on both sides of the upper Darwen. The surface varies considerably. In the 
S. Darwen Moor reaches 1,320ft. From there the ground slopes towards the 
Ribble, but there are several minor hills, as Mellor Moor, Billington Moor, etc. 
1. Walton-le-Dale (on the Ribble S. of Preston, v.) : Waletune DB, Waleton 
1246 LAR, Walton in La Dak 1304, 1332 LF, Walton in Le Dale 1318 LF, etc., 
Walton in the Dale 1332 LS. O.E. Walatun " the tun of the Britons." 
Low Chapel (former name of Walton church) : Capella (ecclesid) de la Lawe 
13 cent. WhC 90, locum de la Lawe 1283 ib. 114, Law 1577 Saxton, 1577 Harr. 
O.E. hldw " hill." The church stands on a slight eminence. 
Bamber Bridge (v. on the Lostock) : Bymbrig (in an early deed) VHL VI. 290. 


Seems to be the " bridge of Bym " ; cf. Bimme pers. n. 1246 LAR, Bymmecroft 

(EccleshilD 13 cent. WhC. 

Brownedge (h. ; on an eminence) : Brownage, Browneegge 1551 DL. Apparently 

" brown hill." 

Lemon House : cf. de Lemoneshull 1341 IN. First el. the pers. n. Lagheman 

1246 LAR, Laghmon 1347 OR, from O.N. Logmadr, literally " law man, judge." 

2. Cuerdale (on the Ribble, E. of Preston) : Kiuerdale c 1190 Ch, 1246 LAR, de 
KeuirdalemS CIR, Keuerdale 1293 LI, 1296, 1305 Lacy C, Keuresdale 1311 LI, 
Keu'dale 1332 LS, Kyuerdale 1356 LF. Cuerdale occupies a slight ridge of 
ground between the Darwen and the Ribble. Cuerdale Hall is in a haugh close 
to the Ribble. The first el. of the name may be identical with that of Cuerdley, 
p. 106. If so, the second el. is probably O.E. hnlh " haugh," which suits the 
situation of the place extremely well indeed, much better than dale. 

3. Samlesbury (on the Ribble, E. of Preston) : Samerisberia 1179 LPR, Sameles- 
bure 1188f., 1194 LPR, Samelesbur', Samelisbur' 1212 BF, SamdesUri 1238 LAR, 
Samelesbiry, Samelesbiri, (de Samlebir, Samlesbiry, Samplesbiry) 1246 LAR, de 
Samelesburi 1252 LI, Samlisbyri 1258 IPM, Samlesbury 1267 LAR, 1311 LI, etc., 
Samlisbury, Sampnelbiry, Sampnesbiry 1278 LAR, Samesbury 1276, 1278 LAR, 
Samlesbur' 1332 LI, Samsbury 1577 Saxton ; Shamplesbiry, de SchameUsbiry, 
-byr 1246 LAR, Scamelesbyry, Shampelesbyri, Shapnesbyri 1277 LAR. 

The old chapel of Samlesbury stands on the S. bank of the Ribble, with 
Samlesbury Lower Hall some way off on the river. I take this to be the site of 
the original Samlesbury. The etymology is much complicated by the variety 
of the early spellings. The forms with S- are in the majority, but there are a 
good many with Sh-, and it is not easy to see why S- should have been replaced 
by Sh-, whereas S- for Sh- is easily explained by Norman influence. If the 
original form had Sh-, I would compare the following names : Shamele (hundred 
Kent) 1275 HR ; Shalmsford (Kent) : Shamelesford 1285 FA, Sahameleford 
1275 HR ; perhaps Shamblehurst (Hants) : Samelherst, Scamelherst' 1176 PR, 
Schameleshurste 1316 FA. All these may contain O.E. sceamol "bench, stool," 
or some derivative of it ; cf. to pam scamelan 909 BCS 629. The meaning of 
this word in topographical use is not clear, but very likely it may have been 
something like " ledge, shelf " ; cf. G. sandschemel " sand shelf " (MiddendorfF). 
In this case the word might refer to a ledge on the bank of the Ribble. In 
reality, Samlesbury Lower Hall stands on a slight ledge (c 50ft. above sea-level), 
which stretches as far as the church. 

If the spellings in Sh- are to be disregarded the etymology is much more 
difficult. The first el. is hardly the pers. n. Samuel. If it is a pers. n., as the early 
forms rather suggest, it may be a derivative of the stem Sam- found in German 
names. This stem is not found in English names, but the related stem Som 
occurs in O.E. Soemel and perhaps in the first el. of Semington, Semley, Wilts. 
Burh in this name, as in Salesbury, may mean " fortified house, fort " or 
" manor " ; cf. p. 8. 

4. Balderston (on the Ribble, N.E. of Preston) : Balderestone a 1172 Whit. II. 
359, de Balderston, de Baldeston 1246 LAR, Baldreston 1256 LF, 1311 LI, 1332 
LS, etc., de Balderston 1297 LI, Balderston 1341 IN. " The tun of Baldhere " ; 
cf. Bealdhere (Searle). 


Myerscough (h.). Cf. Myerscough, Am. 

Ramsholme Wood (on the Ribble) : RammesMme 1333 WhC 100. First el. 
apparently O.E. ram " ram " or Ram pers. n. Second O.N. holm, " island," etc. 
Smalley : Smalelei a 1172 Whit. II. 359, de Smalley 1332 LI. " The small lea." 
Sunderland : Sunderland, -broc, -holm a 1172 Whit. II. 359, de Sunderland 1246 
LAR, (grangia de) Sunderland WhC 98 ; cf . p. 29. Sunderland Hall stands near 
the Ribble at a considerable distance from Balderston village. The meaning 
" outlying land " seems plausible. 

5. Osbaldeston (on the Ribble, S. of Ribchester, h.) : OsbaUeston 1246 LAR, 
1292 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Osbaldiston 1258 IPM, 1311 LI, Osebaldeston 1337 LF, 
Osbaston 1577 Saxton ; now [o'bistn ; ozbsldestn]. " The tun of Osbald." 
Oxendale Hall (near a brook) : Oxedeneklouh c 1200 Whit. II. 400. Oxen- is 
a contraction of Oxedene, " ox valley." 

Studlehirst : deStodelhirl 124:6 LAR,deStodelhurst 1337 LF. Studle- is apparently 
a compound with O.E. stod " stud " as first el., the second being O.E. hyll. 
Higher and Lower Studlehirst stand on a slope. 

6. Clayton-le-Dale (on the Ribble, S. of Ribchester): Clayton, Claiton 1246 
LAR, Clayton 1258 IPM, Ckyton near Ribcestre 1301 LF, Claiton in the Dale 
1327, 1332 LS. " The tun on clayey soil." 

Madgell Bank (on a slight hill) : Maggeldes meduclif c 1200 Whit. II. 400. A 
difficult name. The most plausible suggestion I can make is that the elements 
are O.E. *Mcegga pers. n. (cf. O.E. Mecga, and O.H.G. Magio, Macco, etc.) and 
O.E. helde " slope." 

Showley [Hall] : Scholfley VHL VI. 263, de Schollarye 1339 WhC 292, Sholey 
1497 LF. Showley Hall stands on sloping ground. The first el. of the name is 
probably O.E. sceolh " oblique, wry." 

7. Salesbury (on the Ribble, E. of Ribchester) : Salesbyry, Salebyry 1246 LAR, 
Salebiry 1258 IPM, 1266, 1272 LAR, etc., Salebyri 1276 LAR, Salbury 1278 LAR, 
Salebury 1288 LF, Salebiri 1284 LF, Salesbyry 1305 Lacy C ; now [se'lzbri]. 
Salesbury Hall stands close to Sale Wheel (Salewelle 1296, 1305 Lacy C, Salewell 
1311 LI ; now [se'lwrl]), a wide deep pool in the Ribble, in which are strong 
undercurrents, and which is said to be very dangerous. The elements of the 
name Sale Wheel are O.E. salh " sallow, willow " (or a derivative of it) and 
O.E. wcel 1 " a whirlpool ; a deep still part of a river." The first el. of Salesbury 
is evidently identical with that of Sale Wheel. Perhaps both names really 
contain a place-name Sale, an earlier name of Salesbury. 

Cadshaw (Higher and Lower) : Kaddehou, Cadeshoubroc, Cadeshouclou, Cade~ 
houclou c 1200 Whit. II. 400, Cadshawe 1617 Blackburn R. Sometimes written 
Cadger and pronounced [kadza]. The places are on the brow of a hill, near a 
brook. The elements of the name are the O.E. pers. n. Cada and O.N. haugr 
" hill " (or possibly O.E. hoh), later associated with shaw. 
Loveley Hall : Lovelay c 1450 HS LXIV. 280, Luffeley 1473 VHL VI. 256, 
Loueley 1663 CCR. The name probably means "the lea of Lufa"; cf. Love 
Clough, p. 92. 

8. Dinckley (between Dinckley Brook and the Ribble) : de Dunkythele, de 

1 The same element is found in the name of another pool in the Ribble : Sandwdle 1296, 
Sandwele 1305 Lacy C, Samewell 1311 LI. 


Dinkedelay, de Dinkidele 1246 LAR, de Dinkedelegh 1257 LI, Dunkedeley 1258 
IPM, Dinkedley 1327 LS, Dynkedlegh 1332 ib., Dynkedlay 1341 IN, Dynkedelay 
1369 LF, Dynkedeleghbrok 13 cent. WhC 1019, Dynkeley 1311 IPM. Like 
Worsley (p. 40), Dinckley consists of O.E. leah and a curious first el. containing 
a theme -ked- or the like, which is difficult to explain. I submit that it may be 
an old Brit, name, e.g., *Din-ket, corresponding to a Welsh Din-coed " fort of the 
wood " (or Din-goed " wood of the fort "). Cf. M.Bret. Kaergoet (Kerquoet) 
" village of the wood " (Loth 194, 199). Dinckley may have been the site of a 
Roman or British fort. There are traces of a Roman road and several Roman 
altars are said to have been found here (VHL VI. 336). Another possibility is 
that the first el. may be the O.W. pers. n. Dincat LL (O.Bret. Dincat), found in 
Dingestow, Monm. (merthir dincat, landinegat LL). 

9. Biffington (on the Ribble and the Calder) : de Billingduna 1196 YCh 1524, 
Billingdon 1203 LPR, Billindon 1204 LPR, de Bilingdon 1208-25, de Biligdun 
1208-20 DD, Bilingdon 1242 LI ; Billinton 1208 LF, 1246 LAR, 1259 LAR, 
Bilinton 1241 LF, Bilington, Billington 1246 LAR, Bylington 1309 LF, Bylinton 
1313 LF, Bylyngton 1325, 1336 LF, 1332 LS, Billington 1493 LF. The S.E. 
boundary is formed by a long ridge called Billington Moor, earlier Billingahoth 
c 1130 Sim. Durh. This name tells us that the first el. is O.E. Billinga gen. pi. 
" of the Billings." Billingas is most probably a derivative of O.E. Bill(a) or of 
bill " sword " (Bjorkman, NoB 7, 166). The earlier form of the name seems to 
have been Billingdon, really the name of Billington Moor, later supplanted by 

Braddyll : de Brad(e)hull, de Bradul 1246 LAR, de Bradhill 1293 LI, BradJiul 
14 cent. WhC 950. " Broad hill." 

Brockhall (near the Ribble) : de Brochol 1227 LF, Brockhole 1289 LF, Brokhole- 
hirstsike 1294 WhC 1065. "Brock hole," O.E. brocc "badger" and hoi 
" burrow." 

Chew, Chew Mill : le Cho 13 cent. WhC 233, 955, 987, (manerium de) le Cho 
1303 WhC 972, Cho, Choo 1325 LF, Chobank WhC 960. The same name is found 
in Salford and in W. Yks. I suppose it goes back to O.E. ceo (dan, chyun pi.) 
" gill of a fish," which may have been used also, like O.N. gil, of " a narrow 
ravine, a valley." Chew Mill is on Bushburn Brook, which runs in a marked 
ravine near Chew Mill. 

Hacking (at the confluence of the Calder and the Ribble) : de Baking 1258 LI, 
de le Hoeing 1292 LI, del Hackyng 1311 LI, del Hakking 1313 LI, (molendinum) 
del Hakkyng, le Hakkyng 14 cent. WhC 950. The same name is found in Salf. 
(p. 46). Over Hacking is in Aighton near the Hodder ; it may be meant in some 
of the references adduced. Hacking, as shown by the definite article, is clearly 
not a patronymic. The name may be compared with O.E. hcecwer " a weir with 
a grate to catch fish " ( = dial, salmon-heck) ; hcec is hcecc " hatch." Perhaps 
we should rather expect a form Hatching, but a form Hacking is also possible ; 
cf. N. dial, heck, hack for hatch. Besides, Hacking may be a derivative of O.E. 
haca, apparently " a bolt," not from the cognate hcecc. I suppose haking is 
an old word f or a " fish- weir," perhaps identical with haking, " a kind of net, or 
apparatus with net attached, used for taking sea-fish " (1602 NED : Carew, 
Cornwall). Over Hacking was very likely named after a family that came 


from Hacking. Members of the Hacking family in Billington held land in 
Aighton (VHL VI. 328). 

Langho : Langale 13 cent. WhC 1019, 1027, Langalesik 13 cent. ib. 1019. The 
second el. of the name is O.E. halh, presumably meaning " haugh." 
Snodworth : Snodiswrth 1243 LI, Snoddesworthe 1296 Lacy C, Snoddesworth 
1322 LI. The first el. is the O.E. pers. n. Snod (cf. snod adj. " smooth, sleek "), 
found in Snoddesbyri 972, now Upton Snodsbury, Wore. (Duignan). 
Townworth : hyghe Tunneworthe, Tunneworthe (hays, Rydynge) c 1550 WhC 
1176. Cf. O.E. oBt Tuneweorde 957 BCS 994 and Tunworth,' Hants. This may 
be " worp belonging to the tun (i.e., village)," perhaps " village fold." 

10. Great Harwood (on the Calder, town) : majori Harewuda a 1123 Whit. II. 
388, Harewode 1243 LI, Harewude 1246 LAR, Magna Harwod 1303 FA, Magna 
Harwode 1327 LS, Harewode Magna 1332 LS. The first el. may be O.E. Mr 
" g rev >" or hara " hare." 

Martholme (old manor) : Merkedholme 1324 Whit. II. 390, Merkethholme 1499 
DL, Martholme 1577 Saxton. " The market holm." Martholme occupies a 
piece of low level land, bounded on three sides by the Calder and the Hyndburn. 
Herwudesholm 1200 LPR may be the same place. 

11. Wilpshire (N. of Blackburn) : de Wlypschyre (Wlypsire, Wlipsire, Wlip- 
schyre) 1246 LAR, Wlipschire 1258 IPM, de Wypsire 1272 LAR, Wlyppeschyre 
1284 LAR, Wilpschire 1311 IPM, Wlipsh' 1332 LS, Whypshire 1341 IN, Wylpshire 
1396 LF, Lipshire et Whilpshire 1589 TI, Lipshyre 1615 Blackburn R. This 
township occupies the hill called Wilpshire Moor (770ft.) and the adjoining lower 
land. Wilpshire proper is in a fairly deep valley. 

This name offers particular difficulties. The second el. is O.E. scir, but this 
term must here be used in an uncommon sense. There is no reason to believe 
that Wilpshire was ever the head of a hundred or the like. There are three 
W. Yks. names in -shire, which denote comparatively small districts, viz., 
Borgscire, Hallamshire and Sourbyshire (now Sowerby) ; cf. Goodall, p. 156. 
But apparently these names denote larger districts than Wilpshire. So do the 
Nhb. and Durh. names in -shire dealt with by Mawer, p. xiv f . But an analogous 
name is apparently Pinnock (v.) Glo. : Pignocsire DB, Pinnocsir 1211-13 BF, 
PynnuJcshire 1316 FA. Possibly O.E. scir could be used of an estate managed 
by a steward or the like. Another plausible meaning here is " boundary " (cf. 
andlang scire 956 BCS 982). The usual form of the first el. seems to have been 
Wlip-. The only Engl. word which it seems possible to adduce as its source is 
O.E. wlips, wlisp, " lisping." This might have been used as a nickname. The 
Brit, word for " wet," found in Welsh as gwlyb (O.Corn. gulip, Ir. fliuch) 
would be suitable from a formal point of view and it is used in Welsh place- 
names, but it does not seem to suit the locality. 

Dewhurst : de le Dewyhurst c 1300 WhC, del Dewyhirst 1332 LS. Perhaps dewy 
has the sense " wet." M.E. dewes Langland P.P1. (B) XV. 289 apparently means 
" damp places." 

Hollowhead : Hallhaede 1200-8, Hallehede a 1300 DD. O.E. hall " hall " and 
heafod " hill." 

12. Rishton (E. of Blackburn, town) : Riston 1200-8 DD, 1258 IPM, Ruston 
1243 LI, Ryston 1246 LAR, Ruyston 1277 LAR, Rissheton 1322 LI, Russhton 


1332 LS, Ryssheton 1371 LF. O.E. rise " rush " and tun. The town stands 

near the Hyndburn. 

Cowhill : Kuhill 1200-8 DD, dv CuMl 1210-20 DD, 1246 LAR, de Couhill 

(-hull) 1332 LS. Literally " cow hill." The place is on a hill. 

Cunliffe : de Kuntediue (Cumbediue) 1246 LAR, de Cuntecliue CO 674, de 

Cundeclive 1258, 1274 LI, de Cunteclyue 1276 LAR, de Condeclyve 1288 LF, 

de Cundeclif 13 cent, WhC 1027, de Cundeclyf 1277 DD, 1388 Moore MSS. The 

early forms seem to point to a first el. Cunde-, which may be the O.E. pers. n. 

Cunda (one ex. Searle), very likely a Brit, name (Forssner). Another possibility 

is that the original form was Cunte-, which may be identified with cunte " cunnus." 

" Cunnus diaboli " was a monkish name for a hollow in a rock through which 

people in Yorkshire used to crawl to be healed of sickness. Cf. Nyrop, Dania I. 

16. There may have been at Cunliffe a rock of this character. Second el. 

O.E. clif " cliff," etc. The place is on a slope. 

Dunscar : Dungecarre 12 cent. Whit. II. 388, c 1360 DD, Dundgecarr 1622 

Blackburn R. O.E. dynge " dung, manure, litter," and O.N. Jciarr " swamp," etc. 

Sidebeet (or Sidebight) : Le ffidebitht (for Side-) 1258 LI, Sydebiht 1278 LF, de 

Sidebuhte 13 cent DD. " The wide curve," O.E. sld " wide " and byht " bend, 

curve." Sidebeet is in a wide bend made by a brook. With -beet cf. [ni't] for 

night in Lane. dial. 

Tottleworth : Tottleworth 1200-8 DD, de Totlewrth 1258 LI, de Tatilwyrd a 1288 

DD. The first el. is no doubt an O.E. pers. n. *Tottla ; cf. Tottel and Tyttla in 


13. Little Harwood (N.E. of Blackburn) : Little Harewud 1246 LAR, Parua 
Har(e)wode 1327, 1332 LS, Parva Harwood 1341 IN, Little Harewode 1493 LF. 
See Great Harwood. Li. Harwood is separated from Gt. Harwood by Rishton 
township. Yet we must assume the two to have belonged together and to have 
been named from the same wood. 

Ediholes : Ediholes 1200-8 DD, Edyasholes (for Edyaf-) 1292 PW, de Edieles 
1284 LF, de Edyefholes 1310 VHL VI. 249, del Ediholes 1323 LCR. First el. 
O.E. Eadgeofu pers. n. (fern.) ; second O.E. hoi "hollow," etc. The place stands 
near a valley. 

Hastingley :" de Harstaneslegh 1357 LF, Harstonelee 1618 CW 162. " The 
hoarstone lea " ; cf. p. 60. 

14. Ramsgreave (N. of Blackburn) : Romesgreve 1296 Lacy C, 1311, 1323 LI, 
Romesgrave 1311 IPM, Romysgreve (wood) 1324 LI. Ramsgreave formerly con- 
sisted to a great extent of forest. The second el. of the name is O.E. grcef " grove." 
The first is no doubt O.E. ram " ram " (possibly used as a pers. n.). All the 
early forms show o for O.E. a (o) before the nasal. 

15. Mellor (N.W. of Blackburn, v.) : Malver c 1130 Whit. II. 330, de Meluer 
1200-8 DD, Meluer 1246 LAR, 13 cent. WhC etc., (de) Melwrith 1246 LAR, de 
Meluir 1276 LAR, de Meluyr 1285 ib., de Melure 1274 LI, Melure 1311 
LI, 1312 LF, 1327 LS, Meluere 1322 LI, Mdaire 1332 LS, Mellour 1428, 
1508 LF. The village stands on the slope of Mellor Moor, a hill of 733ft. above 
sea-level, and with remains of a speculatory fort of the Roman period. In 
Scandinavians, p. 116, I identify the name with W. Moelfre, a name of common 
occurrence meaning " bare hill." Moel- (Welsh mod " bald, bare ") goes back 


to Brit. *mel from Prim. Celt. *mailo- ; cf. Welsh coet (< *kaito-) and Cheetham, 

p. 33. The second el. is identical with Welsh bre " hill." 

Arley (on Arley Brook) : Ereley 13 cent. VHL VI. 262, Erley, Arley 1558 DL, 

Arley 1600 RS XII. Cf. Arley, Sa. (p. 45). 

Shorroek Green: de Shorrok 13 cent. WhC 111, 1324 LCR, 1332 LS, Old Shorock 

1411 VHL VI. 262 ; Shorrocke greene 1614 Blackburn R. The most plausible 

etymology seems to be O.E. Scorran dc " the oak of Scorra" Cf . (to) Scorranstane 

(Glo.) 896 BCS 574. 

16. Blackburn (town) : Blachebvrne DB, Blakeburn 1187 ff. LPR, 1332 LS, etc., 
Blakebourn, Blakeburn 1311 IPM, Blagburne 1590 Burghley, Blegburn 1864 
Staton. Blackburn is on the Blackwater, formerly Blackburn (see p. 66). 
Audley (or Haudley) Hall : de HaUeley 1311 LI, de Haldelegh (Aldelegh) 1324 
LCR, Haudley 1577 Saxton. O.E. hold " inch'ned ; sloping," and leah. The 
place is on sloping ground S.E. of Blackburn. 

Bastwell (N. of Blackburn) : de Baddestwysel 13 cent. WhC 101, de Battistwyssel 
1329 ib. 263, de Battestwysell 1384 DD. The first el. is probably O.E. Bcedd or 
Badd pers. n., found in Bceddeswellan 972 BCS 1282 (orig.) and in names such as 
Badsey, Wore. (Baddeseia 709, etc., Duignan), Baddesley, Warw. (Bedeslei 
DB, Duignan), etc. The second is O.E. twisla " fork of a river." 
Beardwood (N.W. of Blackburn) : de Berdewrthe 1258 LI, Berd[e]worthe, Berd- 
worthgrene 1296 Lacy C, Berdeswurthgrave, Burdeswurthe 1305 ib., Berdeworthe 
1311 IPM, Berdeworth, -greve 1324 LI, Berdwood 1609 Blackburn R. The second 
el. was originally worp (p. 20), but has been replaced by wood. The first may be 
Bearda, an O.E. pers. n. perhaps found in Bardney, Line. (Bardenai DB), or 
rather a cognate name* Beard. Beardwood is on the N. slope of Revidge Hill. 
Oozebooth (N. of Blackburn, on Revidge Hill) : de Huluysbothis 1258 IPM, 
Ulvesboth 1296 Lacy C, 1324 LI, Ulnebothes 1311 IPM. Clearly " the booth(s) 
of Ulf"', Ulfr is a well-known O.N. pers. n. There are Higher and Lower 
Oozebooth, hence the plural. 

17. Witton (W. of and partly in Blackburn) : de Witton 1246 LAR, Witton 1311 
LI, 1327 LS, Wytton 1332 LS. Probably W ittan tun. O.E. Witta is a common 
pers. n. 

Coo Hill : Coohyll 1 1591 DL. Cf. Cowhill, p. 73. 

Redlam (in a bend of the Blackwater) : Reddlomme 1609, Redlom 1615 Black- 
burn R. Doubtful. Perhaps O.E. hreod " reed " and lum " pool " ; cf. p. 62. 

18. Pleasington (W. of Blackburn, in a bend of the Darwen) : de Plesigtuna 
1196 YCh 1524, Plesinton 1208 LF, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., de Plesington 
1241 Kirkstall C, 1258, 1274 LI, Plesington 1267 LAR, 1497 LF, Plessington 
1296 LF, Plesyngton 13 cent. WhC 106. No doubt O.E. Plesinga tun, Plesvngas 
being a patronymic from Plesa, a name found in Pleseley (in Plesington) 1284 
VHL VI. 267. 

Feniscowles (partly in Livesey) : de Feinycholes 1276 LAR ; cf. Fennyshales, 
Fenniscoles 1307-9 VHL VII. 288, now [fenisko'lz]. The elements of the name 
are fenny adj. " dirty," and scoles " huts " (O.N. skali). Cf. de Fennycotes 

1 Coo- represents a dial, form of cmo with O.E. u preserved as [ir]. This pronunciation 
is now rare in Lane, dialects, except the northern ones. I have heard brow (of a hill) pro- 
nounced as [bru*] in Ribchester. 


1284 LAR (Briercliffe). Feniscowles is on the Darwen, near its confluence with 
the Roddlesworth. The name may refer to muddy ground on the banks of the 

19. Livesey (S.W. of Blackburn, bounded on the W. by Roddlesworth river, on 
the N. by the Darwen) : Livesey >e 1227 LF, Liveshey 1243 LI, Liuesay, Lyuesay, 
(de Liveshay, -hey) 1246 LAR, de Livesai 1257 LI, de Lyvisay 1258 LI, Livysay 
1258 IPM, Lyveseye 1296 LF, Lyvesay 1353, 1356 LF, Levesay 1311 IPM, Leuesay 
1332 LS, Leyuesey 1539 LF. The second el. of the name is no doubt O.E. eg 
" island," etc. Livesay Hall is in a low situation near the Darwen. The first 
el. is presumably a pers. n., possibly O.E. Leof, as suggested by Wyld, the early 
i being due to a W. Midi, development of O.E. eo. But the early forms point 
rather to a base with short i, possibly related to O.E. hlifian " to stand out 
prominently, to tower." 

Ewood (h. on the Darwen) : de Eywode (Euot) 1246 LAR, del Ewode 1332 LS, 
1341 IN. No doubt O.E. ea-wudu " wood on the river." Of. the same name 
p. 91. 

Feniscliffe or Finiscliffe (on the Darwen) : Fanisdiffe 1522 VHL VI. 288, 1615 
Blackburn R, farnscliffe 1600 RS XII. The material does not allow of a definite 
etymology. The place stands fairly high above a level piece of land along the 

Whithalgh : de Quithale 1246 LAR, de Whythagh, de Whythalgh 1324 LCR. 
" White haugh." The place is at the confluence of a brook with the Roddies- 

20. Tockholes (W. of Darwen town, bounded on the W. by Roddlesworth river) : 
de Tocholis c 1200 CO, Tocholes 1246 LAR, 1497 LF, Thocol, de Thochol 1246 
LAR, Tokhol 1259 LAR, de Thocholes 1269 LI, Tockholes 1311 LI. The township 
is on the slopes of moorlands. It does not appear what hoi exactly means in 
this case, presumably hollow or valley. It is doubtful to what place in the 
township the name was first applied. The first el. is apparently O.E. Tocca 
pers. n., found in Toccan sceaga 755 BCS 181 (orig.), and Tockenham, Wilts. 
( : Tocheha' DB), cf. Tockington, Glo. ( : Tochintune DB). 

Hollinhead : del Holynhevid 1324 LCR, Le Holynhed 1381 CR 353. " Holly hill." 

21. Lower Darwen, Over Darwen (townships on the Darwen, S. of Blackburn ; 
Darwen town is in Over Darwen) : de Derewent 1208 LF, Derewent 1246 LAR, 
Netherderwent 1311 IPM, 1335 LF, Netherderwend 1332 LS, 1339 LF ; in superiori 
Derwent 13 cent. WhC 124, de Superior Derwent 1246 LAR, Overderewente 
1276 ib., Ovrederwent 1311 IPM, Ouerderwent 1322 LF, Ouerderuend 1332 LS ; 
Darrun 1868 Staton. The places were named after the river Darwen. 
Blacksnape : Blakesnape 1614 Blackburn R. " Black pasture " ; cf. p. 17. 
Hoddlesden (E. of Darwen, on Hoddlesden Brook) : Hoddesdene 1296, 1305 
Lacy C, 1323 LI, Hoddesden 1311 IPM, 1324 LI, Hodelesdon 1324 AP, Hodlesden 
1507 CCR ; Hoddisdenebrok WhC 102. The I is intrusive, the first el. being 
O.E. Hod pers. n. (Searle), found in Hodsden, Herts. : Hodesdone DB. 

Sough : Swoughe 1623, Swough 1625 Blackburn R. M.E. sough, " a boggy or 
swampy place, a small pool ; a drain, a trench." 

22. Eccleshffl (E. of Darwen) : Eccleshull, de Eccleshil 1246 LAR, Eckeleshulle 
1276 LAR, Ecleshull 1301 LF, Ecckshill 1322 LI, Ecclishull 1332 LS. " The 


church hill," named from a spur of the moorland range, which reaches 860ft. 
at New Sett End (VHL VI. 278). Eccles- I take to be the Brit, word *ecles, 
church (see Eccles, p. 37). Of the church there are no traces. 
Grimshaw : de Grineshare 1265 LI, de Grymeschawe 1284 LAR. As there is a 
Grimshaw also in Cliviger, it is somewhat difficult to believe that the first el. 
is the O.N. pers. n. Grimr. Perhaps it is O.E. grlma " spectre." If so, Grim- 
shaw means " the haunted grove." 

23. Yate and Pickup Bank (E. of Darwen). The township consists of hilly 

Yate Bank : Yatebank 1588 CW 221 . Yate may be O.E. geat " gate." On lank 
" hill," see p. 7. In Yate Bank an elevation of over 1,000ft. is reached. 
Pickup Bank : de Pycoppe 1296 Lacy C, Pickope Bank 1595 CW 97. The name 
consists of the words pike " a sharp point " (cf . Pike Law, p. 68) and O.E. copp 
" summit." Pickup Bank Height or Greet Hill reaches over 1,100ft. 


This large parish, the eastern part of the hundred, consists of 45 townships 
south of the Ribble, and one (Bowland-with-Leagram) north of it. It consists 
to a great extent of fell country, especially in the south and east ; the highest 
point, Pendle Hill, is in the northern part. Old villages and homesteads are 
mostly in the valleys of the larger rivers, the Ribble and the Calder, with their 
tributaries. In mediaeval times there were three large forest districts in Whalley : 
the forests of Pendle, Trawden and Rossendale. In these were several vaccaries 
or dairy-farms, some of which have later developed into villages and townships. 

The parish is divided into chapelries. This division is on the whole followed 
for practical reasons. 


1. Whalley (N. of the Calder, v.) : Hwcdleage 798 Chr. D, Hweallage 798 Chr. E, 
Wallei DB, Walalege c 1130 Sim. Durh., Walleya 1124, 1154 YCh (1475, 1486), 
Wallega 1184fL LPR, Walelega 1211-13 ib., de Walleye 1245 LI, Wallay (de 
Whalegh, de Whalley, Whallay) 1246 LAR, de Qualley 1257 LI, Walley 1258 LI, 
Whalleye 1284 ChR, Whallay 1298 LF, Whaulley c 1540 Leland ; now [wo'li]. 
The second el. is O.E. leak " lea " ; the old name of the church was Alba 
Ecclesia suUus Legh Whit. I. 66. The first cannot be O.N. hvdll " hill " ; the 
name is undoubtedly older than the Scandinavian time. The earliest quotations 
point to a monosyllabic first el. O.E. Tiwcel or the like. We seem to have the same 
first el. in Whaley, Derby ( : Walley 1255 IPM, Whalleye 1332, etc., Walker), 
and Whalton, Nhb. (: Walton 1203, etc., Whalton 1205, etc., Mawer). Whale, 
Wml., on the other hand, may be O.N. hvdll, as here d does not become o. Per- 
haps we may assume an O.E. word *hwwl "hill," related to O.N. hvdll, but with 
different gradation. If so, Whalley must have been named after Whalley Nab, 
the most prominent feature in the neighbourhood of Whalley village. This 
etymology also seems to suit the situation of Whaley, Derb., which is situated 
at a spur of hill, and Whalton, Nhb., near which are two small hills. 
Clerk Hill (on a spur of Pendle) : Clerkhill 1517 CS XLIV. 55, Clarkehill 1600 


RS XII, 1604 CW 47. On this name Whit. II. 14 may be compared. The old 

name was Snelleshowe 1296 Lacy C, -how 1311 IPM, -hou 1305 Lacy C, 13 cent 

WhC 277 ; Snelsoe 1618 DL. The name means " the hill of Snell " (how < O.N. 

haugr ; Snell very likely O.N. Sniallr). 

Moreton (on the Calder) : de Morton 1246 LAR, Morton 1270, 1276 LAR, 1292 

PW. O.E. mor " moor " and tun. 

Portfield : PortefeyU 1553 WhC 1176. The place is on the N.E. side of a Roman 

encampment. First el. O.E. port, perhaps in the sense " fort." Cf. p. 34. 

2. Little Mitton, Henthorn, and Coldcoats (W. and N. of Whalley). 

Little Mitton (on the Ribble) : Little Mitton 1242 LI, 1278 LAR, 1322 LI, etc., 
Little Mutton 1283 LF, parua Mitton 1296 WhC 205, Mitton 1332 LS, Parva 
Mitton 1341 IN, etc. O.E. gemypu " junction of streams " and tun. In Yks., 
opposite to Little Mittou, is Great Mitton, situated N. of the junction of the 
Hodder and the Ribble. This is no doubt the gemypu that gave name to the 
two Mittons. 

Henthorn : Hennethyrn 1258 IPM, -thyme, -theme 1276f. LAR, Hennethirn 1311 
IPM, Henthern 1332 LS, Henthorn 1327 LS, 1360 LF, etc. O.E. henn, here used 
in the sense " female of wild birds," and O.E. pyrne " thornbush," also as it 
seems " clump of thornbushes," later exchanged for thorn. 
Coldcoats (a detached portion. E. of Standen in Pendleton) : Kaldecotes 1243 LI, 
de Caldekotes 1246 LAR, Caldecote 1322 LI ; Coldecotes 1296 Lacy C, 1332 
LS, etc. There are in England numerous places called Coldcoats, Caldecot, 
Caldecote, Caldecott. Taylor (Words and Places) may be right in his conjecture 
that this name has the same meaning as Cold Harbour, so that it meant " a 
place of shelter from the weather for wayfarers." Coldcoats stands fairly high 
up on the hillside. 

3. Pendleton (on the W. slope of Pendle Hill, h.) : Peniltune DB, Little Penulton 
1242 LI, Penelton 1246 LF, Pennulton 1262 LAR, Penhulton 1272 LAR, Penhil- 
tone 1305 Lacy C, Penhillton 1311 IPM. There were two manors : Great and 
Little Pendleton : parva Penilton 1246 LAR, Penhilton (Magna cum parua) 
1332 LS ; magna, parua Penhulton 1296 WhC 205, Little Penhilton 1311 IPM. 
On Pendle see p. 68. 

Wymondhouses (h.) : de Wymotehuses 1285 LAR, Wymondeshouses 1296 Lacy C, 
de Wymundhouses 1303 FA, de Wymondhous 1324 LCR. The first el. is O.E. 
Wigmund pers. n. 

Standen : Standen 1258 LI, etc., Standene 1296, 1305 Lacy C, 1311 IPM. O.E. 
stdn " stone " and denu " valley." The place is on Pendleton Brook, called 
aqua de Standene c 1200 Whit. II. 100. 

4. Wiswell (N.E. of Whalley, v.) : Wisewell 1207 LF, Wisewalle 1243 LI, de 
Wysewell (Viseual) 1246 LAR, Wiseivall 1262 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Wysewall 
1278 LAR, 1296 WhC 205, etc., Wysewell 1272 LAR, Wysewalle 1322 LI. There 
are several small streams in the district ; there is also a well called Old Molly's 
Well. The el. well may in this case mean " well " or "brook." The first el. 
may be O.E. wise " sprout, stalk." Or if well means " well," the first el. might 
be a substantivized adj. wise "the wise one," " the wise woman." Of course, 
there may have been an O.E. pers. n. Wlsa ; cf. O.H.G. Wiso. 

Barrow : cf. Barowdough, Baroivedoghsik 1324 LI. O.E. bearo " grove." 



5. Clitheroe (on the Ribble, town, castle ; head of the honour of Clitheroe) : 
Cliderhou 1102 Ch, 1176 LPR, 1212, 1242 LI, 1246 LAR, 1255 LF, 1332 LS, etc. ; 
Gliderhou c 1200 Kirkstall C, Cliderow 1235 LF; Cliderhow 1246 LAR, Clyderhou 
1236 LI, 1276 LAR, etc., -how 1258 IPM, 1276 LAR, -howe 1276 LAR, Clyderawe 
1293 LI ; Clidrehou 1311 IPM ; Gliderho 1155-8 (1230) ChR, Cliderho 1260 
LAR ; Glitherow 1124 YCh 1486, Clilherou 1154 ib. 1475, Clitherhou c 1200 John 
of Hexham (Chron. & Mem. 75), Clithero 1356 OR 332, Clytherawe 1441 LF. 
Clitheroe Castle stands on a limestone crag. 

The second el. is apparently O.N. haugr " hill." The first el. in the earliest 
sources is regularly Glider-, Clither-. We have to start from an O.E. form with 
i ; if the O.E. form had had y, we should expect to find occasional spellings with 
u. A definite etymology of this el. cannot be given. Possibly we may compare 
dial, clitter " a pile of loose stones or granite debris " (Dev., EDD). Such an 
etymology would suit the case perfectly. The crag on which the castle stands 
consists of loose limestone, which crumbles off to a great extent. The same el. 
is possibly found in Clither Beck, Yks. : (quarry of) Clitherbec 1272 IPM. The 
word clitter perhaps belongs to a root of onomatopoeic origin meaning " noise " 
or the like. If so, it is probably cognate with O.E. clidrenn " a clatter, noise," 
which agrees nearly in form with the first el. of Clitheroe. 
Horrocksford : Hurrocford c 1330 VHL VI. 366, horrockforth 1600 RS. XII. 235. 
Horrocksford is close to the Ribble ; there is now a bridge at the place. First 
el. apparently dial, hurrock " a piled-up heap of loose stones or rubbish." 
Salthffl (at a hill of 385ft.) : Salthille 1296 Lacy C, Salthill 1324 LI. The meaning 
of Salt- is not apparent. 

Syddles (or Siddows) : Sydales 14 cent. WhC 1107, 1127, Sydalith ib. 1128. The 
place is near the Ribble. The name means " the broad haughs " (O.E. sld 
adj. and halh). 

6. Mearley (Great and Little, on the W. slope of Pendle Hill) : Merlay 1241 LF, 
1332 LS, Merley 1243 LI, de Merlay 1246 LAR ; Magna Merlay 1102, c 1140 Ch ; 
Great Merlay 1296, 1305 LF, Little Merley 1243 LI, Magna et parua Merlaya 
1296 WhC 205, Magna Merlay 1303 FA. I suppose the first el. is O.E. gemcere 
" boundary." Pendle Hill may have formed an important boundary in early 

7. Worston (on the N.W. slope of Pendle Hill, h.) : Wrtheston 1242 LI, 
Wrthiston 1258 LI, Wurtheston 1285 LAR, Worstone, Worchestone 1296, Wurche- 
stone 1305 Lacy C, Worston 1311 IPM, 1320 LF, 1332 LS, etc. The hamlet stands 
on a brook not far from a small but steep and prominent ridge, Worsaw Hill : 
Worsow 1529, Worsaw 1538 CCR. Worsaw seems to contain the same first el. 
as Worston and O.E. hoh or O.N. haugr " hill." The first el. may be O.E. 
worp " homestead," etc., but the regular genitive -s is remarkable. No O.E. 
pers. n. that may be the first el. is recorded, but an O.E. W (e)orp or the like is 
very probably the base of Worthing, 1 Suss. Cf . O.H.G. Werdo, etc. (Forstemann). 
Worsthorn has the same first el. as Worston. 

1 The forms Mordinges, Ordinges DB are probably corrupt for Wordinges and point to 
an O.E. patronymic. 


Angram Green: Anggrome 1508 COR ; de Angrum 1324 LGR, 1332 LS. Angram 
is apparently identical with Angram, Yks., a name found several times (Goodall, 
p. 59). One of the names appears as Angrum 1185-95 YCh 996. This seems 
to be the plural of O.E. Danger = G. anger " pasture," etc. 

8. Chatburn (N. of Clitheroe, on the Ribble, v.) : Chatteburn 1242 LI, 1251 ChR, 
1258 IPM, 1332 LS, etc., -burne 1292 PW, Chatburn 1341 IN. The village stands 
on a stream that falls into the Ribble ; clearly this stream was called Chatburn, 
the second member being O.E. burna " burn." The first el. is no doubt the 
O.E. pers. n. Ceatta. 


9. Downham (N. of Pendle Hill ; v.) : Dunun 1188, 1189 LPR, Dunum 1194 ib., 
Dunhum 1243 LI, de Dunham 1246 LAR, Dounum 1251 ChR, 1276 LAR, Dounom 
1332 LS, etc., Dunnum 1262 LAR. O.E. dunum dat. pi. of dun " hill, moun- 
tain." The village stands on the slope of a ridge of high land. Near it are the 
hill formerly called Greenhow and Worsaw Hill. 

Gerna (S. of Downham Church) : Grenehou c 1300 WhC 320, (pastura de) Grenhou 
(in Downham) 1305 Lacy C. Gerna stands at the foot of a small round green 
hill. The name means " the green hill " (O.N. haugr " hill "). 
Ravensholme (on a brook) : Rauensholme c 1250 WhC 319. First theme the 
pers. n. Raven < O.N. Hrafn. 

10. Twiston (N.E. of Downham, on the Yks. border) : Tuisleton 1102 Ch, 
Twisleton c 1140 ib., Twysilton 1242, 1243 LI, etc., Tuysilton 1258 IPM, Twyselton 
1332 LS, etc., Twiselton 1327 LS, 1346 FA, Tuystonl21Q LAR, Twiston 1504=1$. 
First el. O.E. twisla " fork of a river." The township stands between Ings Beck 
and another small brook, a tributary of it ; cf . Tivisleton-brok WhC 333. 


Heyhouses and Higham (extra-parochial) belonged to Pendle Forest. 

11. Read (E. of Whalley, between Calder and Sabden Brook) : Revet 1202 LPR, 
Reved 1246 LAR, etc., Revid 1258 LI, de Revid 1292 LI, Reued 13 cent. WhC 
1067 fi. 1311 IPM, etc., Reuid 1332 LS. The village stands on the slope and 
near the end of a ridge which attains 860ft. above sea-level. The name is prob- 
ably an old compound with O.E. heafod, here in the sense " a hill, ridge," as 
second el. The first el. may be O.E. roege " female of the roe " ; cf. Roeburn 
infra. This hypothesis receives some support from a form Rieheved quoted by 
Whit. II. 35 from a deed of 1418. Cf. the name cet Rcegeheafde in the O.E. 
translation of Bede. The early loss of h and contraction of the vowels offers 
no difficulties ; cf., e.g., Newsham in De. 

12. Simonstone (N.W. of Padiham, v.) : Simundestan 1292 IM, Simondestan, 
Symondeston 1278 LAR, Simundistan 1292 LI, Simundeston 1246 LAR, Simon- 
diston 1258 IPM, de Simondestone 1296 Lacy C, Symoundeston 1327 LS, Simoun- 
deston 1332 LS. " The stone of Sigemund." 

Huntroyde : Huntrode 1412 VHL VI. 500, Huntteroade 1598 Padiham R. O.E. 
hunta " hunter " or *Hunta pers. n. and rod " clearing." 

13. Padiham (town, on the Calder) : Padiham 1251 ChR, 1258 LI, 1332 LS, etc., 


Padingham 1292 PW, 1296, 1305 Lacy C, Padyham 1305 Lacy C, 1311 LI, 
Padynngeham 1311 LI. O.E. Padinga ham. O.E. Pada is a known name. 
High Whitaker : Whitacr 1296 WhC'205, Whytacre 1296 Lacy C, High Whittaker 
1547 LF. " White acre." 

14. Hapton (S.W. of Burnley, S. of the Calder ; v.) : Apton 1243 LI, Hapton 
1246 LAR, 1311 IPM, 1332 LS, etc. I take the name to go back to O.E. heaptun 
from heap " heap " ; cf. Heap, p. 61. I suppose the name refers to the hill of 
575ft. close to Hapton Hall and the site of Hapton Castle, or to Great Hill 
(1,303ft.) on the slope of which stood Hapton Tower. 

Birtwisle (old h., now lost ; cf. Birtwell Close in S.E. Huncoat, O.M. 1846-51) : 
Bridestwisel 1209 LF, Briddistuysil 1258 IPM, Bridhistuwisil 1292 LI, Briddes- 
twysel 1296 WhC 206, Brydestwysel (de Breretwysel) 1311 LI, Brittwysell 1395 LF. 
The first el. of the name is O.E. Bridd pers. n. rather than bridd " bird " ; the 
second is O.E. twisla " junction of streams." 

Shuttleworth (h., old manor) : de Schutlesworth, de Suttelesworth 1246 LAR, 
de Shotelisworth 1277 LAR, Shuttelesworth 1329 LI, de Shuttlesworth 1332 LS, 
Shotilworth 1482 LF. Cf. the same name p. 63. 

15. Dunnockshaw (S. of Hapton ; a booth in Rossendale) : de Dunnockschae 
1296 Lacy C, de Dunnokschaw 1323 LCR, de Dunnofahagh 1332 LS, Donocshay 
1536 CS 103. The same name occurs in SLo. This renders it unlikely that 
Dunnock- is an unrecorded O.E. pers. n. Dunnoc. It is probably dunnock " hedge- 
sparrow " (1400, etc., NED). The hedge-sparrow, locally in Lane, dunnock, 
is " a resident common throughout the county all the year round " (VHL I. 

16. Heyhouses (N.W. of Padiham) : Heyhowses 1509, Heyhouses 1518 CCR. 
Hey- is O.E. heg" hay " rather than hege " enclosure." 

Sabden (town ; in the valley of Sabden Brook) : Sapeden c 1140 Ch, 1377 CCR, 
de Sappeden (Sapedon) 1377 CCR, Shapedenhey, -banke 1463-4 Whit. I. 358, 
Sabdenbank 1504 CCR. Sapley (Hunts.) is derived by Skeat from O.E. sappe 
11 spruce fir " and leah. " Spruce valley " would give a good meaning. 

17. Higham with West Close Booth (N. of Padiham, part of Pendle Forest) : 
Higham (v., on the slope of a ridge) : Hegham 1296 Lacy C, 1324 LI (vaccary), 
1325 LCR, Highamboth, Heghamclose 1464 Whit. I. 358f. O.E. heah " high " 
and hamm " enclosure ; pasture," etc., or possibly ham " homestead." 

West Close : Westecloos 1324 LI (vaccary), Westclos 1325 LCR, le Westclose 

1464 Whit. I. 358. Self-explaining. 

Copthurst (at a hill) : Coppethursthey 1464 Whit. I. 358, Copthyrst Bowse 1539 

CCR. " Peaked hill " ; cf. p. 51. 

Hunterholme (on the Calder) : Huntersholme 1507, Hunterholme 1511 CCR. 

Hunter is presumably a family name. 


This chapelry corresponds to a large part of the old forest of Pendle E. of 
Pendle Hill. The modern townships are all old booths or vaccaries. The 
chapelry was named from Newchurch in Goldshaw Booth. 

18. Goldshaw Booth (on the S.E. slope of Pendle Hill) : Goldianebothis 1324 LI, 


Goldiaue, the other Goldiaue 1325 LCR, Nethir-, Overgoldshagh 1464 Whit. I. 359, 
Over-, Nethergouldeshey 1502 Whit. I. 297. The name is remarkable. The 
original form seems to have been Goldiaue-both(is), Goldiaue being an O.E. 
woman's name Goldgeofu (cf. Golgifu in Searle ; for the vowel a in the second 
member cf. Ediholes p. 73). Later Goldiaue was apprehended as a place-name 
(cf. Wheatley Booth, etc.) and came to be used alone. Goldiave became Gold- 
shaw by association with shaiv, after dj had become [dz], as in O.E. micgern < 
midgern ; of course, in this case the change took place later. The O.E. pers. n. 
Goldgifu seems to be found in acra Goldgive, Goldgivewik Reg. Prioratus beatae 
Mariae Wigornensis (Camderi Soc.). Another, to me less probable, explanation 
is that the vaccary was originally called Goldgeofu " the gold-giver," i.e., " the 
fat pasture " or the like. 

The Craggs : lez Craggez 1464 Whit. I. 359, CraJcs 1518, le Craggs 1532 OCR. 
Crag is a Celtic loanword (p. 9). 
19. 'Barley with Wheatley Booths (E. of Pendle Hill). 

Barley (the W. part ; v.) : Bayrlegh 1324 LI, Barelegh 1325 LCR, Barleboth 
1462 Whit. I. 298, Barkybothe 1507,' 1513 CCR. Evidently " barley lea " (O.E. 
bere " barley "). 

Wheatley Booth (the N. and E. part) : Whitley in Haboothe 1502 Whit. II. 297, 
le Wheyteley 1516, Witley Bothe 1524, Witley 1526 CCR. " Wheat lea," Wheatley 
seems to have been originally a large district, to judge by the names Wheatley 
Carr infra and Wheatley Lane in Old Laund Booth. Of some interest is the 
name of a ford (situation unknown), which apparently contains the name 
Wheatley: Whateleyford 1464 Whit. I. 359, Watlyngfore 1526, Watlyngforthe 
1529, Whyttleyford al. Wattelyngford 1539 CCR. If the form Watlyng- is old, it 
would seem to be the gen. of O.E. Whcelleaingas " inhabitants of Wheatley." 
Firber : Firber 1546, Firthbarre 1557 CCR.' O.E. furhp " frith " and beorh 
" hill." 

Haw (or Hay) Booth : Hagh 1325 LCR, Haghebothe 1324 LI, Hawbothe 1507, 
Hayboth, the Haybothe 1513, Hayghboth 1515 CCR. First el. O.E. haga " enclo- 
sure," etc. 

White Hough : Whithalgh 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Whitehaweboth 1464 Whit. I. 
359, Whytalgh 1546 CCR'. " The white haugh." The place is on Pendle Water. 

20. Roughlee Booth (Roughlee v. is on Pendle Water, N.W. of Nelson) : Rughley 
1296 Lacy C, Rughdegh 1324 LI, Rughlegh 1325 LCR, Over-, Netherroghlegh 
1462 Whit. I. 298, le Roughlee 1515 CCR ; now [ruf Ir, 6a ruf lr]. Literally 
" the rough lea," The ground along Pendle Water is very uneven, with many 
small ridges and hillocks. 

Dimpenley Clough : Dymppanleigh 1564 CCR, Etymology obscure. 
Thorneyholme (h. on Pendle Water) : Thorneholme 1535, 1537 CCR. " The 
thorny water-meadow." 

21. Wheatley Carr Booth (on Pendle Water, N. of Nelson) : Wheteleycam 1464 
Whit. I. 359, Wheitley Carr 1539 CCR. No doubt named from Wheatley supra. 

22. Old Laund Booth (on Pendle Water, N.W. of Nelson) : OJddand 1462 
Whit. I. 298, Olde Lande 1504 CCR. " The old laund," i.e., " glade, pasture " 
(Fr. lande). 

Brownbrinks (on a steep slope) : BronebreJce 1523, Brownebrinke Hey 1545, 


Browne Brynke Hey 1552 OCR. " Brown slope." Brink < O.N. brekka (< 
*brinka) or a corresponding O.Dan, word. 

Fence (v.) : del Fence 1425, the Fence 1515 OCR. No doubt simply fence " en- 


A large district on both sides of the upper Calder. New Laund Booth, 
Filly Close and Reedley Hallows (extra-par.) are parts of the old Pendle Forest. 

23. Reedley Hallows, Filly Close and New Laund Booth (N.W. of Burnley, on the 
Calder) : 

Reedley Hallows : Redelegh Halowez 1464 Whit. I. 359, Rydelehalghs 1464 ib. I. 
298, Redehalowes 1513, Redyhalus 1564 CCR. The " haughs " or "water- 
meadows of Reedley," named from Reedley (O.E. hreod-leah} S. of the Calder. 
The ground is low and level on both sides of the river. 

Filly Close (N. of the Calder) : Filicloos (vaccary) 1324 LI, ffyliclos 1325 LCR, 
Filiclos 1333 OR. Filly is Q.N.fylja ; close is an O.F. word. 
Moor Isles (or Moorhiles) : Mawre Hillez 1517 CS XLIV. 53, Mawre Hyles 
1541 CCR, Mawer Hyles 1554 DL, Moorehiles 1608 Burnley R. " Ant-hills," 
the first el. being O.N. maurr " ant," the second hile 1 " cluster," also in pisamor 
hile " ant-hill " (in Lane. dial.). 

New Laund Booth : Newland 1462 Whit. I. 298, Newlaund 1507 CCR. " The 
new laund " ; cf. Old Laund Booth. 

24. Ightenhffl Park (N.W. of Burnley): Ightenhill 1242, 1311 LI, ete., 
Hyghtenhutt 1251 ChR, Hucnhul 1258 IPM, Icienhille, Ichtenhille 1296 Lacy C, 
Higtonhull 1296 WhC 206, Itinhill, Hitenhill, Histenhell 1336 Whit. I. 309, 
(park of) Ightenelle 1345 OR ; now [aitn(h)il]. The place was named from the 
hill on which the old manor-house stood (530ft.), now apparently called Park 
Hill. I identify Ighten- with Welsh eithin " furze " (= O.Bret, ethin " rusci," 
O.Ir. aitenn " furze," Gael, aitionn " juniper ") from *ektm ( < *ak-tin). Brit. 
ektin would no doubt become O.E. or M.E. Ihten, just as heht > hight. 
Very likely the Brit, name of the hill was something like O.W. ros ir eithin " the 
gorse moor " LL 221, and the name was adopted by the Anglians as Ehtin, 
to which hyll was added. The same word (with loss of final -n) perhaps is the 
first el. of Ightfield, Sal. (Istefelt DB) and Ightham Ke. (Eghteham 1316 FA). 
Ightham is on Oldberry Hill, the highest point of Ightham Common. 

25. Habergham Eaves (S.W. of Burnley) : Habringham 1242 LI, 1305 Lacy C, 
etc., de Habrigham 1258 LI, Habring(g)eham 1296 Lacy C, Habrinchm 1296 
WhC 206, Habrincham 1324 LI, 1358* Whit. II. 179, de Habercham 1269 LI, 
de Habryngham, de Abricham 1407 f. CR, Habrygham 1425 CCR, Haberjambe 
1527 LP I. 144 (pers. n.), Haberjam 1551 LF ; Abryngham Eves 1510, Haberiam 
Eives 1561 CCR, Haberchamevys 1539 DL. I suppose Habergham was named 
from the most prominent physical feature of the township, viz., Horelaw, a 
hill of 1,153ft., on the slope of which the old hall stands. I conjecture that 
this was called O.E. Heabeorh ; cf. O.E. heahbeorh " mountain." Habercham 

1 Cf dd Hyles 1332, del Mourehyles 1366 LS (Bickerstaffe), " the highway between le hyles 
and Howkeshagh " 1509 CCR (Tottington), Netle Hyles 1549 ib. (Trawden). Possibly hile 
goes back to an O.E. *hygel " bill," corresponding to G. hugel. 


1269 may be simply Heabeorh-hdm. Shortening of ea to ea (whence a) would 
easily take place in such a form. The usual early form I take to represent 
O.E. Heabeorginga ham, " the ham of the dwellers by Heabeorh." This latter 
would seem to have been the common form, but association with Heabeorh 
was always possible, so long as this name was in use. However, a derivative of 
O.E. Heahburh pers. n. or even Heaburh " high fort " is also possible : O.E. 
Heaburginga ham. The addition Eaves seems to mean " edge of a hill " ; cf. 
Oakeneaves (Okynheveys 1509, Okeneves 1524 OCR), the name of a place c 900ft. 
above sea-level on the slope of Horelaw.f 

Clifton (h. ; on the slope of Park Hill) : ? de Clifton 1377, Clifton 1495 CCR. 
" Cliff tun." 

Cronkshaw : del Cronsschaghe 1305 Lacy C, de Cronkeschaw 1324 LCR, de 
Crounkeschawe WhC 1143, Cronkshay 1507 CCR. O.E. cranuc (cronuc) " crane " 
and sliaw. 

Gannow : Garihow 1526 CCR. Etymology obscure. 

Gawthorpe Hall : de Gouthorp' 1256 (copy of 1439) DD, de Goukethorp 1324 LI 
(p. 191), Gawthrop 1472 Lindkvist, p. 141. O.N. Gaukr pers. n. and porp. 
Pickup : Picoppe, Picop 1425 CCR ; cf. p. 76. 

26. Burnley (town) : Brunlaia 1124 YCh 1486, Brunleya 1155-8 (1230) ChR, 
Brunley 1154 YCh (1475), 1251 ChR, 1296 Lacy C, etc., Bronley 1258 IPM, Brumley 
1292 PW, 1341 IN, Brumleye 1294 ChR, Brunlay 1324 LI, 1332 LS, Bruneley 
1311 IPM, Burneley al. Brunley 1533 DL, Burneley 1577 Harr. Burnley stands 
on the Brun, which joins the Calder N. of Burnley town. There are two (or even 
three) alternative explanations, between which it is not easy to choose. The 
name Brun may be O.E. burna " stream " (cf. Brunne, earlier form of Bourne, 
Line.). The early forms seem to favour this explanation. Or the stream may 
have had a name derived from the adj. brun " brown." The vowel would easily 
be shortened in the name Burnley, and Bnin may be a back-formation. In 
favour of this may be adduced Brownside, the name of a place on the Brun : 
Brownes Wode, Brownesyd 1542 CCR. Lastly, Burnley may mean " the brown 
lea," the river-name being a back-formation. Brom- is probably due to asso- 
ciation with O.E. brom, but assimilation to the initial B- (cf. O.E. plume < Lat. 
prunus) may have contributed to the change. 

Brunshaw : Brunschaghe 1296 Lacy C, Brounshagh 1311 LI. W. of the Brun. 
This may be the " brown shaw " or the " shaw on the Brun." 
Fulledge : Fullach 1510, Fulege 1523, Fulhege 1525 CCR. The place is on the 
Calder. The name means " foul (i.e., dirty) letch " (cf. p. 15). An identical 
name is Fulelache 1211-32 Kirkstall C (Bowland, Yks.). 

Heysandforth (on the Brun) : Feasandford 1496 LF, Fezandforthe 1596 Burnley 
R, Fezandford 1608 CW 88 ; Haysondforth 1500 DL, Hezandforth 1549 CCR. 
Apparently " pheasant ford." The change from F- to H- may be due to dis- 

Royle (on the Calder, by a small hill) : Rohille 1296 Lacy C, Roel 1324 LI, 1325 
LCR, Le Roile Hill 1558, the Rook Hill 1560, Roitt Hill 1564 CCR. " Roe hill." 
Saxifield (on the S. slope of Marsden Height) : Saxifeldyk 1324 AP, Saxxefeld 
1425, Saxyfeld 1507, Saxfeld 1510 CCR, Saxesfeld 1549 DL. First el. possibly 
O.E. Seaxa or O.N. Saxi pers. n. 


Towneley Park (S. of Burnley) : Tunleia c 1200 Whit. II. 189, Tunley 1243 LI, 
Touneley 1296 Lacy C, Thunleye 1303 FA, Tounley 1322 LI, Tounlay 1346 FA. 
Probably " the lea belonging to the town," i.e., Burnley. 

27. Cliviger (S.E. of Burnley): Clivercher 1196 LF, Cliueschre, Cliuecher, 
Cliuercher 12, 13 cent. Kirkstall C, Clyuacher, de Clyuakcr 1246 LAR, Clyvichir 
1258 IPM, Clyuach&r 1284 LAR, 1296 WhC 206, 1327 LI, Clyvacher 1294 ChR, 
1341 IN, Clivacher 1296 Lacy C, Clyvachre 1311 IPM, Cliuach' 1332 LS ; Clevachre 
1305 Lacy C, Cleveger 1551 LF ; Clyfacre 1311 LI (II. 32), Clinacres, CUvacres 
1324 AP ; [tlivit/or, tlividzar] Ellis p. 350. Simply, " clifi acre." O.E. cecer 
here appears exceptionally with palatalization ; cf. Alsager, Ches. (Alsacher 
1317 AD VI., Alsachere 1322 ib.), and atchern, etc., from O.E. (Bcern in NED 
and EDD. Practically all the land of the township is on a steep slope E. of 
the Calder. On the palatalization in Cliviger, etc., see Anglia-Beiblatt 32, p. 155ff. 
Barcroft (near the Calder) : de 7?ercro/M296, de Bercroftes 1305 Lacy C. O.E. 
bere " barley " and croft. 

Dineley (W. of the Calder) : de Dynley 1296 Lacy C, de Dynlay 1305 ib., de 

Dynleye 1323 LF, de Dynelay 1311 LI, 1340, 1342 LF. Lands called Stypdyne 

in Cliviger are mentioned 1551 VHL VI. 486. Does this contain O.E. dyne in 

ofdyne " slope " ? The place is on a steep slope. Dineley Knoll reaches c 1,175ft. 

Grimshaw : de Grymeschagh 1311 LI ; cf. p. 76. 

Helly Platt (E. of the Calder, 800ft. above sea-level, Lower Helly Platt c 625ft. 

above sea-level) : de Heley 1311 LI, Hele place 1536 CS 103, Heat-hies PUtte, 

Helyplatts 1590 DL. " High lea." Plait is no doubt plat " a piece of ground " ; 

cf. p. 31. 

Holme (v.) : de Holme 1305 Lacy C, del Holm 1311 LI, le Holme 1380 Whit. II. 

203, Holme 1577 Harr. O.N. holmr. The vil. is on a piece of low level land 

along the Calder. 

Meer Clough (h.) : del Meerclogh 1311 LI. " Boundary clough " (O.E. gemcere 

" boundary "). The clough must have been an old boundary. 

Ormerod : de Ormerode 1305 Lacy C, 1311 LI. O.N. Ormr or Ormarr pers. n. 

and O.E. rod " clearing." 

Thieveley (W. of the Calder on a steep slope) : Thaueley 1301 VHL VI. 485, 

Theveley}Q20 CW 207. First el. M.E. theve " brushwood " or the like, found in 

O.E. pefanporn, etc. ; cf. Thevethornes LI II. 196 (meadow Bl.). Or else dial. 

theave (late M.E. theyve) "a young ewe" (NED, EDD). 

28. Worsthorne w. Hurstwood (E. of Burnley). 

Worsthorne (v.) : Worthesthorn, Wrdestorn 1202 LF, de Wurthesthorn 1246 LAR, 

Wrthisthorm 1258 IPM, de Worthesthorne 1285 LAR, Worstorn 1296 WhC 206, 

Worthestom 1332 LS, Worsthorne 1496 LF ; now [wa-stho-n]. The second el. 

is O.E. porn " thornbush " ; the first is the same as that of Worston, p. 78. 

Hurstwood (h.) : de Hurstwode 1285 LAR, Hirstwode 1370 LF, Hirstewod 1397 

LF. O.E. nyrst and wudu " wood." Hurstwood stands at the foot of a hill ; 

so hurst may here mean " hill, hillock." 

Bottin (in Hell Clough) : de Bottedene 1292 Whit. II. 230. First el. apparently 

an O.E. pers. n. Botta as in Botley, Hants. (Botelie DB, Botteleye 1316 FA). Cf. 

Skeat, Trans. Phil. Soc. 1907-10, p. 65. 

High Halstead : de Halstedes 1292 Whit. II. 230, de Hallestedes 1330 LF, del 


Hallestudes 1332 LS, Heigh Hoisted 1544 COR. The place stands on a slope, 

some 750ft. above sea-level. O.E. hall-stede " place (site) of a hall." Hall 

may have the same meaning as in New Hall p. 64. 

Rowley (on the Bran) : de Roulay 1324 LI, Rowley 1600 RS XII. Now [ro'li]. 

Possibly O.E. raw " row, street," and leak. Or the first el. may be O.E. ruh 

" rough." If so, the modern pronunciation is due to the spelling. 

29. Briercliffe with Extwistle (N.E. of Burnley). 

Briercliffe : Brerecleve a 1193 Whit. II. 221, de Brereclive 1258 LI, Brerediue, 

-dyf 1285 LAR, Brereclive 1296 Lacy C, Brerecliffe 1311 IPM, etc., Brerclif 

1332 LS. O.E. brer " briar " and clif. The township consists of two ridges, on 

the northern one of which is Briercliffe. 

Burwains : Burwens 1541, Burwyns 1559 OCR ; now [bo'winz, ba'winz]. " The 

borran or cairn." Borran is common in place-names in N.W. England. Cf. 

burganes lapidum c 1200 YCh 1700, Cringelborthan, Cringelborhanes, -broghan 

13 cent. LC 177 ff. (Bolton-le-Sands ; Cringel- is O.N. kringla " circle "), Borgan 

FC IT. 152, Borganes 1 ib. 137, Griseburghanes 13 cent. OWNS XX. 67 (Wml.). 

The word is apparently cognate with O.E. byrgan " to bury." Cf. NED s.v. 

borwen, burian. 

Cockden : Cockden 1559 OCR. Probably O.E. cocc " cock " and denu. 

Haggate (v.) : HacJcgate 1 640 Burnley R ; now [hag ge't]. Cf . the Hackgait 

1539 CCR (Goldshaw). O.E. hcec-geat ; hcec being O.E. hc&cc " wicket " etc. 

(> mod. hatch, hack, heck). Hatehgate in the sense " a wicket " is given in 

NED, in the sense " gate at the junction of manors or parishes " in EDD. 

Higher Ridihalgh : de Redihalgh 1324 LCR, Redehalgh 1509, Heigh Redehalgh 

1534 CCR. " The reedy haugh, or water-meadow." the place is near Thursden 


Thursden : Thirsedeneheved 1324 AP, Thirsden 1515 CCR. O.E. pyrs " giant " 

and denu " valley." The place is on Thursden Brook. 

Walshaw (on Walshaw Clough) : de Wolleshagh 1311 LI, de Walleshagh 1332 LS, 

de Walschagh 1333 WhC 995. O.E. wcella " brook," and scaga " shaw." 

Extwistle (the S. part) : Extwysle a 1193 Whit. II. 226, Extwisil 1243 LI, Extwysel 

1303 FA, Extwesil 1322 LI, Extwisell 1332 LS, 1346 FA, etc. Extwistle was 

probably named from the junction (O.E. twisla) of the Swinden and the Don. 

The first el. is perhaps O.E. exen pi. of oxa " ox." Ex- is not uncommon for Ox- 

in early forms of names, but is no doubt frequently a corrupt spelling. Exx. 

Excum (Oxcombe, Line.) HR I. 302, Execroft (Oxcroft, Camb.) 1346 FA, Exe- 

slededale (usually Oxe-) Percy C 136. Early spellings do not favour derivation 

from a pers. n. O.E. Ecci (Searle), even if they do not render it impossible. 

1 The form Borganes (Burwens, etc.) does not seem to be plural. I am inclined to believe 
that M.E. borghanes, burghanes is a derivative with a suffix -asno from the old subst. burg- 
(prob. preserved in Engl. burrow ; cf. p. 8) which seems to be the base of O.E. byrgan " to 
bury." This suffix is found in Goth, hlaiwasnos, " tomb " (cf. O.E. hldw, hlcew, " mound "), 
arhwazna " arrow," O.H.G. alansa " awl," segansa " scythe," O.E. cefesn " pasturage," 
lyfesn " charm " (cf. Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, 86). If this is right, we must assume a 
Prim. Engl. *bur$cesn, *bori,cesn, whose ce was preserved before the group of consonants, and 
in which -sn became -ns by metathesis. Cf. O.H.G. alansa, etc., and O.E. -els (in byrgels, 
etc.) < -isL With borghanes instead of borghans we may compare M.E. birieles < O.E. byrgels. 

Kempesbirines c 1200 CC (Winstanley) " the warrior's tomb," apparently has as second 
el. O.E. byrigness " burial," here concrete " burial-place." 



The N.E. part of the hundred. 

30. Marsden (E. of the Calder, on both sides of Walverden Brook, now 
absorbed in Nelson 1 and Brierfield towns) : Merkesden 1195ff. LPR, Merkelesden 
(de Marchesden, MarcMene) 1246 LAR, Merdisden, de Merchisden 1258 LI, 
Merdesden 1327, 1332 LS, Marclesden 1363 OR. There are two parts : Great 
and Little Marsden: in Majori Merkedenna 1180-93 YCh 1514, Merdesden 
major, Little Merkelstene 1242 LI, Gret Merdesden, Little Merlesden 1251 ChR, 
Merklesden, parua Merdesden 1296 WhC 206, Merdesdene, Parva Merdesden 
1296 Lacy C, Great Mersden 1458 LF, Little Mersden 1496 LF. Now [ma-zdin]. 
The first theme of the name is probably O.E. mercels " mark ; mark to shoot 
at, marked spot." Whether mercels here means " a monument," " a boundary 
mark," or " a place for practising marksmanship," or something else, cannot, 
so far as I can see, be determined. O.E. mercels had palatal c, and early forms 
like Marchesdene perhaps show the palatal. But the form mercies would arise 
by metathesis, where c remained a stop ; cf . M.E. rekles, rekels, recheles " incense " 
< O.E. recels. The second el. is O.E. denu " valley." The valley of Walverden 
Brook is very deep ; this was clearly called Mercelsdenu. 

Catlow (on the slope of a hill c 940ft. high) : de Callow 1311 LI, de Catlowe 1332 
LS, Catlow 1478 OCR ; now [katla]. O.E. catt " cat," here no doubt " wild 
cat," and hldw " hill." 

Clover Hill (on Walverden Water) : Claverhole 1516, Clauerholle 1527 OCR. 
" Clover hollow." 

Grindlestonehurst : Grendilstonhirst 1425, Gryndillstonharst 1496 CCR. Grindle- 
stone is a common north country (also Lane.) word for " grindstone." The 
name means " hill where grindstones were got." 

Hendon (on Hendon Brook) : de Henden 1425 CCR. O.E. henn " hen " and 

Linedred : Lyverode (for Lyne-) 1464 Whit. I. 358, Lynerode 1540 CCR, Lyneroid 
1602 Burnley R. Evidently "flax clearing " (O.E. Im " flax " and rod p. 16). 
Lomeshay (on Pendle Water) : Lomeshagh 1443 CCR, 1464 Whit. 1. 358, Lomeshaw 
1496, Lagher Lomeshey 1533, Lomyshey 1541 CCR ; now [lomiji]. Perhaps 
" loamy shaw." 

Scholefield : de Scolefeld 1324 LCR, 1425 CCR, Heigh Scole Feild 1540 ib. ; now 
[sko-fi-ld]. First el. O.N. skali " hut." 

Shelfleld : Sholfolt 1510, Shelefeild 1550 CCR. The place is on the slope of a 
pointed hill called Shelfield. The name may have as first el. O.E. scelf, scylf 
" peak " ; the second seems to be O.E./eW. But as the forms are late the second 
el. may be O.E. hyll ; cf. Shelfield, Warw. Schelfhull 1322). 
Swindell (at Swinden Clough) : Swyndene 1562 CCR. " Swine valley." 
Walverden (on Walverden Water) : Walfredum 1296 Lacy C, Walfreden 1311 
IPM, Woolfarden 1478, Walferden 1522 CCR. The regular / in early forms 
indicates that the first el. is a compound, perhaps O.E. wcella " stream " and 
fyrhfi" frith." 

1 Named from an inn, The Lord Nelson Inn. Brierfield must have been one of the 
Marsden town-fields. 


WhackersaU (on Colne Water) : de Wakerehal, de Wakershal 1246 LAR, de 
Wakerishale 1324 LCR, Wakersale 1356 CR 332. O.E. W cecer pers. n. and halh 
" haugh." 

31. Barrowford Booth (N. of Nelson, v.) : del Barouforde 1296 Lacy G, Barouford 
(vaccary) 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Over-, Nethirbarowforth 1464 Whit. 1. 359. Barrow- 
ford vil. is on Pendle Water. The name has as its first el. O.E. bearo " grove." 
There are two old villages, Higherford and Lowerford, whose names seem to 
refer to two different fords. 

Blackay : Blakay 1296 Lacy C, 1324 LI, etc., Blackay 1305 Lacy C, Blakehey 

1464 Whit. I. 358. " The black hey." 

Blacko (v.) : Blackowe 1514 COR, Blackow 1575 GW 22. Named from Blacko 

Hill, p. Q7. 

Fulshaw : Fulshagh 1324 LI. O.E./wZ " foul, rotten " and scaga " shaw." 

Rishton Thorns : Russhetonthornes 1507, Ryssheton Thornes 1510 CCR. Rishton 

is possibly a family name. 

32. Colne (on Colne Water ; town) : Calna 1124, 1154 YCh (1475, 1486), 1155-8 
(1230) ChR, Kaun 1242 LI, de Calne 1246 LAR, 1253 LAR, de Cain 1255 LAR ; 
Caune 1251 ChR, 1305 Lacy C, Kaune 1296 Lacy C ; Colne 1296, 1305 Lacy C, 
1311 IPM, 1332 LS, etc.; now [ko-n]. The old form was obviously Calne', 
Caune is a Norman spelling, and Colne is due to a change al > 61. The name is 
probably an old river name. Cf. aqua de Colne 1464 Whit. I. 359, Colne Eey 
1538 CCR. Colne (Calne 1170-85 YCh 1692) is the name of a river in S.W. Yks. 
Calne (Wilts.), which appears as Calne 955, etc. (Ekblom), stands on a stream. 
The etymology of the river-name must be left open ; it is no doubt British. 
Alkincoats : Altenecote 1201 LPR, 1242 LI, -s 1204 LPR, Altanecotes 1203 
LPR, de Altancotes 1303 FA ; Alcancotes 1296 WhC 206, de Alcancotes 1296 
Lacy C, de Alkencotes (-kotes) 1311 LI, Altencotes (surname) 1332 LS. The place 
stands on a ridge ; cf. Alkencotegge 1528 CCR. The form with t is the earlier. 
No definite etymology of the name can be given. Alt- recalls Welsh allt " a 
hill-side " (cf. Alt p. 29) and may very well be derived from that Brit. word. 
But the rest of the first el. is obscure. A diminutive of alU (alltan " little cliff ") 
is thinkable. On coats see p. 9. 

Ayneslack or Hainslack (on the Yks. border, near a stream) : Haynslak, -e 1425 

CCR. Second el. slack " valley " (from O.N. slakki). The first is possibly 

O.Scand. Tiegn " hedge ; enclosure." 

Carry Bridge : le Carrehey 1443 CCR, 1464 Whit. I. 358, Carrehey 1527 CCR ; 

Carybridge 1604 Colne R. Carry is from Carr-hey, i.e., O.N. kiarr " swamp " 

and O.E. hege (or possibly O.E. haga, O.N. hagi) " enclosure." 

Emmott : de Emot 1296 Lacy C, 1324 LCR, 1332 LS, de Emote 1311 LI, Emot 

1341 IN. O.E. Ea(ge)motu " junction of streams " ; cf. cet Ea motum 926 Chr 

(D). Wycoller Brook and Laneshaw River join near Emmott Hall. 

Heyroyd : Heyroide 1524, Heyrode 1527 CCR. " High clearing " ; cf. rod p. 16. 

The place is in a high situation. 

Langroyd : le Langrode 1475, Longrod 1540 CCR. " The long clearing." 

Standroyd : Stanrede 1465, Stanrode 1539 CCR, Staynrode 1540, Stanerode 

1542 DL. " Stone clearing." 


33. Foulridge (N. of Colne, on the Yks. border ; v.) : de Folric 1219, 1221 f. 
LAR, de Folrigge 1246 LAR, Folrig 1296 WhC 206, Folerigg 1311 IPM, Folrigg, 
Folrigge 1322 'LI, J. 346 FA, ffolrige 1332 LS, Fulrigge 1542 DL, Folrige 1551 
LF ; now [fo-lridz]. I suppose the first el. of the name is O.E. fola " foal." 
The ridge that gave name to the place may be Pasture Hill (786ft.) W. of Foul- 
ridge village. The name may mean " the ridge where foals grazed " (cf. Pasture 
Hill) or "the foal's back " owing to some likeness to one. 

Acornley : Akerlandeleye 1259 VHL VI. 546, Acrondley 1608 CW 1. M.E. 

acre-land " ploughed or arable land " (NED) and lea. 

Barnside (a detached part) : Bernesete 1258 IPM, 1296 WhC 206. The first 

el. is probably a pers. n., O.E. Beorn or O.N. Biorn, Biarne, the second being set 

" a shieling " (p. 16). The place is in a high situation. Near it is Knarrs ; 

cf . Bernesetknarres WhC 333. Knar " a rugged rock or stone " is found e.g. in 

Gaw. 2166. 

Monkroyd : de Monkerode 1332 LS, Monkrude 1542 DL. " The monks' clearing." 

The place belonged to the priory of Pontefract (Whit. II. 253). 

34. Trawden (S.E. of Colne, on the Yks. border ; v.) : Trochdene 1296 Lacy C, 
Troudene 1305 ib., Troweden 1311 IPM, Troudene 1324 LI, Trouden 1356 CR 332 ; 
now [tro'din]. O.E. trog " trough," later " hollow or valley resembling a trough," 
and O.E. denu " valley." The village of Trawden is in a broad troughlike 

Beardshaw (W. of Trawden vil.) : Berdeshaw (vaccary) 1324 LI, Berdeshagh 
1325 LCR, Over-, Netherberdshaw (vacc.) 1422-23 CCR, Berdshaughboth 1464 
Whit. I. 359, Berdshabothe 1507 CCR. First el. perhaps the pers. n. found in 
Beardwood Bl. 

Beaver : Beaver 1640, Sever 1644 Colne R. The place is on a knoll in a high 
situation. Though it is surprising to find a French name in such a remote 
spot, I suppose Beaver is identical with Belvoir, Line., and means " fine 

Lodge Holme : Logeholme 1557 ; Loygemosse 1530 CCR. Cf . Lane. dial, lodge 
" a reservoir of water stored for mill purposes." 

Winewall (on Trawden Water) : Wynewelle 1296 Lacy C, Wynwell (vaccary) 
1324 LI, Wynwelle 1325 LCR, Wynewall 1507 CCR. The first el. seems to be 
O.E. Wina pers. n., the second being wella (wcella) " stream." Winewall may 
be an old name of Trawden Water. The present pronunciation [wainwo'l] seems 
to be due to the spelling. 

Wycoller (on the Yks. border, E. of Colne ; v.) : (causey of) Wycoluer WhC 333, 
Wycolure 1324 LI, Wyculure 1325 LCR, Overwicoller, Netherwycoller 1464 Whit. I. 
359, Wykeoller Deyne 1561 CCR, Wicoler 1577 Harr.; now [waikob]. The vil. 
stands at the foot of Combe Hill on Wycoller Brook. An old road from Colne 
to Keighley passes the vil. (cf. Cawsay dough 1561 CCR). The name seems to 
be a compound of O.E. vnc and air " alder." O.E. wic very likely means " a 
dairy-farm " or the like. The early forms of the second el. are remarkable, but 
we may compare Lightholevers 1246 for Ligh tollers (p. 58). Perhaps v was intro- 
duced between I and r in the same way as th in M.E. alther- from O.E. eallra. 
The labial character of I, which has caused al to become [ol], may explain the 
fact that the intrusive consonant came to be v. 



S. of the Calder, W. of Burnley. 

35. Altham (h.) : Mvetham c 1150 Whit. II. 265, de Eluetham 1200-8 DD, 
de Alvetham 1243 LI, 1257, 1278 LF, etc., Halwetham, Eluetham 1246 LAR, 
Aluetham 1308 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Altham 1383 LF, Aluethambrok, -lode 1337 
WhC 1045. The h. stands near the Calder. Two alternative explanations of 
the name seem possible. The first el. may be the O.E. pers. n. Mlfyeat (> M.E. 
Alviet, etc.), the second being O.E. ham or hamm ; this is Wyld's suggestion. 
Or the first el. may be O.E. celfet, a side-form of elfet, ielfet " swan " (cf. p. 21) ; 
if so, the second el. is no doubt O.E. hamm. O.E. ylfethamm actually occurs in 
a charter (973-4 BCS 1307). I am inclined to prefer the second alternative. 
Kindle : Hindil 1210-30 (copy of 1596) DD, de Hindehull 1332 LS. First el. 
O.E. hind " female of the hart." 

Hoghton is a place-name found WhC 305 (campo de Hoghton) ; cf. de Hoghton 
1332 LS (under Altham). This would seem to be an old name in -tun. Cf. the 
same name in Leyland. 

36. Clayton-le-Moors (W. of Altham, N.W. of Accrington) : Cleyton 1243 LI, 
Clayton 1263, 1277 LAR, de Clayton super Moras 1284 LAR, Claiton sr Moras 
1332 LS, Clayton othe Mores c 1370 CR 348, Clayton on the Moors 1390 LF. 
Cf. Clayton-le-Dale, p. 70. 

Dunkenhalgh (old manor) : Dunkansale 1208-20 DD, de Dunkaneshalghe 1285 
LAR, Dunkinhalghe 1577 Saxton. The first el. is the Goidelic pers. n. Duncan 
(O.Ir. Donnchad, Gael. Donnchadh ; O.E. Dunecan 1093 Chr.) ; the second is 
O.E. halh " haugh." The place stands on the Hindburn. 
Hay Slacks : Haislackes 1210-30 DD. Second el. O.N. slakki " valley." 
Henfield or Enfield (h.) : Hyndefeld 1376 DD, HenfeU 1523 CCR. First member 
O.E. hind " female of the deer." But the occurrence of the el. hind in Hindburn, 
Hindle, and Henfield is curious. Possibly Hindle, Henfield are elliptic for 
Hind,burnhill, -feld. 

Ringstonhalgh : de Ryngestoneshalgh 1352, Ryngstorihalgh 1422 DD. The mean- 
ing of the first el. is not obvious ; perhaps " stone circle." Cf. Ringstones 1641 
RW 141 (Ringstones, Tatham). 

Sparth : Sparth 1455, 1574 DD, the Sparthe 1542, the Sparth 1663 CCR. Sparth 
is also the name of a field in Irlam (VHL IV. 364). A similar form is le Sporthe 
(Heaton Norris, Sa) 1282 IPM, denoting a piece of land. If the older form was 
Sporth, we may derive the name from O.N. sporbr " tail." Cf. Bartle, Am. infra. 
But there seems to have been a side-form with a of O.N. sporftr, the base of 
Norw. dial, spcerl, sped " tail," also " a strip, a narrow piece." Cf. the Norw. 
place-names Spcslen NG IV. 1, 159 and Sperle NG XII. 2. 


37. Old and New Accrington (the district round Accrington town) : [Hay a de] 
Akarinton a 1194 Kirkstall C, Akerynton(a) 1258 ib., Akerunton, Akerinton, 
Akerynton 1258 LAR, Acrinton 1292 PW, Ackryngton 1311 IPM, Acryngton 
(vaccaries) 1324 LI. This name may mean " acorn tun " (O.E. cecern " acorn " 


and tun). New Accrington (the S. part) was long regarded as. in the forest 

(VHL VI. 424). Oak mast was formerly of great importance as food for swine, 

and a homestead may well have been named from such produce ; cf . Swinton, 

a common name. O.B. JEcerntun might become M.E. Akerenton, Akerinton and 

the like, just as Fearndun became Farindon, Farendone, now Faringdon (Berks.). 

There is no O.E. pers. n. from which the first el. can be with any probability 

derived. But if the Frisian names Akkrum, Akkeringa, Dutch Akkerghem, etc., 

are correctly derived in Nomina Geographica Neerlandica 1. 168f. from a pers. n. 

Akker, a corresponding O.E. name may perhaps be assumed from which Accring- 

might be derived. 

Antley : Amteleiasic a 1194 Kirkstall C, de Anteley 1296 Lacy G, Antilay 1324 LI. 

Literally " ant lea " ; O.E. cemette " ant " and leak. 

Baxenden (v.) : Bastanedenecloch a 1194 Kirkstall C, Bakestandene, Bakeston- 

dene, de Bakestonden 1305 Lacy C, Bacstanden 1324 LI, Baxtonden 1464 Whit. I. 

360. The first el. is bakestone " a flat stone or slate on which cakes are baked in 

the oven " (1531 fi. Lane., etc., NED). This word is common in place-names, 

probably denoting places where bakestones were to be found. Cf. Bacstanebec 

CC 885, Bakesta(i)neforde Guisb. C. Baxenden is on a brook. 

Brocklehurst (on a hill slope) : Brocholehirste 1296 Lacy C. Cf. Brockhall p. 71. 

Cowhouses : Couhouses 1324 LI, Couhous 1325 LCR, CWefowsl464Whit.I.359. 


Dunnyshope (near a brook) : Dunshope, Dunserope 1241 LF, Dunschopfal 1305 

Lacy C, Dunsopkar 1324 LI. " The hope (or valley) of Dunn " ; Dunn is an 

O.E. pers. n. The form Dunny Shop in O.M. 1846-51 is remarkable. 

Friarnills: Frerehull 1464 Whit. I. 359, Frerehill 1552 LP III. 130. Self-explaining. 

Icornhurst : Ikecornehurst 1464 Whit. I. 360, Hycornehurst, Thykynhirst 1526 

LP I. 132. " Squirrel hurst or copse." O.N. ikorni " squirrel." 

Ryley, High Ryley : Rilay, Rylay 1324 LI, Rylayker 1296 Lacy C, Highriley 

1464 Whit. I. 360. O.E. ryge " rye " and leak. 

Scaitcliffe : Sclatedyff 1527, Scaitclyff 1535 CCR. " Slate cliff." Cf. p. 59. 

Warmden Clough : Warineden (for Warme-) a 1194 Kirkstall C. " Warm valley." 


N. and W. of Accrington. 

38. Church (E. of Hyndburn brook ; town) : Chirche 1202 LF, 1258 LI, 1332 
LS, etc., Chiereche 1204 LPR, Chyrche 1202 LF, 1284, 1285 LAR, Churchkyrk 
1536 LP II. 105. O.E. cirice " church." The first record of a church (or rather 
chapel) dates from 1296 (VHL VI. 403), but the name shows that a church 
must have been here from ancient times. 

Ponthalgh : Pouthale, Poutehale c 1288, Poutehalgh 1482 DD, Povthalgh c 1450 
HS LXIV., Pontawghe 1536 LP II. 106, Puttaughe 1556 DD, Powtalghe 1574 DL. 
Ponthalgh is in a tongue of land between the Hyndburn and a tributary of it ; 
the place was clearly in a haugh. The older form of the name was Pouthalgh, 
Pont- being due to misreading. The first el. is perhaps pout the name of a fish. 
If an O.E. pers. n. Puta existed, however, it is a more probable first element. 

39. Oswaldtwistle (S.W. of Church) : de Oswaldthuisel 1208-25 DD, de Oswalde- 


t(h)wihil (Oswaldithwihil) 1219, 1221 f. LAR, de Oswalde(s)twisel 1246 LAR, 
Oswaldtuysil 1258 IPM, Osewaldewysel 1276 LAR, Osewaldestwisel 1327 LS, 
Oswaldestwysell 1332 LS. O.E. Oswald pers. n. and twisla " fork of a river." Two 
brooks join in the township. 

Aspden or Aspen (on a small stream) : Aspedene Clogh 1200-8 DD, de Haspeden 
1246 LAR, de Aspeden 1286 LAR, 1323 LCR, 1329 LI. " Aspen valley." 
Catlow Hall : de Cattelow c 1280 DD, de Catlou 1305 Lacy C, de Cattelowe 1317 
LF, de Gatlowe 1332 LS. O.E. catt " cat " and hldw " hiU." 
Duckworth (once a separate vill) : Ducworth, Ducworthley 1241 LF. The place 
is on a brook. The first el. may be O.E. duce " duck " or a pers. n. ; cf. Dux- 
bury infra. The second is worp " enclosure," etc. 

Knuzden (Brook) : Knuzdenbroke 1200-8 DD, Knousedene Whit. II. 403, Knowes- 
den WhC 334. The first el. is doubtful. There is no reason to identify it with 
that of Knowsley, as the loss of I could not be explained in the same way (by 

40. Huncoat (E. of Church, on the N.W. slope of Hameldon Hill ; h.) : Hunnicot 
DB, Hun(n)ecotes 1241 LF, Huncotes 1246 LAR, 1296 Lacy C, Hunecote 1296 
WhC 206, Huncote 1332 LS, etc. ; de Huntcot 1227 LAR. O.E. Buna or Hun 
pers. n. and cot (p. 9). 


In the S., on the Salford border. 

41. Haslingden (E. of the Irwell; town): Heselingedon 1242 LI, Haselm-, 
Heselindene, Aselin-, Aschelindene 1246 LAR, Haselingden 1251 ChR, Haselin- 
dene 1258 Kirkstall C, Has(s)elinden 1269 LI, Haselinden 1332 LS, Haslyngdene 
1341 IN, Haselden 1577 Harr. O.E. hceslen adj. " of hazels " and denu " vaUey." 
H. town lies in a valley. Haslingden Grane (Grayne 1566 CCR, ye Grane 1681 
Altham R) is a hamlet. Grane is M.E. grain (< O.N. grein " branch," etc.) 
" fork ; branch ; valley branching out of another." The hamlet is in a valley 
branching out W. from the central valley. 

Ewood (on the Irwell) : de Thewode, de Tewode 1269 LI, (manor of) Le Ewode 

1323 LI, del Ewode 1325 LCR ; now [rwud]. O.E. ea-wudu, like Ewood in 

Livesay, p. 75. g 

Helmshore : Helkhour 1510 CCR ; cf. Helme croft, Helmecroft (Haslingden) 

1546 CCR. The place stands on a fairly steep ridge between the Irwell and a 

tributary of it. Helm is no doubt helm " a shed " (perhaps < O.N. hialmr) ; 

cf. Helme c 1215 WhC 1067, de Helme 1324 LCR, referring to a place in Read. 

The second el. is no doubt shore " a steep cliff," etc., cf. p. 58. 

Holden, Broad Holden (E. of Haslingden Grane) : de Holdene 1305 Lacy C, 

1325 LCR, de Holden 1332 LS ; Brodeholden 1520 LF. " The hollow valley." 

The places were named from the valley just referred to. 

42. Henheads (N. of Haslingden, on a hill-side) : Henhades 1464 Whit. I. 359, 
Henneheedes 1507 CCR. " Hen hills " ; cf. Henthorn p. 77, and Hades p. 57. 
Near Henheads was formerly Overhaddes 1507 CCR. 

43. Higher Booths (township consisting of some booths in the old Forest of 
Rossendale ; N.E. of Haslingden). 


Crawshaw Booth : Croweshagh (vaccary) 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Crawshaboth 1507 
OCR. " Crow shaw," O.E. crdwe " crow " and scaga. 

Gambleside : Gameleshevid (vaccary) 1324 LI, Gameleshevyd 1325 LCR, Gamel- 
seud 1507 CCR. Gamel pers. n. (probably O.N. Gamall) and heafod " hill." The 
place is in a high situation. 

Goodshaw Booth : Godeshagh, Godischaw 1324 LI, Godeshagh 1325 LCR, God- 
shaugh 1507, Gudsheybothe 1527 CCR. If the spelling Godischaw be at all trust- 
worthy, the first el. may be O.E. Godgyp, M.E. Godith pers. n. (fern.). Or it 
may be O.E. Goda. 

Love Clough (in the valley of a small stream) : Lugheclogh, Lufclough 1324 LI, 
Lufclogh 1325 LCR, 1425 CCR, Luffecloch 1464 Whit. I. 360. The spelling Lughe- 
clogh is no doubt due to dittography. The first el. is probably O.E. Lufa or 
Lufu pers. n. 

44. Lower Booths (chiefly on the N. bank of the Irwell ; part of Rossendale 

Rawtenstall (town ; on Limy Water) : Routonstall (vaccary) 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, 
Runstall, Rounstall, Rotenstall 1507 CCR. Cf . Rawtonstall in W. Yks. : Routon- 
stall 1274, Rutonestal 1276, Routunstall 1298 (Goodall). The name means " the 
roaring pool " (or " stream "). The first el. is the pres. part, of M.E. routen 
" to roar, bellow " from O.N. rauta. Second el. O.E. stall " pool in a river," 
perhaps also used of a stream (cf. p. 159). 

Constable Lee : Constabillegh 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Cunstabellegh 1324 LI. " The 
lea belonging to the constable." 

Oakenhead : Okenheved 1305 Lacy C, Okenhevedwod 1464 Whit. I. 359, Oken- 
heid wod(de) 1507 CCR. " The hill clad with oaks." 


45. Newchurch-in-Rossendale (N.E. of Rawtenstall ; the greater part of the 
old Forest of Rossendale, for the most part desolate hill country). 

The Forest of Rossendale : Rocendal 1242 LI, Rossendale 1292 PW, 13 cent. 
WhC 154, Rosendale, Roscyndale, Roscindale 1296 Lacy C, (de) Roscyndale 
1324 LI, Rossyndale 1311 LI, de Roscundale 1308 OR 160, Rosendale 1577 Harr. 
A clough with a stream (White well Brook) runs from N. to S. past Newchurch 
through the middle of the district. This is very likely the valley that gave name 
to the forest. The first el. of the name is difficult, partly on account of the 
variation in the spellings. But I take it that c, sc, ss cannot point to any other 
early form than Rossen-. Possibly this might be connected with Welsh rhos 
" moor." A (diminutive) Rhossan is found in Welsh as the name of Ross in 
Heref. (Rhossan ar Wy) ; cf. Owen's Pembrokeshire II. 407, where other examples 
of Rossan in place-names are given. The word is once exemplified as the name 
of a brook. Such a form might have given E. Rossen- ; but of course the con- 
nection is doubtful. 

Newchurch : Newchurch Rossindall 1590 Burghley. 

Bacup (town) : ffulebachope c 1200 WhC 154, Bacop (vaccary) 1324 LI, -e 1325 
LCR, Bacopboth 1464 Whit. I. 360, Bacobbothe 1507 CCR ; now [be'kap]. Bacup 
stands on the upper Irwell, which here runs from N. to S., turning west just 


below Bacup. The second el. is O.E. hop, here used in the sense " a smaller 
opening branching out from the main dale." The first el. is perhaps O.E. bcec 
" back," used in the sense " a ridge " or " hill " (cf. back " a hill " in the 
Ches. dial.) ; cf. Backbarrow in Lo. 

Deadwin Clough : Dedequenclogh (vaccary) 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Dedewhenclogh 
1464 Whit. I. 360, Dedonclough 1507 OCR. " The clough of the dead woman " 
(O.E. dead adj. and cwene " woman "). A dead woman may have been found 
in the clough. 

Deerplay, Deerplay Moor : Derplaghe 1296, 1305 Lacy C, Derpelawe 1324 LI. 
" The place where deer play." O.E. deor-plega.-f 

Lumb (on Whitewell Water) : Le Lome 1534 CCR. Cf. the same name p. 62. 
Sharneyford (N. of Bacup) : Schernyford WhC 334. " The miry ford " ; cf. 
O.E. scearn " dung." 

Sow Clough (at a valley of the same name): Soclogh 1463 Whit. 1. 353, Soodogh 1528 
CCR. Literally " sow clough "; So- represents a Northern development of O.E. sugu. 
Tunstead : Tunstede (vaccary) 1324 LI, Tunsted 1325 LCR, 1507 CCR. O.E. 
tunstede " village," very likely also, as in this case, " deserted site of a tun." 
Wolfenden : Wolfhamdene (vaccary) 1324 LI, 1325 LCR, Wolfendenboth 1507 
CCR. " The valley of the wulfhamm " apparently. O.E. hamm originally meant 
" enclosure," and O.E. wulfhamm might mean the same thing as O.E. wulfhaga, 
i.e., " enclosure to protect the flocks from wolves " (Crawf. Ch. p. 53). Or it 
might mean " enclosure to trap wolves in." But hamm is found with the name 
of an animal as defining el. without such a sense, as in O.E. heafoces hamm 
(BCS 1169), ylfethamm (ib. 1307). 


Derbei hvndret DB, Derbi 1169 LPR, de Derebi Wapentachio 1188 LPR, 
Derebiscire 1197 LPR, Derbisire 1212 LI, Derebyschyre 1246 LAR, Derbischyre 
1252 IPM, Westderby wapentake 1265 IPM, Derbishir 1327 LS, Westderbishire 
1338 LF. 

West Derby hundred forms the S.W. part of the county. It is bounded on 
the W. and S. by the sea and the Mersey. The N. boundary is (or was) partly 
formed by Martin Mere and the Douglas. The surface is on the whole flat or 
slightly undulating. The highest point, Billinge Hill with Brownlow, 1 reaches 
nearly 600ft. above sea-level. 

Before the Conquest the three hundreds of West Derby, Newton, and Warring- 
ton corresponded to the present West Derby, and West Derby proper comprised 
only the western half. Soon after the Conquest the present hundred of West 
Derby was formed. 

Warrington (Walintvne hvnd' DB) is considered to have comprised the present 
Warrington, Leigh, and Prescot parishes, and Culcheth township in Winwick. 
Newton hundred (Neweton hd' DB) corresponds roughly to Winwick and Wigan 

Newton hundred is often called Makerfield, and this name is frequently 
1 Ye Browne Low 1616 Upholland R. 


added to the names Ashton, Ince, and Newton. Early forms : Macrefeld 1121 
Ch, Machesfelda 1123 Ch, Machesfeld Wapentachio 1169 LPR ; Makefeld 1206, 
1213 LPR, Makefeud 1246 LAR ; Makifeld 1206 LPR ; Makeresfeld 1204, 
1205, 1215 LPR, Makerefeld 1213 LPR, Makerfeld 1243 LI, 1261 LAR, etc., 
MacresfeU 1280, 1291 ChR, Makrefeld 1338 LF. 

We have to start from the early forms Maker- and Makeresfeld. Such as 
Makefeld, Makesfeld have probably lost an abbreviation-mark for er after the k. 
The interchange of forms with and without the genitive s would seem to point 
to a pers. n. as the first el., but if so I can only suggest that it is the name 
Macharius (found in Liber Vitae and DB), which does not seem convincing. 
A place-name as first el. often has the gen. form. Examples are Nympsfield, 
Glo. (first el. identical with Nymet, Dev.), Andredes leage Chr. A. 477, Andredes 
cester Chr. A. 491 (first el. Andred, the old name of the Weald). I believe Maker 
is a Brit, place-name, identical with Welsh magwyr " wall, ruin " (O.W. macyrou 
pi. LL 143), O.Bret, macoer " wall " (Loth 148) from Lat. maceries, maceria 
" wall." The O.Brit, form must have been *macer. This is a common name in 
British countries. 

Macoer (Brittany) Loth 148, 219. 

Maker (par., vil. Cornw.) : Makere 1346 FA, Magre 1428 FA. 

Magor (Momn.) : Magor 13 cent. LL. 

Fagwyr (Wales). F- for M- is due to lenition. 

Makerton (Cornw. ; in Maker) : Macretone DB, Makerton 1284 FA. 

I suppose Macer was the British name of some place in Makerfield and was 
adopted by the Anglian invaders. From it was formed the name Makerfield. 
The original Makerfield may have been Ashton, near which there are traces of a 
Roman road, and where a fort may once have been. Two fields in Ashton were 
called the two Makerfields in the 16th cent. (VHL IV. 131). Or it may have been 
Newton, where there are two ancient barrows, one of which at least is called 
Castle Hill (ib. IV. 132). The surface of Newton is flat, especially in the N. part, 
where Newton vil. and Castle Hill stand. 

The old division into three hundreds is not kept up here, as it would make it 
necessary to separate parts that belong together geographically. But the two 
old hundreds of Warrington and Newton are dealt with first, the original W. 
Derby hundred coming last. 

Names of Rivers 

Glazebrook (a trib. of the Mersey) : Glasebroc c 1230 CC, Glasebrok 1246 LAR, 
Glasbrooke c 1540 Leland, the Gles or Glesbrooke water 1577 Harr. Cf. Glazebrook 
p. 95. The name may be compared with Glaisdale, Yks. (Glasedale, rivum de 
Glasedale 1223 Guisb. C.), also with Glasenbach, Glasbach in Germany 
( : Glasa 933, etc., Glasipach in Forstemann). Glas- is probably an old river- 
name. Forstemann suggests an adj. glasa- " bright." Another possible source 
(for the Engl. names) is Celt, glasto- " green, blue " (Welsh glas, e.g., in glaspull 
LL 78, a river-name ; Ir. glas). 

Sankey (falls into the Mersey near Warrington) : Sanki 1202 LF, Sanky 1228 
C1R, 1251 ChR, Sonky 1228 WhC 372. See Great Sankey p. 105. This is no 
doubt a Celtic name. As regards the ending such Welsh river-names as Tywi 


(Tobios Ptol.), Honddu ( : hodni LL 242), Troggi (Taroci LL 236), TrotM 
( : trodi LL 123, etc.) may be compared. Etymology obscure. 
Goyt (a trib. of the Sankey) : M.E. gote " water-course, stream." 
Otter's Pool (Liverpool) : Hot'pol 1228 C1R, Oterpol 1228 WhC 371, Otirpul 
13 cent. WhC 568. Clearly " otter-pool." Near this was a brook called Hoskelles- 
broc, Haskelesbroc 1228 C1R, Oskelesbrok 1228 WhC 371. The name contains 
the pers. n. O.N. Askell. There is another Otterpool in N. Meols : Oterpul 
c 1250 Farrer, History of N. Meols p. 11, Otrepol 1311 LI. 

Alt (falls into the sea) : alt c 1190 CC, dUe c 1200 CC, AUh(e), Alta a 1220 CC, 
AUh c 1260 CC, Alte 13 cent. WhC 490. The name is no doubt Celtic. It cannot 
be derived from Welsh allt " cliff," as the river flows through flat country. 
Gael, alt means " a stream " ; a similar sense might have developed in the Brit, 
language of Lancashire. But it is also possible that Alt is quite distinct from 
allt. There is in Wales a river called Aled, an affluent of the Elwy, whose name 
appears in early sources as Alet (e.g., Ughalet " above Alet," 1335 Seebohm, 
Tribal Custom in Wales, Appendix p. 61). Brit. Alet might have become Alt 
just as Cunetio became Kent. 

Eller Beck (a trib. of the Douglas) gave name to a place : de Ellerbek 1246 LAR, 
1366 LS. First el. M.E. eller " alder " (very likely < O.N. elri " alders "). 
The brook is called riuulus de Egacras 1189-96 Ch, obviously from a place Egacras 
ib. (" edge-acres ") ; an earlier name is apparently Blithe, found in Blythe Hall 
(see p. 122). 

Tawd (Lathom) : taude 1577 Saxton, the Taude 1577 Harr. See Tawdbridge, 
Lathom p. 123. 


This parish embraces the low-lying districts N. of the Mersey, between Glaze- 
brook and Sankey Brook, and Burtonwood W. of the latter. 

1. Rixton with Glazebrook (E. of Warrington). 

Rixton : Rixton 1201ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1332 LS, etc. ; de Eiston 1246 LAR, 
Richeston 1260, 1262 LAR, de Ryckeston 1259 LAR, Rigston 1577 Harr. The first 
el. is probably a pers. n., O.E. *Rlc, as suggested by Sephton, or Rlcsige. 
Glazebrook : de Glasbroc 1227 LF, Glasebrok 1246 LAR, etc., Glasbrok 1258 LAR, 
Glasebroc 1261 LAR, 1341 IN, Glasebroke 1332 LF. The place was named from 
the Glazebrook, which forms the E. boundary. 

Hollins Green or Hollinfare (h.) : Boiling greene 1577 Harr., Hollyn grene 1577 
Saxton ; Le Fery del Holyns 1352 VHL III. 339, [the] holynfeyr' 1504 RS XII., 
cap. de Helingfare 1550 LR, Hollynfayre 1556 LF, Hollen Ferry 1565 DL. 
First el. O.E. holegn " holly." The el. -fare apparently means " ferry " or 
" ford " ; it seems to be O.E. fcer " passage," etc., here in a concrete sense. 
The place is on the Mersey. 

2. Woolston with Martinscroft (E. of Warrington). 

Woolston : Oscitonam 1094, Ocsitonam 1122, Ulfitonam 1142, Oxsitonam 1155, 
Wlfitona c 1180 Ch., Wolueston, Wulueston 1246 LAR, Wlston 1257 ChR, Wolston 
1327, 1332 LS, 1389 LF, etc. If the earliest forms can be disregarded, the ety- 
mology seems to be O.E. Wulfes tun from Wulf pers. n. Some early forms 
perhaps point rather to Wulfsiges tun. 


Martinscroft : de, Marlimscrofl(v) 1332 LS. The pers. n. Martin is found in O.E. 

3. Poulton with Fearnhead (K. of Wari-m^ton). 

Poulton (v.) : PoUonam 1094, 1 122 Ch, Pultonam 1142, 1155 Ch, Polton 1240 LF, 

/'niton I2()H LAR, 1417 LF. First el. O.E. pdl, pull " pool." Poulton vil. standH 

near Padgate stream ; the meaning of ptil may be " a stream." 

Fearnhead : Ferneheued 1292 H8 XL. 158, del ffermlwd 1332 LS, Fernyhed 

1467 LF. " Fern-clad height." O.E. /earn " fern " and heafod " hill." The 

hamlet stands c 45ft. above sea-level. 

Bruche (old manor) : del Bruch 1280, de Briche 1314 HS XL. 157 f., de(l) Bruche 

1292, 1304 OR, Bruche 1577 Harr., Bryche 1577 Saxton. Evidently O.E. 

bryce " breaking," here in the sense " broken up ground, newly cultivated land." 

Cf. Newebruchea 13 cent. WhC 82(5 and breach " a piece of land broken up by the 

plough " (1594, etc., NED). 

4. Warrington (town) : Walintvne DB, Werineton 1228 C1R, Werington 1246, 
I2S5 LAK, 1246 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Werinton 1259, 1278 LAR, Queryngton 
1258 LAR, Weryngton 1296, 1321 LF, 1322 LI, etc. ; Warryngton 1332 LI, 
Waringtun c 1540 Leland. The first el. is a patronymic, probably identical with 
the first el. of Warwick ( : W cerincwicum 1001 CD 705, at W ceringwicum Chr. 
9140), i.e., a derivative of the stem Wwr- (Wer-), common in O.E. pers. names. 
Arpley (in a bend of the Mersey) : Arpeley 1416 TI, 1465 Warr. First el. O.E. 
eorp " dark," possibly used as a pers. n. There is hardly any reason to adduce 
O.N. Erpr, Jarpr pers. n. 

Howley (in a bend of the Mersey) : le Holey 1314, Holay 1334 HS XL. 159, 
Hollay 1465 Warr. O.E. holh " hollow " and leah. 

Orford (h.) : Orford 1332 LI, de Orford 1332 LF, Overforthe 1465 Warr., 1529 DL. 
Probably " the upper ford." The hamlet stands N. of Warrington not far from 
two streams. The Roman road from Wigan to Warrington crossed the Orford 
Brook at Longford Bridge (Codrington, Roman Roads, p. 89). 

5. Burton wood (N.W. of Warrington ; v.) : Burtoneswod 1228 Ch, Bourtonewod 
1251 ChR, Burtonwode 1298 LI, 1322 LI, 1332 LS, Burtonwod 1341 IN. Burton- 
wood was put into the forest of Lancaster by Henry I. Its old name was Burton : 
1200 LPR ; cf. hay of Burton, Burtunebrok 1251 ChR. The name is O.E. Burhtun. 
on which see p. 32. 

Bewsey Hall : Beausee 1330 LI, Beause 1416 TI, Bewsey 1503 RS XII., 1516 DL. 

Fr. beau se " beautiful seat." 

Bradley (old manor) : Bradley 1577 Harr. ; cf. Bradelesbroc 1228 C1R, Brodelegh- 

brok 1228 WhC 372. " Broad lea," O.E. brad and leah. 

Dallam, D. Moss : Dallum 1328 VHL III. 325, 1416 TI, de Dalhom 1332 LS. 

The place is on Sankey Brook. The name may consist of O.E. dcel " valley " 

and hamm " a meadow," etc. 


This large parish, situated N. of Warrington, is bounded on the E. by Glaze- 
brook, on the W. by Sankey Brook. The surface varies considerably. In the 
S. the ground is low, in the N. an altitude of 350ft. is reached. 


1. Culcheth (in the K., on the Glazebrook) : Cukhet 120H. LPR, de Kukheth 

12-10 LAK, (/,//,-//// mo, 1 2. LAI;, /\ ,//,-//// 121:; LI, ,i<- A ///// /v// 12-10 LAR, 

f .'///<//////. I2H4 LA 11, 1311 LI<\ etc,., < ! iiMn-Ut 1322 LI, I.T10 KA, etc,., Kulrliillt 
1;;:J2 LS, Unlchijlh I.'l87 LK, A' //<//,-/// 1577 Sstxlon. Kxn-pl ional are : de Cukhef 
1240 LA It, Kylc.hid, d<- Kt/Mii/ld 127(5 il., AY/,7,,/ 120'.) il., < 1 nlclii(l)k 1 278 il>., 
KylWiyrth, Kilt-hiih I285'ib., d A/7r//// 1303 Ll<\ AY/.s-/m//v l. r ,f,o Ll<\ (lnlsltrth 
1583 DL, AY/.S-/M// 1590 Burghley. Sn- ;>!<> Wyl.l und VIIL IV. 150. Tim 
name: i.s a compound of tin- words corresponding to Welsh r/7 " hack ; 
corner, nool< ; retreat" (common in Welsh place names), and <vv/ "wood." 
The .same, elements are found in Kihpiite, Cornw. ( : Kylyoyd 1303 FA), (Johpule, 
Cornw. ('.Kilcoit 1308 I I'M), Cilcoit, Monrn. (:7cot< LL 221), Blaencilgoed, 
Pembr. ( : Blancukoyt 1325 1PM) and probably Culgaith, Climb. The name 
may mean " back wood " or " retreat in a wood." 1 As regards the pahtali/a! ion 
(l the nit-dial r, Lichfield (from O.K. Licccdfcld I'ril. Lclon-tun) ma.y be com- 
pared. The variation between -t, -th is found also in Penketh p. 106, and Tulket 
Am. The church is called Newchurch : Newchurch 1577 Saxton. 
Flitcroft : Fluttecroft 1212 LI, FliUecrofl 1292 PW. The first el. is doubtful. 
Holcrott (on Glazebrook) : de llole^roft 1240 LAR, 1330 LF, 1332 LS, de Hokroft 
1301, 1314 LF, llnlrmfl 1577 llarr. The, " hollow croft," O.E. holh " hollow ' 
and croft. Of. Hole Mill Farm in Holcroft. 

Kinknall : de Kynkenale 1311, 1314 LF, -hale 1332 LS. The first el. seems to 
be O.E. *Cynecn from Cyne and names in Cyne-, like Wineca from Wine. The 
second is O.E. halh " haugh, water-meadow." The place is not on a stream, 
though not far from one. 

Peasiurlong : de Pesefurlanig 1246 LAR, Pesforlong 1554 LF. The name means 
" the furlong where pease were grown." 

Risley : de Ryselq/h 1284 LAR, de Risselley 1285 ib., de Riselegh 1328 LI, 1332 
LS. O.E. hrls " twigs, brushwood " or perhaps hrlsen adj. and O.E. leah. 
Scholefleld. No early forms. Cf. Scholefield 8a. p. 56. 

Twiss, Twiss Green: de. Twiss<>. ( 1258 LA It, Ad Twywe 1270 LAR, 
del Twys 1314 LF, Twistyrene 1565 DL. Twis is a word not found in O.E. or 
M.K. literary sources, meaning " the place where two streams meet." It occurs 
in Cockersand (Jhartulary in a context where it is obviously a common noun : 
a (juudam Twis 561 ; cf. tofto inter Twis etfontem Sanctw Maricu 559 (Allerton). 
The word is related to O.K. yetwis " germanus," getwisa " twin," twisla " fork 
of a river" ; it may go back to an O.E. adj. *twia. Twiss is N.W. of Culcheth 
church in a tongue of land between two streams. 

2. Southworth with Croft (K. of Winwick). 

Southworth : Suthewrthe 1212 LI, Suthworth 1326 LF, Sotheworth 1327, 1332 L8, 

1 The latter moaning IH HiiggeHtod by Forator, Keltisohos Wortgut im EngliBchen (1921), 
J). 213. KorsU-r suggowtH tliat i,\\>- vowel of l,lu; lirHt Hyllable, winch WM-IIIH I-. ;". l>;n-k ( < ). I'i. //, 
represents a Jirit. |y |, an intermediate sound between Prim. Celt, u and Brit. f. I am not 
sure this in correct, aw the change u > f must have taken place very early. I am more 
inclined to believe that O.K. y in UMH CIIHC- in a il,ul,ioii for a Hound l<-v< \\>< <! from Brit, t, 
due to shortening of i. This would have given Welsh y [e], but the O.W. sound, as suggested 
by the spelling i, //, WJIH very likely not |/re;i,tly dilleivnl from (lie Mod. Wclnli y in words like 
dyn, which is pronounced rather like a | y |. Shortening of f seems to account for spellings 
such as Blanculc.oyt supra and Culcudyn LL 320 (Kilgiden, Monm.). 



1422, 1432 LF ; Seftewurd 1185 LPR. O.E. sup " south " and worp " enclosure," etc. 
Croft : Croft 1212 LI, 1284 LAR, 1341 IN, Crofte 1321 LF, 1327, 1332 LS. 
O.E. croft " small field," etc. 

3. Houghton, Middleton, and Arbury (E. of Winwick). 

Houghton (v.) : Houton 1263 LAR, Hoghton 1327 LS, 1341 IN. O.E. hoh 
" spur of land " and tun. Houghton Green vil. stands on a slight ridge. 
Middleton [Hall] : Midelton 1212 LI, 1332 LS, 1341 IN, Middelton 1327 LS. 
" The middle town." 

Lynnall (in Middleton) : de Lynals 1381 OR 362. O.E. lin " flax " and halh 
" haugh." 

Arbury : Herdbiri c 1215 CO, Herbury 1243 LI, Erthbury 1246 LF, Erthbyry 
1246 CO, Erbury 1332 LS, 1346 FA, Eresbury 1322 LI. O.E. eorpburg " earth- 
fortification." There do not now seem to be any traces of such a fortification. 
Arbury in Herts, and Cambs., both names of Roman camps, are very likely 
to be explained in the same way. Burrow-on-the-Hill (Leic.) is Erdborough 
1316 FA. 

4. Winwick with Hulme (N. of Warrington). 

Winwick (v.) : Winequic 1170 ff. LPR, Wynewhik 1192 WhC 39, Wynequic 
1212 LI, Quinequike c 1210 CC, Wynquik 1332 LS ; Winewich 1204 LPR, 
Whinewic 1205, 1206 LPR, Wynewyke 1212 RB, Wynewyc 1212 LI, de Winewik, 
Wennewyk 1246 LAR, Wonewyke, -wycke 1518 LP I. 71, wynnik 1590 Burghley. 
This name is no doubt correctly explained by Wyld as a compound of O.E. 
Wineca pers. n. and O.E. wic. The loss of k seems due to the change kw > hw 
found often in northern dialects. Cf. Wynewhik 1192 supra. 
Hulme (h.) : Hulm 1246, 1276 LAR, 1332 LS, 1341 IN, etc. O.Dan, hulm 
11 island," etc. See p. 13. Hulme stands on slightly rising ground near Sankey 
Brook and a tributary of it. The land along the Sankey is low and stated to be 
liable to floods. 

5. Newton-in-Makerfield or Newton-le-Wfflows (town) : Neweton DB, 1201 LPR, 
Niweton 1177 LPR, Nieweton 1202 ff. LPR, Neuton 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1332 
LS, etc., Neuton Macreffeld 1257 ChR, Neuton in Makerfeld 1332 LF. " The 
new town." 

-6. Kenyon (v.) : Kenien 1212 LI, de Kenien 1269 LAR, Kenian 1243 LI, 1302 ib., 
de Kenian 1246 LAR, Kenyan 1258, 1284 LAR, 1311 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Kynian 
1276 LAR, Keynyan 1310 LF. The surface is level. There is no stream of any 
importance. On the border of Croft (to the S.) is a place called Kenylow (Kenylo 
Bridge in O.M. 1846-51) ; Kenylaw (Lache) is exemplified in VHL IV. 169 from 
1287, 1292. Keny- may very well be a worn-down form of Kenion. 

The name Kenyon looks un-English. I suspect a Brit, origin for it. It 
is to be noticed that Kenyon adjoins Culcheth. The ending -an reminds one of 
that of Cardigan from Welsh Ceredigiawn (O.W. Cereticiaun) or of the pers. n. 
Mohan in Maban(es)hou CC 1048, Mabandall (Halton) c 1225 FC II. 160, from 
Welsh Mabon. But a definite etymology is difficult to attain. One possibility 
is that the name contains the common Welsh pers. name Einion, which must 
in an earlier period have had the form Enion. A combination of a noun ending 
in -k with Enion might have been misunderstood ; cf. O.N. Kodran < Ir. Mac 
Odrdin " the son of Odran." A Brit. *Cruc Enion " Einion's mound " (Welsh crug 


"mound") might have been taken to mean Cruc Cenion, and Cenion to be the 
name of the mound, Cruc Cenion being translated as Cenion hlaw > Kenylow. 
This is, of course, very uncertain. 

7. Lowton (v. ; N.E. of Newton) : Lauton 1202ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1332 LS, etc., 
Lawton 1432 LF, Laweton 1500 LF; Laitton 1201 LPR is obviously miswritten. 
First el. O.E. Tildw " hill ; mound," M.E. lawe in the Alliterative Poems. Lowton 
is on slightly rising ground. 

Byrom (old manor) : de Burum c 1265 CC, Buyrom 1306 HS XL., Byrum 1328 
LF, Byram 1577 Saxton. O.E. byrum " (at) the byres." 

8. Golborne (v. ; N. of Newton) : Goldeburn 1187 LPR, 1278 LAR, 1302 LF, 
1332 LS, etc., Goldburne 1203 LPR, 1212 LI, Goldeburne 1271 LAR, 1328 LF, etc., 
Goldburn 1390 LF ; Golburn 1259 LAR, Golborne 1468 LF ; corrupt are Goseburn 
1202 LPR, Gold(e)burc 1201, 1206, 1207 LPR, Golburc 1205 LPR. 

G. village stands on Millingford Brook, which must have formerly been 
called Golborne ; Leland (c 1540) calls it Golforden. We may compare Goldeborne 
Bl. (VHL VI. 324) and (in) goldburnan 969 BCS 1240 (Midds.). It is improbable 
that the first el. is gold, the name of the metal. Gold (O.E. golde) is the name of 
some yellow plants, e.g., Calendula omcinalis. It is hardly too bold to assume 
that it was in early times used also of the marsh marigold (Caltha palustris). 
The etymology is probably O.E. golde " marsh marigold " and burna " burn." 
Lightshaw : Lightshagh 1322 LI, Lyghtshagh 1396 LF. "The light shaw," 
liglft meaning either " thin, not thick " or " light in colour." 

9. Haydock (N. of Newton, v.) : Hedoc 1169 LPR, Heddoch 1170f. LPR, de 
Heidoc ? 12 cent. HS XXXII. 184, Haidoc 1212 LI, Haydok 1286 LF, 1332 LS, 
etc., de Hadock 1292 HS XL. 158, Haydock 1322 LI, Heydok 1508 LF. There are 
no prominent physical features suggesting a definite etymology. The surface of 
the township is flat or undulating. 

The second el. of the name cannot be O.E. dc ; forms in -oc are too early. 
Harrison suggests as first el. O.E. hege, as second el. O.E. docce " dock " (a 
plant) or O.N. dokk " hollow." But O.E. docce ought probably to have appeared 
as -docke in the earliest forms. Scand. elements are extremely rare in this 
district. We have found some probably British names in Winwick par., and as 
-ock recalls the common Celtic suffix -dko (O.W. -awe, Welsh -og), Haydock may 
be suspected to be one too. The name may represent a derivative of Welsh 
haidd " barley," analogous to Welsh Clynnog (< M.W. Kellynnawc, from 
celyn " holly " ; cf. Jones p. 54) and particularly Ceirchiog, the name of a parish 
in Anglesey ( : Welsh ceirch " oats "). A Welsh derivative of haidd would have 
had the form Heiddiog from earlier Heidiauc. This name is perhaps evidenced 
in Heythock moore, Pembr. (Owen's Pembrokeshire I. 1) and in Llanhaithog, 
Heref. ( : Lenheydok 1326 IPM) ; cf. Bannister. It is true we should expect the 
Brit, word to have given E. Haythock. But substitution of O.E. d for Brit, d is 
possible. In early O.E. there was no sound d ; Prim. Germ, d at an early date 
became d, and p between vowels probably remained as [}>] for some time after 
the immigration of the Anglo-Saxons. Biilbring 474 thinks the change took 
place about 700. An analogous case is O.E. Temede (now Teme), the name 
of a river, corresponding to Welsh Tefaidd or Tefedd (Owen's Pembrokeshire 
1. 202), in which dd[<b] is no doubt due to earlier s (cf . O.E. Temese " the Thames "). 


Cf. also Meend, Glouc., earlier Munede (Welsh mynydd " hill "), Longmynd, 
Shr., and the like (see McClure p. 157f.), and Cuerden, Leyl. 
Cayley (old estate) : de Caylegh 1323 LI. First el. perhaps O.E. Ccega pers. n. as in 
Cainhoe,Beds. But O.E.cce^"key" in some unrecorded earlier sense is also possible. 
10. Ashton-in-Makerfield (in the N. ; v.) : Eston 1212 LI, Aystone 1246 LF, 
Ashton 1255 LF, 1259 LAR, Asshton 1327, 1332 LS, Assheton in Makrefeld 
(Makerfeld) 1338, 1430 LF. O.E. cesc-tun " ash town." 

Brynn (old manor) : de Brunne 1276 LAR, del Brynne 1432 LF, the Bryn 1491 
LP I. 4, Bryne 1503 DL, Bryn Park 1577 Harr. It is possible Brynn is identical 
with Welsh bryn " hill," O.Bret, bren " colline." Bryn Hill is the name of a 
place near Brynn. Welsh bryn is common in place-names. Bryn in Shropsh. 
(Bren 1272 IPM) is no doubt the same word. 

I do not think Bryn is from O.E. byrna, a doubtful side-form of burna. The 
Dan. word br0nd " well " is now held to be a late form of brunn, due to a change 
u>y>0. Cf. Kock, Svensk Ljudhistoria II. 809f. The same explanation no 
doubt holds good for Norw. (dial.) brynn and for brin " rivulet " in the Shetland 
and Orkney dialects. But Brynn might be a late form of O.E. brunna (burna) ; 
cf. Brindle in Leyl. 

Garswood (old estate) : Grateswode 1367 VHL IV. 142, Gartiswode 1479 LF, 
Garteswodde 1508 DL. The early forms do not throw sufficient light on the 
name. Cf. Gartemos (Astley) c 1210 CC. 


S.E. of Wigan. 

Leigh : de Lecthe c 1265 CC, Leeche 1276 CC, Legh', Legh, Leth, -e, Leech', Leythe, 
Lecht, de Leze 1276 IM, Legh 1292 LF, Leegh 1341 IN, Leth 1451 CC. The name, 
according to YHL III. 414, was formerly also used of the district formed by 
Westleigh and Pennington, sometimes also Bedford, i.e., the W. part of the 
parish. The old village, now the town, of Leigh stands partly in Westleigh, 
partly in Pennington. It seems not improbable that the names Astley, Tyldesley, 
Shakerley really contain as second el. the place-name Leigh : Astley =~- East 
Leigh, etc. Leigh is O.E. leah " open land, meadow," etc. The country is on 
the whole flat, but rises slightly in the N.E. 

1. Westleigh (v. ; W. of Leigh town) : Westlegh 1238 LAR, 1340, 1350 LF, 
Westeleghe, Westeleie c 1260 CC, Westley 1276 IM, 1396 LF, Westelegh 1327 LS, 
Westeley 1332 LS. This name probably means West Leigh. 

2. Pennington (now in the town of Leigh) : Pinington 1246 LF, de Pyninton, 
de Pynington 1246 LAR, Pininton c 1240 CC, 1299 LF, Pyninlonn 1299 LF, 
Pynyngton 1322 LI, 1332 LS, etc., Pynynton 1327 LS, 1340 LF, Penyngton 
1372 LF. The name is etymologically distinct from Pennington in Lo., which 
always has e in the first syllable. Its first el. is apparently a patronymic O.E. 
Pin(n)ingas. It is true an O.E. Pin or Pinna, is not well evidenced ; cf ., however, 
Pinnun rode 1043 CD 767 and Pin Ellis B (Searle). 

Etherston Hall : Etheriston 1338 VHL III. 430, Ether(e)ston 1415 TI. The first 
el. is apparently a pers. n., e.g., O.E. Eadric or Eadred, or jEdelric, -red (cf. 
Elswick Am.). The second el. is O.E. tun or possibly stdn " stone." 


3. Bedford (E. of Leigh town and Pennington) : Bedeford 1201 LPR. 1258 LAR, 
c 1260 CO, 1332 LS, etc., Bedford 1258f. LAR, 1322 LI, etc. " The ford of 
Bede " (O.E. Beda). The ford was probably over Pennington Brook. 
Eckersley (apparently a lost name ; cf. Eckersley Fold in Tyldesley) : de Ekdia 
1259 LAR, Ekersleght 1371 VHL III. 434. The first el. seems to be a pers. n., 
perhaps O.E. Ecghere or Ecgheard with change of g to k before h. Second el. 
O.E. leak. 

Graveoak : Gravoke manor 1563 DL. Perhaps literally " the oak by the 


Hopecarr (on Pennington Brook) : Hopkar 1329 VHL III. 433. O.E. hop 

" a piece of dry land in a fen " or the like (cf. p. 13) and O.N. kiarr " swamp." 

Shuttleworth : de Shuttlesworth 1332 LS. See p. 63. 

4. Astley (v. ; E. of Leigh) : Asteleg(h)e c 1210 CC, Asteleg 1246 LAR, Estleg, 
Hasteleg, Astel 1258 LAR, Esteleg(h)e 1268 CC, Astelegh 1309 LF, etc., Asteleye 
1311 IPM, Asteleghe 1332 LS, Astley 1479 LF, etc. Either " East Leigh " or 
" east lea." 

Blackmoor : Blakemor c 1210 CC, de Blakemor 1298 LI. " Black moor " is 
the meaning in the earliest example. 

Morleys [Hall] : Morleghe c 1210 CC, de Morlegh, de Morleghes 1332 LS, Morley 
c 1540 Leland, Morley al. Morlas 1546 LF, Morelees 1577 Saxton. First el. 
O.E. mor " moor." The place is a little to the S. of Blackmoor. 

5. Tyldesley with Shakerley (N.E. of Leigh). 

Tyldesley (town) : Tildesleia c 1210 CC, Tildesle 1212 LI, de Tyldesleg 1246 LAR, 
Tildeslege c 1280 CC, Tildeslegh 1332 LS, etc., Tyldeslegh 1322 LI, etc. The first 
el. seems to be a pers. n., perhaps found also in Tilberthwaite, Lo. But an O.E. 
Tild(e) is unknown and difficult to explain. On the other hand Til- is a common 
name-el., as in Tilfrip, Tilred, Tilweald. Possibly an early contraction of 
Tilred or Tilweald to Tild- may be assumed. Or Tild(e) may be a hypochoristic 
form of one of these names. 

Shakerley (h.) : Shakerlee, Shakerlegebroc c 1210 CC, Schakeslegh 1246 LAR, 
de Schakerley 1284 LAR, Shakerleie c 1280 CC, de Shakerlegh (Shakreslegh) 1332 
LS, Shakerslegh 1384 LF. With this name are to be compared : Scakeresdalehefd 
1189-96 Ch (Ormskirk), Shackerley, Le. Perhaps the first el. is O.E. sceacere 
" robber " ( = O.H.G. scdhhdri), possibly used as a pers. n. ; cf. semita latronum 
(near Ramsbottom) 13 cent. Whit. II. 324. But the common occurrence of the 
el. is remarkable and renders some other etymology desirable. In NED 
shakers (pi.) is evidenced in the sense " quaking- grass, Briza media " from 1597. 
The word is found in Ches. dial. If this is an old word, it may be the first el. of 

Chaddock Hall : de Chaydok 1246 LAR, de Chaidoke 1323 LI, de Chaidok 1332 
LS. Nothing in the situation of the place throws any light on this remarkable 
name. The early forms have ai (Chadoc temp. Henry III., quoted VHL III. 
442 2 , is found in a late transcript) ; the first el. can thus not be the pers. n. 
Chad. I suspect Chaddock, like the similar Haydock, is a Celtic name. But the 
etymology is too doubtful to be discussed here. 

Cleworth : de Cleworthe 1332 LS, Cliworth 1600 RS XII. The place stands on 
a slight hill. The name very likely contains the elements O.E,. clif " height " 


and worp " enclosure," etc. Cf. Clewer, Berks., identified by Skeat with O.E. 
clifware " cliff men " in clifwara gemcere (Kent). 

6. Atherton (N. of Leigh, town) : Aderton 1212, 1243 LI, de Haderton 1246 LAR, 
de Aserton, de Adserton 1265 LI, Atherton 1322 LI, 1332 LS, etc., de Atherton 
1298 LF, Athirton 1340 LF, etc., de Athirton 1293 LI. The first el. is probably 
O.E. Mfalhere or JEdelred (>JEdere, JEderred}. But Eadhere (suggested by 
Sephton) or Eadred is also possible. Atherstone, Warw. (Aderestone DB, 
Edrideston 1246), Atherstone-on-Stour, Warw. (Edricestone DB, Athericstone 
1248), Arreton Ha. (Atherton 1316 FA) may be compared. The forms Adser-, 
Aserton may be Norman spellings. 

Chowbent (now in Atherton town) : Chollebynt, Shollebent c 1350 VHL III. 437, 
Cholbent 1496 ib. ; but Cholle 1385 ib. ; Chowebent c 1550 DL. Cholle is also 
used as a family name (e.g., de Cholle 1322 LI). Perhaps it is identical with 
(de) Cholale (apparently a lost place near Liverpool) 1323 LI, 1325 LCR, 1330 
LF, i.e., Ceol(a) pers. n. and halh. The second el. -bent seems to be correctly 
explained by Wyld as " bent-land." Cf. Chequerbent, N. of Leigh. 


This parish, the district round Wigan town, is separated by the Douglas 
from Leyland hundred. 

1. Abram (S.E. of Wigan ; v.) : Adburgham a 1199 CC, 1246, 1303 LF, 1332 
LS, etc., Edburgham 1212 LI, de Abburgham 1246, 1263 LAR, Abraham 1372 
LF, etc., Abram 1461 CC. The " ham of Eadburh " (Harrison). Eadburh is a 
common fern. O.E. name. 

Bamfurlong : Banforthlang 1448 VHL IV. Ill, Banforthland 1538 LP II. 92, 

Banforlonge Hall 1553 DL, Bamferlonge 1584 Wigan R. O.E. bean " bean " 

and furlong. Cf. Peasfurlong p. 97. 

Bickershaw : Bikersah, Bikesah c 1200, Bikersahge c 1240 CC, Bykershalgh] 

1395 LF. The first el. is presumably identical with that of Bickerstaffe, De. 

See further Bickerstaffe, which is better evidenced in early records. Bickershaw 

is apparently not on a brook. 

Occleshaw : Aculuesahe, Aculuesaue a 1199 CC, de Aculleschwe, Akolwesag 

1246 LAR, de Okelshagh 1303 LF. " The shaw of Acwulf" Acwulf is a common 

O.E. pers. n. 

2. Hindley (E. of Wigan, v.) : Hindele 1212 LL c 1230 CC, 1246 LAR, Hindeleye 
1259 LAR, Hyndeley 1285 LAR, 1332 LS, Hindelegh 1301 LF, Hyndelegh 1303, 
1335 LF, etc., Hindley 1479 LF. The first el. is O.E. hind " doe." 

Platt Bridge : platte 1212-42 CC, Plat Bridge 1599 Wigan R. Cf. Platt Sa. p. 31. 
The addition Bridge shows that this is probably dial, plat " a foot-bridge " 
(1652ff.), derived in NED from O.F. plat. 

3. Aspul (N.E. of Wigan) : Aspul 1212 LI, c 1210 CC, Apshull, de Haspull, 
de Aspyll 1246 LAR, Aspull 1262 LAR, Asphull 1332 LS, Aspehull 1421 LF. 
O.E. cesp " aspen " and hyll " hill." The township occupies fairly high land. 

4. Haigh (on high land, N.E. of Wigan, v.) : Hage 1194 LPR, Hache c 1210 CC, 
Hagh 1298 LF, 1312 LI, etc. ; Haghe 1303 FA, 1332 LS ; Hawe 1330 LI, c 1540 
Leland, Hay 139 CC, haigh 1581 Wigan R, Thaigh al. Le Haigh 1628 DL. O.E. 


haga " enclosure " ; also " homestead, messuage." As regards the sound de- 
velopment, cf. p. 21. 

5. Ince-in-Makerfield (S.E. of Wigan, of which it is a suburb) : Ines 1202 LPR, 
1212 LI, 1284 LAR, 1327 LS, etc., Hynis a 1199, c 1210 CC, Huines 1204 LPR, 
Ynes 1206 LPR, 1261 LAR, Hines, de Inys 1246 LAR, Ynes, Tins 1261 LAR, 
Inies, Ines 1262 LAR, Hyns 1276 LAR, del Henes 1285 LAR, Ins in Makerfeld 
1332 LS, Ins 1341 IN. 

This is a British name, identical with Welsh ynys, O.Bret, inis, O.Ir. inis, 
etc., " island." The Celtic word is often used to denote a " holm," " a water- 
meadow " and the like. Cf. on Ir. inis Joyce I. 441, on Welsh ynys Bannister 
p. 5. Ince is found as a place-name also in W. Derby ( : Ince Blundell) and in 
Ches. The latter appears as Inise in DB. Ince (Ches.) with Elton forms an 
" island " in the low country along the Mersey. Ince-in-Makerfield township 
to no small extent consists of mossland (VHL IV. 101). No doubt the name 
originally referred to some higher dry land among mosslands. 

6. Wigan (town) : Wigan 1199 Ch, 1477, 1501 LF, Wygan c 1215 CC, 1237, 1246, 
1278, 1284 LAR, 1317 LF, 1332 LS, 1387 Trevisa V. 329, etc. ; Wyan 1420 LF ; 
de Wigani (for Wigain ?) 1209 LPR, Wigayn 1245 ChR, de Wygayn, de Wygain 
1246 LAR, Wygayn 1258 ChR. Wigan stands near the river Douglas. It is 
held to be identical with Coccium of the Roman time. 

It is difficult to believe that this can be a Germanic name. A Brit, origin 
seems plausible. The usual early form is Wigan. The side-form Wigayn ( Wygain, 
etc.) may be due to the influence of the pers. n. Wigan which often appears as 
Wigayn, etc. This pers. n. is apparently of Breton origin (O.Bret. Uuicon, 
Guegon, M.Bret. Guegan, Loth 174, 208) ; the form Wigayn is to be explained 
in the same way as M.E. Aleyn by the side of Alan. If the place-name Wigan 
is of Brit, origin, at least two 1 alternative explanations seem possible. It may be 
identical with Gaul. Vicanum (now le Vigan), derived by Holder from the pers. n. 
Vicanus. Or it may be analogous to Wigan in Anglesey. This seems to be an 
ellipsis of an earlier name of the type Tref Wigan or Bod Wigan " the village 
(homestead) of one Wigan." A place-name Bodewygan (not identical with 
Wigan) actually occurs in early sources relating to Anglesey (The Extent of 
Anglesey 1294, in Seebohm, Tribal Custom in Wales, App. A. p. 12). The Welsh 
pers. n. Wigan may represent O.W. Uuicant (cf. Welsh Morgan<O.W. Morcant). 
If Wigan in Lane, is due to similar ellipsis it may contain a name corresponding 
to O.W. Guicon, O.Bret. Uuicon. As regards the ending -an we may compare 
the name Mohan (DB) < O.W. Mabon. The medial g is due to Brit, lenition. 2 
Gidlow : de Guddelawe 1246 LAR, de Gedelowe, de Gydelawe 1285 LAR. First el. 
apparently O.E. Gydda pers. n. in gyddan dene 943 BCS 789 (Berks.), perhaps 
found also in Gidcot, Gidleigh (Devon). Second el. O.E. hldw " hill." 
Poolstock : Pulstoke 1520, Pullstoke 1528 DL. First el. O.E. pull " pool " ; 
second O.E. stoc " place." The place is close to Poolstock Brook. 

1 Dr. Bradley, EHR 26, p. 822, suggests a derivative of Welsh gwig (< Lat. vicus). This 
is, of course, possible. 

2 The different treatment of Brit, k in Eccles, Maker(field), where lenition also must have 
taken place, may be due to a difference between Brit, g (< k) and O.E. g, which caused 
substitution sometimes of O.E. g, sometimes of O.E. k (c). In Pedersen's opinion (I. 11 Off.), 
k by lenition first became a pure tenuis, whence later usually g. 


Scholes : del Scales 1332 LS, 1342 LF, Scooles 1555 LF. O.N. skali " hut." 
Swinley : de Suyneley 1283 CC, de Swynlegh 1332 LS, 1384 LF. O.E. swin 
" swine " and leah. 

WheUey : Whelley 1553 LF, 1603 Wigan R. First el. perhaps as in Wheelton 
(p. 132), i.e., O.E. hweol " wheel." 

7. Pemberton (S.W. of Wigan) : Penberton 1201 LPR, 1242 LAR, Penbreton 
1202 LF, Pemberton 1212 LI, 1241, 1292 LF, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Pembirton 
G 1225 CC, 1292 LF, etc., Pembreton 1284 LAR, Pemburton 1396 LF. 

I believe this is a compound of pen " hill " (a Brit, word on which see p. 41) 
and O.E. beretun " barton." Pemberton seems to have been one of the beretuns 
of Newton (VHL IV. 79). The place stands at the foot of the hill (310ft.) which 
has given name to Orrell ; this may have had an earlier name Pen. Derivation 
from O.E. pen " a fold " is possible, but seems improbable. 
Hawkley : Hawkley or Hawcliffe 1512 VHL IV. 81, Hawkeley 1520 DL, Haucley 
1586 Wigan R, hawcliffe 1600 RS XII. Earlier forms are needed. First el. 
no doubt O.E. hafoc " hawk." 

Laithwaite : Leikeththeit, Leikestheith c 1200 LPD II. 197, Leicketeitegate c 1200 
CC. First el. probably O.N. Leikr ; cf. Lindkvist p. 117. On thwaite, see p. 19. 
Markland : de Marclane, de Markelan 1278 LAR, Marclan 1323 LI, de Marclan 
1383 LF. The second el. is O.E. lanu " road." The first seems to be O.E. 
mearc " boundary," etc. ; the name is perhaps equivalent in meaning to dial. 
markway " a track to enable the holders of the divisions of a common field to have 
access to them " (EDD). 

Norley : de Nortlegh 1293 LI, de Northlegh 1306 AP, 1320, 1321 LF. " The 
north lea." 
Tunstead : Tunstede 1202 LF. Cf. the same name p. 93. 

8. Winstanley (S.W. of Wigan) : Vnstanesle, Vnstaneslega 1206, 1207 LPR, 
Winstanesle 1212 LI, c 1200 CC, Winstaneslee c 1200 CC, Winstaneslege 1212 LI, 
de Wynestaneslegh 1246 LAR ; Winstanlee c 1200 CC 657, Winstanlegh 1332 LS. 
" The lea of Wynstan." Wynstdn is a common O.E. pers. n. : Winestan DB is 
very likely the same name. 

Blackley Hurst : Blakeleie, -broc c 1200 CC. The place is situated at a hill. 

9. Billinge (N.E. of St. Helens ; v.) : Billing 1202 LPR, Bulling c 1200 CC, 
1204 LPR, 1212 LI, 1278 LAR, etc., Billing 1206 LPR, 1246 LAR, Buttynth 
1292 VHL IV. 83, Bullyng 1321 LF, Bullinge 1332 LS, de Billyngge 1332 LF, 
Billynge 1366 LF, Billindge 1580, 1585 Wigan R. According to Wyld the 
name is pronounced [bilindz]. 

In Billinge township is the top of Billinge Hill (over 550ft.), and it would be 
reasonable to suppose that it was named from the hill. Cf. Billinge Hill in Bl 
(p. 66). Only the usual form Bulling seems to point to O.E. -y-, and perhaps 
we have to start from an O.E. Byllingas, a patronymic formed from O.E. Bulla 
or Bolla pers. n. But between b and I O.E. i might well have become y ; cf. 
Pilkington, p. 49. I am inclined to believe that the name is an original hill-name. 
Birchley : Biricherelee 1202 LF, Birchelei(e)brok a 1212 CC, Bircheley 1422 LF. 
O.E. birce " birch " and leah. 

Crookhurst : Crochurste a 1212 CC, Crochurst 1256 LF, de Crochurst 1246 LAR, 
de Crokhirst 1262 LF. The first el. is doubtful. It may be M.E. crok " bend," 


or the pers. n. Croc (probably Scand.). But cf. O.E. crochyrsta (pi.) 947 BCS 834, 

crochyrst 963 BCS 1125 (Berks.). 

Falling (apparently now lost) : Falinge a 1212 CC. O.ft.fcelging " fallow land.' 

Cf. Falinge p. 60, and see p. 10. 

Gautley : GaUley Wood 1551 DL. Is the first el. O.N. goltr " hog " or GdUi 

pers. n. ? 

10. Orrell (S.W. of Wigan) : Horhill 1202 LPR, Horhull 1204, 1205 LPR, Orhille 
1206 LPR, Horhul, Horul 1212 LI, Orul a 1220 CC, Oril 1272 LAR, Orhul 1292 
LF, Orell 1332 LS. An altitude of over 300 ft. is reached at Orrell Mount ; this 
is no doubt the hill after which the township was named. The first el. might be 
O.E. or a, " margin, bank." The Douglas forms the northern boundary of the 
township, but the higher country is some way distant from the river. More 
likely the first el. is O.E. or a " ore," though it is true there seems to be no 
evidence of any other mining than coal-mining having been carried on in Orrell. 
Lamberhead Green (v.) : Londmerhede 1519 LF. O.E. landgem&re " boundary " 
and heafod " hill." The place is on the boundary between Orrell and Pemberton. 
It stands on a hill. 

11. Upholland (W. of Wigan, v.) : Hoiland DB, Hollande 1202 LF, Holand 
1224 LF, 1332 LS, 1341 IN, Upholand 1226 LI, 1298 LI. Upholland is so called 
to distinguish it from Downholland. The name is to be compared with Down- 
holland (which see), with Hoyland in Yks. ( : Hoiland, Holand DB), Holland in 
Line. We have to choose between O.E. hoi-land " hollow land " and ho-land 
from hoh " heel ; spur of hill," etc. As regards Upholland derivation from 
hoh is extremely probable, as the village stands on the slope of a ridge. The 
early forms with almost exclusive -I- also point to Holand ; later shortening of 
the vowel has taken place. The spelling oi in early forms points to Ho- ; oi 
is probably a Norman spelling for o (cf. Menger, The Anglo-Norman Dialect 
p. 74f .). In early northern texts as the Cursor Mundi (MS C) oi is used to denote 6. 
Pimbo : Pembowe, Pimbowe 1598 DL. The place is on the N.W. slope of Billinge 
Hill. Earlier material is necessary. 

12. Dalton (W. of Wigan, on the Douglas) : Daltone DB, Dalton 1212 LI, 1276 
LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Daltun a 1225 CC. The place was no doubt named after 
the valley of the Douglas : O.E. dcel or possibly O.N. dalr " valley " and tun. 
Ashhurst Beacon, A. Hall : de Aschehyrst 1285 LAR, de Asshurst 1323 LI, 
de Asshhurst 1332 LS, de Asshehurst 1321, 1341 LF, Ashhurst 1577 Saxton. 
O.E. cesc-hyrst " ash-hill." Ashhurst Beacon is on a hill reaching c 570ft. 
Dalton Lees : de Daletanelees, de Daletonlees c 1240 CC, Dalton leis 1461 CC. 
" The Dalton meadows " (O.E. leah). 

Hawksclough : Havekesnestescloch c 1200 CC, Hauekenestiscloch c 1240 CC. 
" Hawksnest clough." 


This large parish stretches from the Mersey N.W. far into the hundred. The 
ground varies; there is chiefly level country along the Mersey and in the N., 
but higher land (about 250ft.) in the middle. 

1. Great Sankey (W. of Warrington ; v.) : de Sonchi c 1180 Ch, Sanki 1212 LI, 
Sonky 1243 LI, 1278 LAR, 1322 LI, 1332 LS, etc., de Saunky 1246 LAR, Shonkey 


1258 LAR, Sanky 1285 ChR, Great Sonky 1325ff. LF, 1332 LI. Gt. Sankey is 
bounded on the S. by the Mersey and on the E. by Sankey Brook, which separates 
it from Little Sankey (in Warrington). The place was no doubt named from the 
brook. See p. 94. 

2. Penketh (W. of Great Sankey, on the Mersey ; v.) : Penket 1243 LI, 1285 
LAR, ChR, etc., Penketh 1259 LAR, 1285 ib., 1290 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Penkith 

1259 LAR. This is, in my opinion, a British name, a compound of the Celtic 
words found in Welsh a,spen " end," etc., and coed " wood " (Brit. *keto-<*kaito-). 
This is also suggested by McClure p. 86. The name is common in Wales, and is 
found in Cornwall and Brittany : Pencoed, Montg., Glam. ; Penquite, Cornw. 
( : Penkuek, Penquit 1326 OR I. 294f.) ; Penhoat, Brittany ( : Penhuet 1282, 
Penquoet 1325, etc., Loth 224). Cf. also Pencoyd, Heref. ( : Pencoyt 1291, 1330 
Bannister). The name no doubt means in most cases " the end (edge) of the wood." 

3. Cuerdley (on the Mersey, N.E. of Widnes) : Kyuerlay, de Kyuerdeleg, Cuner- 
cheleg 1246 LAR, Kyuerdelegh 1275 LI I. 240. Keuerdeley 1282 LI, Kynerdele 1301 
OR, Keuerdelegh 1324 LI, 1331 Ind, Kyu'delegh 1327 LS, Keu'deley 1332 LS, 
Keerdelegh 1344 LF. This curious name must be compared with Cuerdale Bl. 
The following suggestion may be made. Early forms seem to point to an O.E. 
base *cyfrede or the like, apparently an adj . This might be compared with Core 
in Chipping par. (earlier Couere, Covre) and words mentioned under this name, 
e.g., O.H.G. chubisi " hut," O.N. kofr " chest," O.N. kufr " rounded summit," 
etc. If the original meaning of the stem was something like " round, convex 
object, mound " (cf. Torp-Fick, p. 47), the adj. would mean " rounded, convex " 
or the like. The ground rises somewhat in the township, an altitude of c 65ft. 
being attained. 

4. Widnes (town) : Wydnes c 1200 WhC 803, Widhnes 13 cent. ib. 805, Wydenes 
1242 LI, Wydnes 1251 ChR, 1255 IPM, 1271 Ind, etc., Widnesse 1271 LAR. 
Widnes stands at a headland jutting out into the Mersey. The elements of the 
name are O.E. wid " wide, large," and O.E. ncess (or O.N. nes) " promontory." 
Appleton (h., formerly apparently the name of the township) : Apelton 1182 
LPR, 1243 LI, etc., AppeUon 1183ff. LPR, 1332 LS, Apilton 1246 LAR, 
1322 LI. Cf. -O.E. ceppel-tun " orchard." Appleton is a common place-name. 
Farnworth (church, formerly chapel) : ffarneword 1324 WhC &15,ffarnword 1337 
WhC 817, Farneworth 1518 LF. O.E./eam " fern " and worp " enclosure," etc. 
Denton : Denton 1272 WhC 821, 1292 PW, de Denton 1246 LAR, 1332 LS. 
O.E. denu " valley " and tun. The place stands near a brook. 

Upton : Upton 1251 ChR, 13 cent. WhC 812, Uptone 1292 PW, de Hupton 1246 
LAR, de Upton 1276 LAR. O.E. *upp-tun " the upper tun." Upton is in the 
northern higher part of the township. 

5. Ditton (N.W. of Widnes, on Ditton Brook ; v.) : Litton 1194 LPR, 1212 LI, 
1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Dytton 1298 LI ; Dutton 1202 LPR, 1327 LS, 1341 IN ; 
de Dithon (Ditgthon) 1246 LAR. No doubt O.E. dictun ; the 1246 forms last 

rted to some extent corroborate this. The occasional form Dutton may be 
to confusion with Dutton, N.W. Ches. The ditch which gave name to the 
township seems to be found as the first el. also of the next name. 
Ditchfield (c 1 m. N. of Ditton) : del Dichefeld 1322 LI, de Dychefeld 1332 LS, 
1341 IN. 


Slynehead (now apparently lost, but cf. Slynehead Farm in the N.E. corner of 
Gt. Sankey) : de Slyneheud 1323 LI, de Slyneheued 1326 LCR. Cf. Slyne in Lo. 
Slyne is apparently an O.E. *slinu or the like, meaning " slope " or " hill." 

6. Bold (N.E. of Widnes) : BoUe 1204 LPR, 1212 LI, etc., Bold 1257 LAR, 1340 
LF, etc., Boulde 1332 LS, Boolde 1577 Saxton. O.E. bold " dwelling, house, 

Barrow (Hall) : del Barwe 1284 LAR, de Barwe 1332 LS, del Barowe 1332 LF. 
O.E. bearo (g. bearwes) " grove." The place stands in level country. 
Cranshaw (Hall) : Croncisschagh 1337 WhC 817, Cmynsey 1587 CW xi. The 
first el. is O.E. cranuc, cronuc " crane," later replaced by crane. 
Holbrook : de Holebrok 1332 LS, de Holbrok 1335 LF. Whittle Brook was 
formerly called Holbrook (the Holebrok 1339 HS XLI. 226) " the hollow brook." 
Lunt Heath : ? du Lund 1292 LF. O.N. lundr " grove." 

Quick (sometimes called a vill ; now lost) : Quike 1202 LF, Lawike 1212 RB, 
Lawyke 1212 LI, de la Quicke, la Quike a 1220 CO, de Quike 1276 LAR. Cf . Quick, 
Yks. : Quyk 1297, Quike 1232 (Goodall). I propose as the source quick " a quick- 
set hedge " (1456 NED). Cf. Cwichege 772 BCS 207. 

7. Cronton (N. of Widnes, v.) : Growynton 1242 LI, Crohinton 1243 ib., Crouington 
1246 LAR, Croynton 1322 LI, 1327, 1332 LS, Croenton 13 cent. WhC 811ff., 
Grouwenton 1333 LF, Crounton 1346 FA ; Crawynton 1292 PW, Craunton 1341 
IN. Wyld derives the first el. from O.E. crdwe " crow," whereas Sephton suggests 
an O.E. pers. n. derived from crdwe. The early forms do not favour these etymo- 
logies ; we expect more early forms with aw. The rare Crawynton and the like 
may be due to the change ow>aw ; cf. p. 21. The form Grewinton (12 cent.) 
quoted under Halsnead infra should probably be read Growinton, e having been 
miswritten or misread for o. An O.E. base *Crowinga- or *Croinga-tun seems most 
plausible. No O.E. pers. n. from which a patronymic Cro(w)ingas may be 
derived is known, but we may perhaps compare Fris. Kroyenga, Krooyenga 

Pex Hill (a hill of 200ft.) : Peghteshull 13 cent. WhC 812. Peght- is O.E. Pe(o)ht 
" Pict " or a hypochoristic form of names such as Peohthelm, Peohtwine, etc. 

8. Rainhill (S. of St. Helens ; v.) : Reynhull, -hill 1246 LAR, Raynhull 1285 
LAR, 1346 FA, 1354 LF, Raynull 1258 LAR, 1322 LI, Reynhull 1301 LF, Rayne- 
hull 1332 LS, Raynhill 1400 LF. The township occupies the S. slope of a hill, 
which was no doubt originally called Rainhill. Lindkvist p. 74 suggests as first 
el. O.N. rein " strip of land forming the boundary of a field or estate," and 
points out that the hill forms the boundary against Eccleston. But it is doubtful 
if rein could be used of such a boundary ; the fields of Eccleston and RainhiU 
hardly met on the hill. And we do not expect a Scand. word as the first efl. 
It seems plausible that Rainhill and Rainford have the same first el. The earfy 
forms of the latter point to a dissyllabic first oheme (Raine-) ; in Rainhill thfe 
unstressed vowel would be dropped early before the h-, which was often silent. 
This el. is very likely a hypochoristic form (Regna) of O.E. names in Retfn-, 
Regen- ; Regenheah, -here, -pryp are certain O.E. names. A possible example 
of the O.E. Regna is found in Rainham, Nrf. (Reineham DB, Reynham 1302 FA) ; 
cf. Rainton, Yks. (Rainincton, Reineton DB), Rainton, Durh. (Reinun-, 
Re(n)ingtun c 1125 Mawer), Rennington, Nhb. (Reiningtun 1104-8 Mawer). . 


Ritherope (N.E. of Rainhill, near a brook) : Rydrope Brook 1557 DL. O.E. 
Jiryder " ox, cow " and hop, here perhaps in the sense " a valley." 

9. Whiston (S.W. of St. Helens ; v.) : Quistan 1190 CO 603f., 1252 IPM, 1332 
LS, etc., de Quicstan 1246 LAR, Wytstan, de Wytston 1252 IPM, Whislan 1272 
LAR, 1376 LF, Quystan, Wystane 1278 LAR, Whystan 1284 LAR, Quitstan 
1292 PW, Whitstan 1341 IN. The name means " white stone " ; there must 
have been a conspicuous white stone at the place. Whiston in Wore, has the 
same etymology ; the white stone is in this case mentioned in early records. 
Halsnead : Grewinton Halfsnede 12 cent. VHL III. 392 13 , Halsnade 1246, 1256 
LAR, Holsnade 1246 LAR, de Hallesnad 1257 LA_R. Obviously " half part " ; 
snede means " a small piece, morsel " (O.E. snced) ; cf. NED. The earliest 
form indicates that Halsnead originally belonged to Cronton, which it adjoins. 
Ridgate : Rudegate 1277, Le Ridgate 1304 Ind, de (la) Ruddegate 1284 LAR, 
Ruddegate 1337 WhC 817. This name means " the cleared road " ; rid vb. 
(M.E. rudden, ridden) means " to clear (a way)," etc. Gate is O.N. gata " road." 
According to Bartholomew, Rudgate is the name of a portion of Ermine Street 
between Tadcaster and Aldborough. Ruddegate in the example from WhC 817 
designates a road. 

10. Prescot (town): Prestecota 1178 LPR, Prestecote 1189-96, prestecot 1189-98 
Ch, de Prestcote 1246 LAR, de Prestecote 1254 LF, Prestecote 1329 LF, Prestcot, 
-cott 1341 IN. Some of the examples rather refer to Prescot parish. Prescot 
is a small township, having been cut off from Whiston as a manor for the rectory 
(VHL III. 353). The name means " the rectory, the rector's manor," O.E. 
preosta cot O.E. cot may here be used in the sense of " manor," like O.E. 
cotllf, on which see Maitland, Domesday p. 334, and Bosworth-Toller (Suppl.). 

11. Eccleston (W. of St. Helens ; v.) : Ecclistona 1190 CC, Eccliston a 1220 CC, 
Accliston 1243 LI, Edeston 1246 LAR, Eccleston 1276 LAR, 1327, 1332 LS, etc. 
First el. a Brit, form of Lat. ecclesia ; cf. Eccles in Salf., p. 37. 

Glest : Glest a 1220 CC 606, 1333 Moore MSS (1075), de Glest 1276 LAR, Gleast 

1602 DL. Glest is in the N.W. part of the township. There seem to be no 

physical features that help to explain the name. It may possibly be a derivative 

of the base glms discussed under Gleaston Lo. 

Scholes : Eschales a 1190, Scolys 1451 CC. O.N. skali " hut." 

Thatto Heath (partly in Sutton) : Thetwall 12 cent. VHL III. 358, de Thotewell 

1246 LAR. Thatto Brook is mentioned in the deed quoted in VHL. So Thatto 

may have been originally the name of a brook. The elements of the name seem 

to be O.E. peote " waterpipe, channel, torrent, cataract " and wcella " stream." 

Wolfscroft, -head (now lost ; sometimes called a vill.) : Wolfscroft, de Wul- 

croftheued 1276 LAR. "The croft of Wulf" ; O.E. Wulfis a pers. n. 

12. Sutton (S.E. of and partly in St. Helens) : Sutton 1200 AP, 1246 LAR, 
1332 LS, etc. O.E. sud-tun " south town." 

Burtonhead : Burton(e)heued a 1230 CC 597, de Burtonheued 1246 LAR, Burton- 
heued 1284 LAR, Bortonheved 1292 PW. Burton must be the name of the old 
manor which gave name to Burtonwood, the township adjoining Sutton on the 
E. Yet Burtonhead is in the W. part of Sutton. Head in this and the following 
names means " hill." 
Eltonhead : Eltoneheued a 1230 CC, de Eltonheued 1284 LAR, 1332 LS, Eltonheved 


1292 PW, de Eltonheved 1337 LF. The first el. must be Elton, the name of a lost 

place, representing an O.E. Elian tun. 

Micklehead : Myckleheade 1600 RS XII. 239. " The great hill." O.E. mycel 

" great." 

Sherdley : de Sherdilegh 1323 LI, de Sherdelegh 1332 LS, de Schardeley 1337 WhC 

816, de Sherdeley 1386 LF. The first el. appears to be O.E. sceard " a gap in an 


Woodfall Hall : Wudefal a 1230 CO, de Wodefal 1321 LF, de Wodefall 1332 LS. 

The name may mean literally " wood-fall," i.e., " place where trees have fallen 

down " (O.E./eB,/0&, " falling "), or " wood-felling," i.e., " place where wood 

may be felled." But in EDD fall is given in the sense " a valley hanger " 

(W. Yks.) ; cf. also p. 10. 

13. Parr (E. of St. Helens) : Par 1246 LAR, c 1265 CO, 1341 IN, etc., de Parre 
1298 LI, Parr 1327, Paar 1332 LS. If O.E. pearruc " fence ; paddock " 
(=O.H.G. pfarrih, pferrih) is a Germanic word and a derivative of a shorter 
word, found in O.H.G. pharra " parish," originally " district " or the like, 
then Parr may be derived from an O.E. *pearr of a similar meaning ; cf. also 
M.E. parren " to enclose ; fold " (1300, etc.), dial, par " an enclosure for beasts " 
(1819, etc.), according to NED possibly going back to M.E. *parre, O.E. *pearre. 
Parham, Sufi, is supposed by Skeat to contain parr " enclosure." But the history 
of O.E. pearruc, etc., is not sufficiently clear. I find that Harrison suggests a 
meaning " stock-enclosure " (Surnames 1912). 

Laffog or Leafog (old estate) : Lachok 1246 LAR, de Laghoc 1271 LAR, de 
Laghok(e) 1323 LI, de Laghok 1332 LS, Laghoughe 16 cent. LR 386. This 
name is explained in VHL III. 115 as " law-oak," referring to " the celebrated 
oak in Allerton, where the sheriff's tourn may have been held." Presumably 
it is for the pers. n. Laghok borne by land-holders in Woolton that this etymology 
is meant, but there may have been a " law-oak " also in Parr. The etymology 
is somewhat suspicious, because -ok is found as early as 1246 ; yet it may be 
correct. It is perhaps not without importance that Broad Oak (Erode oke 1589 
Walton R) is the name of another estate in Parr. If Parr comes from an O.E. 
pearr " enclosure," this may have meant a place fenced in for the holding of a 
thing (cf. Hoops Reallex. I. 470), and the " law-oak " would have been a holy 
oak on the place. 

14. Windle (N. of and partly in St. Helens) : Windhull 1201 LPR, 1202 LF, 
Windhill 1202 LPR, Windul 1201 CC, Windhul 1212 LI, Wyndul 1243 LI, 
Wyndhill 1272 LAR, Wyndhull 1332 LS ; 1340 LF, etc. I suppose the name means 
literally " windy hill." Windhill is a well-known name. One is in W. Yks. 
Cf. Windhill in N.Lo., windbergh 891 BCS 564, Windybank in W. Yks. (see Goodall), 
Windy Bank p. 58. A height of 260ft. is reached in the township. 

Cowley : de Collay 1319 SC, 1332 LS. As there are collieries at the place the 
name seems to have as first el. O.E. col " coal." 

Hardshaw : Haureteschagh 1339 VHL III. 373, de Hardeschawe 1391 Moore 
MSS, Hardshaghe 1585 DL. The early forms are not sufficiently clear to make 
an etymology possible. The first el. is perhaps a pers. n., e.g., O.E. Heahred. 
Haresfinch (Harrfinch O.M. 1846-51) : Herthefellige 1201, Hertfellinge 1201-1220, 
de Hertfulling 1251 CC, de Horfalling, de Herefalling 1246 LAR, Arflynche (sur- 


name) 1539 CO ; a pers. n. Harflynch is mentioned VHL III. 373. The second 

el. is apparently either O.E. /edging " fallow land " (cf. p. 10) or felling vbl. 

noun oifell. The first el. is seemingly O.E. heorp " hearth." The meaning of 

the compound is not obvious. It is interesting to find that the second el. seems 

to have had palatalized g. The loss of I is remarkable. 

St. Helens (town) was formerly the seat of a chapel dedicated to St. Helen : 

Set Elyus (!) chap. 1577 Saxton. 

Windleshaw : Wyndell Shaae Park 1548, Wyndleshay 1551 DL. First el. the 

name Windle. 

15. Rainford (N. of St. Helens, v.) : Raineford a 1198 Ch, Reineford 1202 LF, 

Rayneford 1256, 1315 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Raynford 1246 LAR, 1354 LF, etc., 

Reynford 1321 LF ; Reinesford 1246 LAR, Raynesford 1262 LF, Raynsford 

1503 LF. Rainford vill. is on Sankey Brook. The name seems to mean " the 

ford of Regna " ; cf. Rainhill p. 107. Lindkvist p. 133 suggests as first el. O.N. 

reyni " rowan-trees." This is not convincing, as Scand. names are extremely 

rare in the district. 

Forshaw (lost) : de Fourocshagh 1315 LF, de ffoureokshaghe 1332 LS, Fauroshawe 

1446 LF (surname). The name means " four-oak-wood." 

Mossborough : Mossebarrowe 1516 DL, Mosbarrow 1577 Saxton, Mosburowe 

1600 RS XII. The place stands on a piece higher ground in mossland. Second 

el. apparently O.E. beorh " barrow, hill." 


A district S.E. of Liverpool, bounded on the S. by the Mersey. 

1. Hale (W. of Widnes, v.) : Halas 1094 Ch, Hales 1094 LC 793, 1227 ChR, 
Hale 1201 LPR, 1276 LAR, 1332 LS, etc. O.E. halh (dat. hale) " a haugh, 
river-meadow," or rather the plural of the word (O.E. halas). The village stands 
in a bend of the Mersey on low ground. 

2. Halewood(N.ofHale,v.): Halewodec 1200 CO, Halewood 1509 LF. Obviously 
" the wood belonging to Hale." Halewood was originally part of Hale. 
Halebank : Halebonk 1426, -bank 1509 LF. Halebank is on the Mersey. 

The Hutt : the Hutt 1499 Moore MSS, the Hutte 1546 ib., Hutte (man.) 1526 DL. 
I suppose the Hutt was originally a hunting-lodge in Halewood, and that the 
name is the word hut. The only difficulty is that Engl. hut is not evidenced in 
the NED until 1650 and that the Fr. hutte, from which it is usually derived, is 
not found much earlier. Perhaps the source of hut is rather Du. hut. 

3. Speke (S.E. of Liverpool, on the Mersey ; v.) : Spec DB, 1212 LI, Speke 1252 
IPM, 1313, 1418 ltf,Spek 1276 LAR, Speck 1278 LAR, Specke 1320 LF, Speek 
1332 LS, c 1360 OR 333. The vill. of Speke stands about a mile from the Mersey 
on slightly rising ground, while Speke Hall is on the bank of the river. There 
is nothing in the situation that suggests in what direction the etymology should 
be sought. I suppose the name must belong to the stem spek, spak dealt with 
by Torp-Fick p. 506, and found e.g. in M.L.G. spak " dry," spaken pi. " dry 
twigs," O.H.G. spah(ho) " dry brushwood," M.H.G. spach " dry," Norw. dial. 
spcek " chip of wood." In O.E. we find spcec, pi. gen. spaca (or rather spcec, 
spaca} apparently " a twig," which perhaps forms the first el. of Spetchley, 


Wore. (Spwcleahtun 816 BCS 356, Speclea 967 ib. 1204, Duignan) and spachrycg 
814 BCS 346 (Middendorfi s.v. spcec}. A derivative O.L.G. speckia " causeway 
of fascines " is found in place-names (Forstemann 834f.). If Speke contains 
a word belonging to this group, we have to start from an O.E. spcec, spec, 
identical with Norw. spcek. The meaning may have been " brushwood " or 
the like. 

Oglet (h., by the Mersey) : Okelot 1321 VHL III. 131, de Og(o)lot 1323 LI, de 
Oglot 1324 LCR, de Oglet 1323 LCR. The second el. appears to be O.E. Mot 
" portion, share " (cf. p. 13). The first may be O.E. dc " oak," but the O.E. 
pers. n. Oca (or Occa) may also be thought of. Somewhat earlier forms are 

4. Garston (S.E. of Liverpool, town) : Gerstan 1094, 1142, 1155 Ch, 1212, 1226 
LI, 1246 LAR, 1265 IPM, 1332 LS, 1367 LF, etc. ; Gerhstan 1122, Gerestanam 
1142 Ch, Gerestan 1212 RB ; Grestan c 1155 Ch, 1215 LPR, de Grestan 1325 LCR 
(104) ; Gerstun 1297 LI, Gerston 1202 LPR, 1324 LI. The early forms tell us 
that the second el. is not O.E. tun, but O.E. stdn. O.E. gcers " grass " is then 
not a plausible first el. I believe Garston is simply a compound of O.E. great 
" big " and stdn. As regards the loss of t before s we may compare Whiston, 
in the earliest quotations usually Quistan, Whistan. Great in northern dialects 
often appears as gert (14 cent. NED). The earlier metathesis in the place- 
name is easily accounted for by the fact that early shortening of the vowel must 
have taken place. The forms with Gere- are not common ; the -e- may be in- 
trusive. But so long as a Gretstan or Gertstan has not been found this etymology 
remains doubtful. Gerhstan 1122 may be miswritten for Gertstan. Gretestan 
(hundr., Glo.) DB contains O.E. great and stdn. 

Aigburth (h.) : Aykeberh c 1200 CC, Aikeberh, Eikeberhe c 1250 CC, Aykebergh, 
Aikebergh 13 cent. WhC 559f. O.N. Eikiberg from eiki " oaks " and berg " hill." 
Grassendale (on the Mersey) : parvam Gresyndale 13 cent. WhC 585f . Apparently 
M.E. gresing " T sturing, pasture-land " and O.E. dcel or O.N. dalr " valley." 
Cf. Gressingha: uo. However, if the form Gresselond Dale given VHL III. 
125 is trustworthy, the first el. is perhaps rather gres-land " grass-land," gres 
being a Scand. word for grass. 

5. AUerton (a suburb of Liverpool) : Alretune DB, Alreton c 1200 CC, 1241 LF, 
Alerton 1322 LI, AUerton 1327, 1332 LS, 1418, 1441 LF. O.E. air " alder " and 
tun. The form de Aluerton 1276 LAR, if belonging here, would seem to show the 
same intrusive v as early forms of Wycoller p. 88. 

6. Much and Little Woolton (townships S.E. of Liverpool) : Vluentune, Vuetone 
DB, Wlueton 1187 HS LIV. 184 (orig.), 1258 LAR, Wlvinton 1188 HS LIV. 187 
(orig.), Wulueton 1246 LAR, Wolveton 1322 LI, Wolventon 1323 LI, Wolleton 
1403 CR ; Wolueton Magna cum parua 1327 LS ; Wolueton Magna 1332 LS, 
Magna Wolneton 1341 IN ; minor Wolueton, inferiori Wolueton, parua Wolueton 
c 1200 WhC 801-9, Wolueton parua 1332 LS. The etymology seems to be 
Wulfan tun, though the preservation of the n of the first el. in some early forms 
is remarkable (cf. p. 22). 

Brettargh Holt (the N. part) : Bretharue, Bretharwe, Bretarwe 13 cent. WhC 
806f., Bretharche 1292 PW. Second el. ergh " shieling " (see p. 10) ; the first is 
apparently the gen. of O.N. Bretar or O.E. Brettas " Britons." 


In DB is mentioned a manor Wibaldeslei in Woolton. This is, of course, O.E. 
Wlgbaldes leak. Wlgbald is a common name. 

7. ChOdwaU (E. of Liverpool) : Cildeuuelle DB, Kydewelle, Childewell 1094 Ch, 
Cheldewell 12 cent. LC 13, Childewell c 1190 Ch, 1302 LI, Childewalle 1212 LI, 
1332 LS, 1376 LF, Childewall 1243 LI, Childewal 1268 LAR, Childwall 1423 LF ; 
Chaldewall 1238 LF ; now [tfilwal] or " Childow " VHL III. 108. Childwall 
stands on Childwall Brook. The second el. of the name is O.E. wcella " well ; 
brook." The first el. is to be compared with that of Chilton, Som. (Cildatun 
1052 CD 796, Cildetone DB), Childwick, Herts (Childewik 1303 FA), Hanley 
Child, Wore. (Childrehanle 1275 Duignan), etc. Skeat looks upon the first 
el. of Chilton and Childwick as O.E. cilda " of children." Childwall probably 
contains the same el. Wyld prefers to derive it from the O.E. *cild, celd (in 
Bapchild), " a sudden burst of water from a hill." This is not convincing. 
O.E. celde " a spring " corresponds to O.N. kelda, and no doubt goes back to a 
base *kaldion. But that could not have given a Lancashire childe-. Chilwell, 
Notts. (Chillewell and the like in early sources) probably has for its first el. a 
pers. n. (O.E. Cilia, Cille). 

8. Thingwall (E. of Liverpool) : Tingwella 1177 LPR, Tingwelle 1212 RB, 
Thingwalle 1212 LI, Thingwell 1226 LI, 1298 LI, Thyngwall 1262 LAR, 1322 LI, 
Tingewall 1297 LI. O.N. pingvollr " place where the thing met." The name 
bears interesting witness to a Scand. settlement, which must have had its 
thing-place in Thingwall. The meeting-place was obviously the round, gently 
sloping hill on which Thingwall Hall now stands, and which must have been an 
ideal place for a thing. The interchange of -well and -wall is most probably due 
to influence from names in -well (O.E. wcella}, which show a good deal of similar 
variation. Very likely -well is simply due to scribes who supposed the name 
contained the word well and used the form considered to be correct. But -well 
may partly be due to the O.N. dat. form -velli, or pi. form -vellir. 

9. Wavertree (in E. Liverpool) : Wauretreu DB, Wauertrea 1177 LPR, W avertre 
1196, 1199 LPR, 1246 LAR, 1251 ChR, etc., Wavertree 1201 LPR, Wauertre 
1226 LI, Wartre 1577 Saxton. The second el. of the name is, of course, O.E. 
treo " tree," a word common in place-names. The first el. is difficult. Skeat 
(in Harrison) connects it with the verb to waver and thinks the name means 
" wavering tree, aspen." This is possible, but not convincing. O.E. Wcerferd 
pers. n. (suggested by Wyld) does not account for the form ; in the Lane. dial. 
O.E. ce would appear as e. I think the name must be compared with the numerous 
names in Waver found in different counties, e.g., Waverley, Surr. (WauerV 
1159 PR), Waverton, Warw. (Wavertone 13 cent.), Warton, Shrops., Wharton 
p. 43. Waver alone occurs as a place-name; cf. Woore, Ches. (Waure DB), 
Church Over, Warw. (Wara DB, Waure 13 cent.), Brownsover, Warw. (Gaura 
DB, Waure, etc., 13 cent.). We must assume an O.E. word *wcefer or the like 
of a meaning which rendered it particularly liable to be used in place-names and 
as a place-name. Such a word is found in Low German, viz., waver " schwan- 
kender wiesengrund," common in place-names (see Forstemann). What the 
exact meaning was in English cannot be settled without special investigation ; 
perhaps we may compare dial, waver " a common pond " (EDD). 



A district E. of Liverpool. 

1. Tarbock (N.W. of Widnes, bounded on the W. by Ditton Brook) : Torboc 
DB, 1256 LAR, Torbok 1257 ChR, 1285 LAR, 1283 Ind, 1311 IPM, 1322 LI, 
1332 LS, 1354 LF, etc., Torboke, Torbroke 1311 LI ; Thorboc 1243 LI, de Thorboc, 
de Thorbok, de Turbok 1246 LAR, de Thorebok 1252 LC 35, de Thorboc 1256 LAR. 
In CC 607 (1180-1200) is mentioned antiquum Torboc (assartum) ; cf. Ol(d)torboke 
1451, 1461 CC. 

The etymology of this name is probably much simpler than it looks. No 
Celtic source should be sought for it. Connection with tor " hill " (cf. NED) 
is out of the question ; the highest point in the township does not reach much 
over 50ft. I believe the second el. is O.E. broc " brook." Tarbock Hall stands 
on Ochre Brook, a tributary of Ditton Brook ; Harrison 1577 calls this the 
Tarbocke water. The loss of the r is due to dissimilation. The first el. might be 
the Scand. pers. n. Thor or Thori. However, I am more inclined to believe that 
it is O.E. porn " thorn." An n would easily be lost in such a name as Thornb(r)ok. 
It is possible the original form is preserved in the pers. n. (Henrico) de Thorne- 
brooke 1232-56 CC 556 (witness to a Garston deed). A Henry de Torbok is occa- 
sionally met with in documents in CC. The change of Th- to T- is, of course, 
due to Norman influence ; such influence may have contributed also to the 
other changes in the name.f 

2. Huyton-with-Roby (on the upper Alt). 

Huyton : Hitune DB, Hutona 1189-96 Ch, Huton 1243 LI, Button 1268 LAR, 
Huyton 1311 IPM, 1322 LI, 1332 LS, 1353f. LF, etc., Hyton 1423 LF, de Hyton 
1341 IN ; now [haitn]. Huyton vill. is less than half a mile S. of the upper Alt. 
I suppose the name is simply O.E. hyp-tun from hyp " landing-place." In the 
same way I would explain Hyton, Cumb. ( : HietunI)"B, Hyton 1270, Sedgefield). 
Hyton is on Annaside Beck. The Alt near Huyton is an insignificant stream. 
It should be remembered, however, that in the olden days boats were small, 
and that rivers and streams were often deeper than they are now. It may be 
objected against this etymology that the vowel ought to have been shortened. 
But so long as the word hyp remained in use the name Huyton would be asso- 
ciated with it, and this circumstance would tend to preserve the vowel long ; 
or, as it may be put, Hytton would be replaced by Hyton. Cf. Layton p. 155, 
Myton-super-Swale, Yks. (close to the confluence of the Swale and the Ouse) : 
Mytona 1147-61 YCh 793, Mittona 1170-84 ib. 795 ; also Myton in Hull [maitn]. 
Roby (the S.W. part) : Rabil DB, Rabi 1185 LPR, Raby 1238 LF, 1246 LAR, 
1311 IPM, 1327 LS, Roby 1304 ChR, 1322 LI, 1332 LS, etc. A Scand. name. 
Lindkvist p. 188f. derives the first el. from Scand rd " landmark, boundary 
line," which is no doubt correct. Roby is on the Childwall border. The name is 
common in Scandinavia (cf. Hellquist, Ortnamnen pa -by), and is found in Ches., 
Cumb., Durh. (Raby). 

Woliall Hall (in Huyton ; on the Alt) : de la Wulfhal 1242 LF, de Wolfalle 
1285 LAR. O.E. Wulfa pers. n. (or possibly wulf " wolf ") and O.E. halh 
" haugh, water-meadow." 

3. Knowsley (W. of St. Helens ; v.) : Chenulueslei DB, Cnusleu 1189-96 Ch, 


Knusleia c 1200 Ind, Knuvesle 1199 LF, Cnusleie 1199-1220 CO, Knousley 1243 
LI, Knouwesley, Cnueslegh, de Cnousle de Knollesle 1246 LAR, Knouselegh 1322 
LI, 1332 LS, 1376 LF, etc., Knouseleye 1311 IPM. Other variants occur. Harri- 
son explains this aptly as Cenulfes leak, the first el. being O.E. Cenwulf or Cyne- 
wulf. Apparently analogous is Kneeton, Notts. (Chenivetone DB, Knyveton 
1284 FA), containing O.E. Cynegifu (or Cengifu). 

Bury (in Knowsley Park) : Biri a 1220 CC. O.E. burh, probably in the sense 
" fortified place." 

Longbarrow : Langebarwe ? temp. John Ind. " The long grove " (O.E. bearo). 
4. Croxteth Park : Crocstad 1257 LI, Croxstath 1297 LI, Croxtath 1323 LI, 
Crokstat, Crokstath 1372ff. Gaunt R, Crostoffe c 1540 Leland. Croxteth Hall 
is close to the Alt. Croxteth belonged to the forest of Derby ; hence the addition 
Park. The first el. of the name is Croc pers. n. (from O.N. Krokr or O.Dan. 
Krok). The second may be O.N. stod (O.Dan, stath) " landing place," or the 
plur. of O.N. stadr (O.Dan, stath) " place." The name Kroksstadir is found in 
Iceland. The situation of the place rather tells in favour of the first alternative. 


This large parish consists of two separate parts, a larger one N.E. of the 
Mersey estuary, S., E., and N. of Liverpool, and a smaller one on the sea, N. of 
Sefton. The latter, as the names of the townships (Ravensmeols, etc.) imply, 
belongs closely to North Meols, and is better dealt with in connection with that 
parish. The surface of the S. part is mostly level, except in the S. 
1. West Derby (old vil. E. of and partly in Liverpool) : Derbei DB, Derbeia 1153 
Ind, Derby 1094 Ch, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Derbi 1169, 1206 LPR, Westderbi 
1177 LPR, Derebi 1202 LPR, Westderebi 1201ff. LPR, West Derebe 1226 LI, 
West Dereby 1229 ChR, Westderby 1250 ChR, etc., West Derbe 1278 LAR, West 
Derby 1330 LF. 

This name is apparently identical with Derby in Derbyshire : Deora by 942 
Chr. A ; Deoraby 917 Chr. C, Deorby 959-75 Grueber (coin), 1049 Chr. D. The 
latter place was originally called Northworthig, the name Derby being given by 
Danes. The two names Derby must be explained in connection with each other. 
As regards Derby in Derbyshire, its first el. is usually derived from the word 
" deer " (Walker, Johnston, Bjorkman in Nordisk Tidskrift 1911). Bugge, 
Vikingerne II. 242, compares the first el. with that of Deorstrete, the name of a 
road in Northumbria, and that of Derwent river. Especially the latter suggestion 
is not convincing. 

Other possibilities that have suggested themselves to me are the following 
two. The first el. may be O.N. Dyri pers. name. Or it may be O.N. dyrr adj. 
" splendid " (O.N. Dyraby " the splendid town "). In favour of the latter 
suggestion we may point to Whitby " the white village " and O.N. Miklagardr 
" the large town," the old Scand. name of Constantinople. I should be inclined 
to believe the second alternative to be correct if the O.N. form Dyrabyr, stated 
by Bugge, Vikingerne II. 242, to be the O.N. name of Derby, really exists. 
Deoraby would then be an anglicized form. But in spite of diligent search I have 
not been able to trace such a form. I therefore come to the conclusion that 


after all the old derivation of the first el. from O.Scand. diur " deer " is correct, 
and I am strengthened in this belief by the fact that Swed. names in -by very 
often have the name of an animal as first el. (Hellquist, Ortnamn pa -by p. 16ff.). 
It is really quite plausible that the Northmen may have given Derby its name 
because there was a deer-park in the place. As regards West Derby there is the 
difficulty that the O.N. form, which we expect in this part of England, is generally 
dtfr ; yet diur occurs, though rarely, in Norway. O.N. Dyrabyr, however, may 
have been anglicized to Deoraby. It is also possible that (West) Derby is really 
a Danish name or even that West Derby was simply named after the more 
famous Derby in Derbyshire. 

Ackers Mill, Ackers Hall : del Accres 1323 LI, 1324 LCR, 1332 LS. O.E. cecras 
11 acres." 

Breck (Breck House, etc.) : del Brek 1323 LI, del Breck 1325 LCR. O.N. brekka 
" hill." 

2. Toxteth Park (S. of Liverpool) : Stochestede DB, Tokestath 1212 LI, (haya de) 
Toxtathe 1221 C1R, Toxstath 1297, 1323 LI, Tocstath 1316 WhC 528, Tokstqffe 
c 1540 Leland. The township stands on the Mersey. Its name may mean " the 
landing-place (or the homestead) of Toki," from ToTci, a chiefly E. Scand. 
pers. n., and O.N. stpd " landing-place " or stadir from staftr, cf. Croxteth p. 114. 
Toxteth was included in the forest of Derby ; hence the name Toxteth Park. 
Smithdown (old manor) : Esmedvne DB, Smededon 1185, 1204 LPR, Smethedon 
1202 LPR, 1316 WhC 528, Smethdon 1324 LI. " Smooth or flat down," O.E. 
smede " smooth " and dun " down." The ground in Toxteth township rises to 
c 190ft. (VHL III. 40). 

Dingle : de Dingyll 1246 LAR. Cf. dingle " a deep dell or hollow " 1240, etc. 
(NED). The Dingle lies round a former creek. 

3. Everton (N.E. of and a suburb of Liverpool) : Evretonam 1094 Ch, Everton 
1201ff. LPR, 1251 ChR, etc., Euerton 1206S. LPR, 1332 LS, Ouerton 1226 LI, 
Earton 1577 Saxton. Sephton derives the first el. from O.E. ofer " over," sup- 
planted by O.N. efri " upper." As Everton lies on a hill in a commanding 
situation, derivation of the first el. from O.N. efri is tempting. Yet I hesitate to 
accept it because most names in -ton have an English first el., and as Everton 
is found also in Beds., Notts.,- Hants. Skeat derives Ever- from O.E. eofor 
" boar." This may be right, but it is not apparent why such a name was given. 
I am inclined to prefer derivation of Ever- from a pers. n., in view of the absence 
of forms in Evers-, from O.E. *Eofora 1 , corresponding to O.H.G. Ebaro. 

4. Walton or Walton-on-the-Hill (N.E. of Liverpool, v.) : Waletone DB, Waleton 
1094 Ch, 1177ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1252 IPM, etc., Walton 1332 LS, etc., 
Waliton c 1140 Ch. O.E. Wala-tun " the town of the Welshmen." The village 
is on a slight hill. 

Spellow : de Spellowe 1306 LF, de Spellawe 1323 LI. I take the first el. to be 
O.E. spell " speech, discourse, announcement," spell-hldw meaning a hill from 
which announcements were made, or on which moots were held. Cf . spelstow, 

1 Forssner, p. 63, considers it uncertain whether Eofor- existed as an O.E. name-element. 
But even if, what seems very improbable, Eoforhwcet and Eoforuulf in LV should be of L.G. 
origin, Eofor and Eofora may well have been used. The name Everingham, in Yks. (Euring- 
ham, DB) most probably has a patronymic derived from Eofor(a) as first el. 


rendered by B-T " place where announcements are made ? " The place is on 

fairly high ground. 

Newsham : Neuhusum 1212-17 RB, Neusun 1196 LPR, Neusom 1212 RB, 

Neusum 1200 ChR, 1212 LI, 1292 LF, Ewzam 1590 Walton R. (At) " the new 

houses." O.E. neowe and the dat. pi. of hus " house." 

Walton Breck ( : cf. Brecksyde 1616 Walton R) and Warbreck have as second 

el. O.N. brekka " hill," etc. 

5. Kirkdale (on the Mersey, in N. Liverpool) : Chirchedele DB, Kirkedale 1185 
LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Kierkedala 1201 LPR, Kirkedal 1241 
LF ; Kierkelade 1203f. LPR. O.N. kirkia " church " and O.N. dalr (or O.E. doel) 
" dale." The name is probably Scandinavian. 

6. Bootle (in N. Liverpool) : Boltelai DB, Botle 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1257 IPM, 
Botele 1252 IPM, Bold 1284 LAR, Bothull 1332 LS, Botull 1322 LI ; Bolde 
1226 LI. O.E. botl " dwelling, house," etc. (see p. 8). The same name is found 
in Cumberland. 

Linacre (old manor) : Linacre 1212 LI, Lynacre 1327 LS, 1341 IN. " Flax field." 

O.E. lin " flax " and cecer. 

1. Fazakerley (N. of Walton) : Phasakyrlee c 1250 HS XXXV. 143, deffasacrelegh 

1325 LCR, Fazakerley 1509 LF. Cf. de ffasacre 1325 LCR. Fazakerley was 

originally one of the Walton townfields (VHL III. 28). The first el. of the name 

seems to be O.E. fees " border, fringe," though it is true the O.E. word is only 

used of the hem of a garment. 

Stonebridgley (Cf. Stone Bridge in the E. of the township) : de Stonbrugelegh 

1279 Moore MSS, de Stonbriglegh 1323 LI, de Stonbge 1324 Moore MSS. 

8. Kirkby (N.E. of Liverpool, E. of the Alt) : Cherchebi DB, Karkebi 1176 LPR, 
Kierkebi 1207 LPR, Kyrkeby 1228 C1R, 1243 LI, 1246 LF, 1341 IN, Kirkeby 
1311 LI, 1332 LS, etc. " The church-village," O.N. kirkiu-byr. 
Aynesargh is a name often occurring in Moore MSS : Aynesargh 1394, de Aynes- 
argh 1350, 1380. It is apparently identical with Avanessergh 1501 (VHL III. 54), 
stated to be in Kirkdale. The second el. is ergh " a shieling, a pasture " (cf. p. 10). 
The first appears to be a pers. n., possibly identical or connected with that in 

Ingoe Lane : de Ingeswaith 1332 LS. In VHL III. 54 the pers. n. de Ingewaith 
is mentioned. The first el. of the name is apparently O.N. Ingi (or O.E. Inga, 
cf. Ingol Am.). The second can hardly be O.N. pveit. It may be O.N. veidr 
" hunting, place for hunting " ; cf. p. 20. 

9. Simonswood (N. of and originally part of Kirkby) : Simonddeswode a 1190 
CC, Simundeswude 1207 LPR, Simundeswod 1297 LI, Symondeswode 1323, 1330 
LI, 1372 Gaunt R. O.E. Sigemundes wudu. 

LIVERPOOL (old manor, originally in Walton par., a borough since 1207) : 
Liuerpul a 1194 Ch, 1208 LPR, Liuerpol 1211 LPR, 1246, 1258, 1284 LAR, 
1297 LI, Liverpol 1246 LAR, 1251 ChR, etc., Liverpul a 1240 CC, Liurepol 1259 
LAR, Lyuerpol 1259, 1284, 1285 LAR, Lyverpol 1292 PW, 1321 LF, [Lyuer]pull 
1332 LS, Lyverpull 1359ff. LF ; Leverepul 1229 ChR, Leverpol 1292 PW ; Lieuer- 
pol 1226 LI ; de Litherpol 1222-26 LI, Lythirpol 1308 Moore MSS, Litherpole 
(vulgo Lirpole) 1586 Camden ; Lyrpole. Lyverpoole c 1540 Leland, Lirepoole 


1577 Harr. This list will give a fairly adequate idea of the relative frequency 
of the different forms in early records. Full material will be found in Harrison 
and Wyld ; especially the forms in Lever- are fully enumerated by Wyld and 
those in Lither- by Harrison. 

Liverpool was no doubt the original name of the Pool, a tidal creek, now filled 
up, into which two streams fell. Of the two types of the name, Liverpol and 
Litherpol, the former must be made the starting-point for the etymology. The 
form Lither- is comparatively rare and chiefly found in late records. Occasional 
Lither- in early records is probably due to influence from Litherland. 

It has been suggested that Liver- may be liver " waterflag " or " bulrush," 
but against this it has been pointed out that the Pool was a saltwater pool, 
where no flags would grow (Harrison p. 28). Besides, it is extremely doubtful 
if an O.E. lifer " waterflag " existed ; O.E. ealifer means " liverwort." Livers 
11 the yellow flag " in mod. dial, probably goes back to O.E. Icefer, lefer. Wyld 
suggests as first el. O.E. Leofhere pers. n. But the usual early form is Liverpol, 
etc., not Leverpol. It is true O.E. eo sometimes seems to have become i in Lane, 
place-names ; cf . Rivington p. 48. But the development has no doubt been from 
eo to u [y] (a well-known West Midland change) and to i. We should expect u, o 
by the side of i, e, if the base had O.E. eo. Besides, it is curious that of the scores 
of examples of the name Liverpool not one shows the genitive s to be expected 
if the first el. was Leofhere. 

I am inclined to believe that Liver- is to be compared with O.E. lifrig (in 
lifrig blod), M.E. livered " coagulated, clotted," as in pe liuerede se Rob. Gl., 
pe liuerd se C.M. " the Red Sea," liver-sea a 1600 " an imaginary sea in which 
the water is " livered " or " thick " (NED), G. Lebermeer, the same. In 
Norway there is a stream-name Levra, going back to Lifra, and probably meaning 
" stream with thick water " (Rygh, N.E. 145). Liverpul may mean " the pool 
with the thick water." Or Liver may have been the name of one of the streams 
that fell into the pool ; this name would then have been identical with Norw. 


The parish is situated N. of Walton par. between the Alt and the estuary of 
the Mersey. 

1. Aintree (v. ; on the Alt) : Ayntre a 1220 CC, 1257f. LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Aintree 
1226 LI, de Eyntre 1246 LAR. Lindkvist's suggestion (p. 43) that this is Scand. 
ein-tre " tree standing alone " seems very plausible. 

2. Orrell and Ford (the two portions are separated by Litherland). 

Orrell (on the border of Walton) : Orhul 1299 Moore MSS, Orell 1347, 1385 ib., 
Orrell 1547 LF. Orrell stands at the foot of Orrell Hill. The name is apparently 
identical with Orrell in Wigan. I suppose it means " ore hill," but there does 
not seem to be any information as regards ore-mining in Orrell. O.E. ora " bank, 
margin " would give a fairly good meaning ; Orrell is situated on a brook. 
Ford (E. of a brook) : la Forde 1323 LI, the Forde 1408 Moore MSS, Forde 1547 
LF. O.E. ford 11 ford." 

3. Litherland or Down-Litherland (on the Mersey ; v.) : Liderlant DB, 1114-16 
Ch (orig.), Litherlande 1202 LF, Litherland 1212 LI, Lytherlond 1332 LS ; Dun- 


lytherlond 1298 LI, Dounelithirlond 1392 LF. O.N. Hlicfarland from Uld (gen. 
hliftar) " slope " and land. The same name is found in Norway (Lindkvist p. 12). 
Litherland vill. stands at the foot of a small hill, and the ground slopes away 
gently towards the estuary of the Mersey. 

4. Netherton (originally a hamlet of Sefton) : Netherton 1576 Moore MSS. The 
place was perhaps called " the nether town " in contradistinction to Sefton Town, 
which is c 70ft. above sea-level. 

5. Sefton (on the Alt) : Sextone DB, Sefftun a 1222 CC, Ceffton 1236 C1R, Sefton 
1298 LI, 1332 LS, 1375 LF, etc., Seffton 1322 LI. The most probable etymology 
is O.N. *Sef-tun, a compound of sef " sedge " and tun ; cf . Rushton Sa. Sextone 
in DB is a blunder. The church stands near the Alt. The country along the Alt 
is low and level, and the meadows were formerly covered with water in winter. 
Rushes and other waterplants are common in the Alt and the ditches and mea- 
dows near Sefton. O.N. sef is found in the name of a lake in Martin NLo and in 
mod. dialects as seave. 

6. Lunt (N.W. of Sefton ; on the Alt) : de Lund 1251 CC, c 1275 CC, del Lunt 
1344 Moore MSS, Lundscofh c 1265 CC. O.N. lundr " grove." 

7. Thornton (N.E. of Gt. Crosby ; v.) : Torentun DB, Thorinton 1212 LI, 
a 1250 CC, Thorneton 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, 1340 LF, etc., Thornton 1246 LAR, 
1322 LI, etc. O.E. porn " thorn " and tun. 

8. Great and Little Crosby (townships on the Mersey estuary ; old villages. 
Gt. Crosby is now a town) : Crosebi DB, Crossebeyam 1094 Ch, Crossebi 1177, 
12005. LPR, Crosseby 1212, 1226 LI, etc. ; magnam Crossly c 1190 Ch, Crosseby 
Magna 1332 LS, Great Crosseby 1246 LAR, etc. ; Little Crosseby 1243 LI, 1322 
LI, etc., Crosseby parua 1332 LS. " The cross village " ; O.N. Krossabyr. 
There are six crosses in Little Crosby (VHL III. 85). 

9. Ince Blundell (N. of Crosby ; v.) : Hinne DB, Ines 1212 LI, 1375 LF, etc., 
Hynis 1243 LI, Ynes 13 cent. WhC 490, Inis 1301 LF, Ins Blundell 1332 LS, 
Ines Blundell 1357, 1397 LF. See Ince-in-Makerfield p. 103. Ince Blundell to 
a great extent consists of flat, fen country. Alt Marsh (Altemersh 13 cent. 
WhC 498) was here. Ince Blundell Hall and village are on slightly higher ground. 
No doubt this portion would in earlier times have been aptly described as an 
" island " in the fen country. The manor passed into the possession of the 
Blundell family c 1200. 

Alt Grange (in the N.) : grangia de Alte 14 cent. WhC 489 ; cf. grangiarius de 
Alte 13 cent. WhC 504. A grange belonging to Whalley Abbey near the Alt. 
Scholes (now lost) : Scoles 13 cent. WhC 490. O.N. skdli " hut." 


This small parish contains only Altcar township. It is situated N. of Sefton 
par. on the N. bank of the Alt. The surface is very low ; there is much old 

Altcar, Great and Little (villages) : Acrer DB, Altekar 1251 LF, Alker 1.577 Saxton. 
" The carr or marshland beside the Alt " ; carr<O.N. kiarr. The DB form 
Acrer is probably corrupt. Lindkvist's suggestion that the form represents an 
earlier name, Scand. Akrar " fields " is not convincing. 



A large inland parish, N.E. of Liverpool. 

1. Melling (in the S. part ; E. of the Alt ; v.) : Melinge DB, Mellinges 1194 
LPR, 1256 LF, Melling', Moiling 1202 LPR, Melling 1226 LI, 1246 LAR, 1298 
LI, etc., Mellyng 1332 LS, 1360 LF, etc. Evidently an O.E. patronymic Md- 
lingas. Exactly the same name is found in Lonsdale as the name of a par. ; 
very likely the two Mellings were founded by members of the same family. 
Mellingas may be a derivative of O.E. Moll (Searle), apparently found also in 
place-names, as Holland, Dev. (Mollanda DB), Mullacote, Dev. (Molecote DB, 
Mollecote 1303 FA), Mollington, Ches. (Molintone DB). Or Melling may be an 
*-mutated side-form of Mailing, Suss, (eel Mallingum 838 BCS 421, Mellinges 
DB, etc.) and Mailing, Kent (Meallingas, east meallinga gemcere 942-6 BCS 779), 
which are probably to be derived from a pers. n. with a stem Mall- or the 

Cunscough : Cunig(g)escofh a 1190 CO, Conigscofh 1190 CO. " The king's 

wood," O.N. konungr (earlier no doubt also kunungr) and O.N. skogr 

11 wood." 

Hengarth (now lost) : Hengerth 1190 CO, 1212 LI, Henggert, Henggerthalaka 

a 1190 CO. O.E. *heng-erp "sloping land"; cf. O.E. henge-clif " steep cliff" 

and ierp, erp " ploughing ; ploughed land." 

Thorp (now lost) : Thorp a 1190 CC. O.N. porp " viUage, hamlet." 

Waddicar (h.) : de Wadacre 1246 LAR. Possibly the first el. is O.E. wad 

" woad " ; the vowel might have been shortened in this position. Cf. however 

Woodacre, Am., which seems to be from O.E. weod-cecer, but appears as Wadacre 

1246 LAR. The second el. is O.E. cecer " acre." 

2. Maghull (N. of Melling ; on the right bank of the Alt ; v.) : Magele DB, 
Maghele a 1190 CC, 1322 LI, Mahale a 1220 CC, de Mahale c 1200 HS XXXII. 
185, 1283 LI, de Mahhale, de Mahal 1255 LI ; Maghal 1219 LAR, 1246 ib., 
1312 LI, Maghale 1243 LI, de Maghale, de Magehal 1246 LAR, Maghall 1278 
LAR, etc., Maggehale 1328 LI, Maghhale 1332 LS, de Maele 1323 LF, Male 1501 
CC, 1514 LF. Now [magul, magAl], but the old pronunciation [me*l] is not for- 

The second el. of the name is obviously O.E. halh " haugh." This word here 
refers to the very gently sloping fields E. of the old mossland along the Alt. 
The first el. is not easy to explain. It appears to have had the form Magh- 
[ma3J in the earliest M.E. ; later [3] became [x] perhaps owing to assimilation 
with the h of the second el., and disappeared. Many names in -halh have a 
pers. n. as first el., and it is reasonable to suppose that also that of Maghull is 
one. But there is no (O.E. or O.N.) pers. n. that fits the name. O.E. mago 
" son," only used in poetry, might be thought of (cf. Childwall), but there are 
to my knowledge no other place-names in which the word is used. But O.E. 
*Maga corresponding to O.H.Gr. Mago may well have existed. Another possibility 
is that the first el. of Maghull, like that of Mayfield, Suss. (Magefeud 1260, 
Maghfeud 1274, Maghefeld 1316, 1343; Roberts), is the Celtic *magos "plain" 
(Brit. *mag, whence Welsh ma "place," Ir. magh "plain, field," etc.). This 
derivation seems unexceptionable from the point of view of form and meaning. 


Brit, mag, i.e., [ma3], would not have lost its final consonant at the time when 
Lancashire was conquered by the Anglians ; cf . Douglas infra. Maghull occupies 
a plateau rising slightly over the low-lying land E. and W. This plateau is mostly 
level and would be aptly described as a plain. If the etymology suggested is 
correct, we must assume that the Brit, name of it was, or contained, the word 
mag " plain." 

3. Lydiate (N. of Maghull, v.) : Leiate DB, Lichet ?12 cent. HS XXXII. 183, 
Liddigate 1202 LF, Lidiate 1212 LI, a 1220 CO, Lydiate c 1225 CC, Lydyathe 
1243 LI, Lydeyate 1284 LAR, 1324 LF, etc., Lydyate 1332 LS. O.E. hlidgeat 
" swing-gate." 

Eggergarth (cf. Eggergate Mill O.M. 1846-51) : Ekergert a 1240 CC, Egergarh 
1212 LI, Hekergart 1243 LI, Ekirgarth 1340, 1380 LF, Egergarth 1322 LI. Cf. 
Ekergart a 1190 CC (Preston, Kendal). Probably O.N. ekra " small ploughed 
field " and gar fir " enclosure." 

4. Downholland (S.W. of Ormskirk ; v.) : Roland DB, Hoilanda 1194 LPR, 
Holland 1226 LI, Holand, de Dunholand 1298 LI, Dounholand 1325 LF, 1332 
LS, etc. O.E. TioTi " projecting ridge of land " and land ; cf. Upholland p. 105. 
The township lies on the slope of a ridge reaching 77ft. above sea-level. 
Barton (originally a separate manor ; v.) : Bartune DB, Barton c 1225 CC, 1246 
LAR, etc., de Barton 1332 LS ; Burton 1266 LAR. O.E. beretiin " barton " ; 
cf. p. 38. 

Harker (cf. Barker's Bridge in Halsall, near the Downholland boundary) : 
Harekar c 1225 CC. Second el. carr, O.N. kiarr ; first el. perhaps O.E. hara 
" hare " or hdr " grey " or the corresponding O.N. word. Cf. Norw. Harekjaer 
NG VIII, supposed to have as first el. the word for " hare." 
Haskayne (v.) : de Hasken 1329 LI, de Haskeen 1366 LS, Haskyn c 1540 LI I. 
p. 50, Hasken 1530, Haskeyne 1598 DL, Heskeyne 1618 CW 83. Perhaps the name 
is identical with Heskin (p. 130). 

5. Halsall (midway between Ormskirk and Southport ; v.) : Heleshale, Herles- 
hala DB, Haleshale ?12 cent. HS XXXII, Halsale 1212, 1243 LI, a 1220 CC, 
1284 LF, 1332 LS, etc.., de Haleshal 1246 LAR, Haleshale 1280 LF, Halsall 1346 
FA. The early forms point to a first el. with short. I, and the DB forms to O.E. 
CB (or ea), i.e., O.E. Hceles-. We may compare Halesworth, SufE. ( : Healesuurda, 
Halesuuorda DB), for which Skeat suggests O.E. *Hcel or *Hal pers. n. as first el. 
Possibly O.E. hcele " hero " was used as a pers. n. The second el. is O.E. halh 
" haugh," here referring to the flat fields on the outskirts of the Old Halsall 

Renacres : Ruinacres c 1200 HS XXXII. 185, de Ruynacres 1246 LAR, de 
Rynacrus 1282 LI, de Runacres 1284 LF, Rowy nacres 1285 LAR, de Ry nacres 
1332 LS, de Ruynacre 1366 LS. " Rye-acres " ; O.E. rygen " of rye " (as 
r. meolo). Cf. Raydon or Reydon, Suff. ( : Reinduna DB, Rigendun 972 BCS 
1289). Skeat derives the first el. of this from O.E. rygen. 

Shurlacres, S. Mere (gave name to a family) : Sir Walacres M(er)e 1235-49 
HS XXXII. 186, Shirwallacres 1476 SC, de Shirwalaccres 1323 LI, 1335 LF. 
Obviously Shirwali means " the clear well," O.E. scir and wcella " well." " The 
acres by Shirwali, or the clear well." Perhaps Shirwali is preserved in the name 
Shirdley Hill. 



S.W. of Ormskirk. 

Aughton (township, v.) : Achetun DB, Actum a 1190 CO, Actun a 1250 CO, 
Acton 1235 LF, Achton 1252 IPM, Aghton 1282, etc., LF, 1332 LS, etc., Aughton 
1499 LF, etc. O.E. de-tun, i.e., dc " oak " and tun. 

Uplitherland (old manor) : Literland DB, Liderlanda 1177 LPR, Litherland 
(vill.) 1212 LI, Lytherlond 1322 LF, Lythyrlond 1384 LF ; Vplitherland a 1194 
Ch, Uplittherland 1207 ChR, Uplitherland 1292 PW. Up- was added for dis- 
tinction from Downlitherland. O.N. Hlidarland " land on the slope." There 
is a hilly ridge in the W. part of the township ; Litherland is situated on its 
N.W. slope. 

Mickering Farm : Mykeringe 1581 DL. Looks like O.N. mykiar-eng " manured 
meadow " ; O.N. mykr " manure " and eng " meadow." 
Moor Hall : Morehall 1429 TI. Cf. le Mor a 1250 CO, de la More 1282 LF. 
Named from a moor, not from a family. 


A large inland par., W. of the river Douglas. To the N. was formerly Martin 

1. Ormskirk (town) : Ormeschirche a 1196 Ch, 1286 ChR, (Orm de) Ormeskierk 
1203 LPR, Ormiskyrke 1286 Ind, Ormeschurche c 1300 SC, Ormeschurch 1317 
LC 443. " Orm's church " (O.N. Ormr pers. n. and O.N. kirkia " church "). 
There is in early sources some vacillation between the native form church and 
the Scand. kirk. Ormskirk seems to have been a rectory manor (VHL III. 262). 

2. Bickerstaffe (S.E. of Ormskirk) : Bikerstad a 1190 CC, Bikerstath 1226 LI, 
1246 LAR, 1268-1320 CC, de Bikerstat 1246 LAR, Bykerstat 1285 LAR, Byker- 
stath 1298 LI, 1331 LF, etc., Bykirstath 1322 LI, Bykarstath 1332 LS ; Bikerstaff 
1267 LAR ; Bekerstat 1261 LAR, Bijkirstach 1280 HS XL. 157, Bickerstathe 
1577 Saxton ; occasional forms are : Birkestad, Birkerstat, de Birkestade 1246 
LAR, Birkyrstath 1418 LF. It seems we must start from an early M.E. form 
Bikerstath. The situation of the place gives no indication as to the etymology 
of the name. The church stands on a slight ridge ; there is no stream of im- 
portance, but there are two small brooks, one called Bickerstaffe Brook. 

The immense preponderance of forms in -i- in early sources renders derivation 
of the first el. of the name from O.N. bekkiar, the gen. of bekkr " brook," im- 
possible. Moreover, Biker- occurs in various other names, some of which cannot 
contain bekkiar : Bickershaw, Wigan (p. 102) ; Bickerton, Yks. (on a slope) : 
Bichretone DB, Bykerton 1226, etc. (Moorman) ; Bickerton, Nhb. (on a brook) : 
Bykerton 1245 (Mawer) ; Bickerton, Ches. (on the slope of a hill of 695ft.) : 
Bicretone DB ; Bickerton, Heref. : Bicretune DB ; Bycardyke, Notts. : 
Bikeresdic 1189, Bikerisdik 1278 (Mutschmann) ; Bixton, Norf. : Bicherstuna 
DB. But Bicker, Line. (Bichere DB), Byker, Nhb. (Byker 1249 PR) very 
likely contain O.N. kiarr " marsh." Bicker is near Bicker Fen. Byker adjoins 
Walker, which is near Wallsend and clearly has the word wall as first el. ; both 
are on the low shore of the Tyne (cf. on these names Mawer). I think Bicker 


and Byker go back to O.Scand. by-kiarr " village-marsh." Or by- may mean 
" by " ; cf. Bywater " by the water " and the like. These two names are 
probably to be disregarded in trying to account for Bicker- in Bickerstaffe, etc. 

The common occurrence of the element tells us that Bikre-, Biker- must 
represent some common noun or pers. name, probably of Engl. origin. It can 
hardly be O.N. bikarr " bowl," as no topographical use of this word is known, 
and a meaning " hollow " hardly suits all the names. Nor can Biker- well be the 
O.E. word corresponding to O.Sax. bikar " bee-hive " from which O.E. beocere 
" apiarius " is derived. 

I believe Bikre, Biker is a pers. name, perhaps related to O.E. Bic(c)a. This 
name might belong to O.N. bikkja " to overturn " (Norw. dial, bikka " to rock, 
to fall," etc.), L.G. bikken, O.H.Gr. bicchan " to prod, to thrust." To this group, 
I suppose, belong M.E. biker " skirmish," bikeren "to skirmish," which show the 
r of Bicre-. O.E. *Bic(e)ra might be derived from an adj. ; cf. e.g. O.E. slidor, 
slipor, swifor, stamor, M.E. fliker, etc. But it may also be O.E. *Bic(e)ra is an 
extension of Bica. There are some apparently analogous cases. Thus O.E. has 
Tepra by the side of Teppa. Hothersall in Bl. seems to have as first el. a side- 
form with -r- suffix of O.E. Huda. Certain place-names in -ing may be explained 
in a similar way : Beckering, Line. (cf. O.E. Beac, Becca), Pickering, Yks. 
(cf. O.E. Piccinga wurth), Peppering, earlier Piperinges (cf. O.E. Pippa). A 
number of rather doubtful German names with r-suffix are given by Forstemann 
1199. Very likely the names adduced are not all to be judged of in the same 
way ; some may e.g. be O.E. names in -here.-f 

The second el. may be O.N. stod " landing-place " or stadir " homestead." 
Barrow Nook : de(l) Barwe 1332, 1366 LS. O.E. bearo " grove." 
Mossock (or Moss Oak) Hall : de Mosok 1366 LS, 1418 LF. Probably " mossy 

3. Skelmersdale (S.E. of Ormskirk ; v.) : Schelmeresdele DB, Skelmersdale, 
Skelmaresden, Skelmeresden 1202 LF, Skelmardal 1246 LAR, Skelmarisdale 
1278 LAR, 1346 LF, Skelmaresdale 1300 LF, Skelmersdale 1332 LS. The first 
el. of the name is obviously a pers. n. identical with that of Skelsmergh, Wml. : 
Skelmeres(h)ergh 1278, etc. (Sedgefield), and of Skelmanthorpe, Yks. : Scelmertorp 
DB. Bjorkman derives it from O.N. *Skialdmarr = O.Dan. Skielmerus, Skelmerus. 
Second el. O.N. dalr " valley," perhaps referring to the valley of the Tawd 
(called Skelmere by Harrison, 1577). 

4. Lathom (E. of Ormskirk, on the Douglas) : Latvne DB, Lathum a 1196 Ch, 
1201f. LPR ? 1202 LF, 1246 LAR, etc., Lathom 1224 LF, 1268 LAR, etc., Latham 
1276 LAR, c 1540 Leland, Lathu 1332 LS. O.N. hlaoum " (at) the barns," from 
O.N. hlafa " barn." 

Alton (name now lost) : Altona c 1190 Ch, Altunegate c 1225 CC, de Olton 1366 
LS. " The old town." New Park seems to have taken its place. 
Blythe Hall : de Blythe 1366 LS, 1398 SC, de Blyth 1401 ib. Blythe Hall stands 
near Ellerbeck. Blythe is a well-known river-name, no doubt a derivative of 
the adj. O.E. blifte " mild," etc. One in Northampton is mentioned in O.E. 
charters : blide, on blidan 944 BCS 792 (orig.), etc. Blyth is a river in Nhb. 
I suppose Eller Beck was formerly called Blithe and that it gave name to the 


Hoscar Moss : de Horsecarr 1340 CC, de Horscar 1366 LS. The name is self- 
explaining : " horse-carr." 

Newburgh (v. near the Douglas) : Neweburgh (vil.) 1431 Moore MSS, Newburgh 
1529 LF, Newborow (vil.) c 1540 Leland. The place was once a borough 
(VHL iii. 256). " The new borough." 

Scarth Hill (h.) : Scarth c 1190 Ch. The hamlet is situated on an eminence 
(254ft. above sea-level) S.E. of Ormskirk. Scarth in the above quotation denotes 
a natural feature. The name is O.N. skard " notch, cleft, mountain pass." Cf. 
le Skarth WhC 334, an " intersectio " in Crow Hill, Bl. 

Tawdbridge, formerly Taldeford (on the Tawd) : de Taneldeford, de Taneletford 
1246 LAR, de Taldeford 1282 LI, 1285 LAR, 1332 LS, 1341 IN. The original 
name apparently means " the old ford." The 1246 forms, though partly corrupt, 
seem to go back to O.E. cet pon aldanforda. Taldeford is perhaps from a reduced 
form of this : atte aldeford, which was wrongly divided as at Taldeford. The 
river-name Tawd is an obvious back-formation, and Tawdbridge is a new name 
formed with the river-name. There is a Tawd Bridge on the Tawd also in 

Westhead (h.) : Westhefd c 1190 Ch, Le Westheued, del Westheued 1366 LS. 
Westhead stands at the foot of a ridge, on the top of which is Scarth Hill. On 
O.E. teafod " ridge," see p. 12. 

Wirples Moss (or Warper's Moss) : Wirplesmos c 1190 Ch. Cf. Wirpeslid in 
Tatham, Lo. (1205-25 CC 930), Werplesburrf, Suss. HR, and Worplesdon, Surr. 
(Werplesdon 1312 AP 313), Warpsgrove, Oxf. (Werplesgrave DB). The first el. 
is apparently a derivative of O.E. weorpan " to throw," either an agent- noun 
*wirpel, *weorpel, meaning e.g. " a moldwarp," perhaps used as a pers. n. (Alex- 
ander), or rather a derivative with -isla meaning " something thrown " ; cf. 
Norw. vcersl " a cairn." O.E. *werpels may be the source of dial, wapple " a 
bridle way " (also worple, worples], the original meaning being perhaps " road 
formed by stones thrown down " (e.g., over a marsh), " stepping-stones." This 
might be the meaning here. 

Wolmoor (now lost) : Wolvemor 1202 LF, de Wluemor c 1240 CC, de Wulvemor 
(Wulwemore, Wulmore) 1246 LAR. O.E. wulfamor, or Wulfan mor, " the moor 
of the wolves," or " the moor of Wulfa." 

5. Burscough (N.W. of Ormskirk ; v., formerly the site of a priory) : burgechou 
c 1190 Ch, Burscogh c 1190 Ch, 1327 LS, etc., Buresscoch 1212 LI, Burchisscoh 
c 1225 CC, Burschou c 1270 LPD II. 198, 205, Burscho 1286 ChR ; Birscogh, 
Birscow 1246 LAR, Burskou, de Birskou 1276 ib., Birskeouk 1278 LAR. The 
name means " the wood belonging to Burh" or " the wood by the (old) burh" 
The second el. is O.N. skogr " wood." The name tells us that there was formerly 
a burh in Burscough. Other forms of the name are : Burgastud c 1190 Ch, 
Burgchestude a 1216 LPD II. 197, Bourchestude, Burgestude a 1264 ib. 199, 202. 
These represent another type, viz.. O.E. burh-styde " the site of the burh." 
Greetby (cf. Greetby Hill) : Grittebi c 1190 Ch, de Greteby 1246 LAR, Gretby 
a 1264 LPD II. 205, de Gretteby 1398 SC. Perhaps the first el. is the O.N. pers. n. 
Grettir ; if so, the earliest form is miswritten. But the modern form with ee 
is curious, and perhaps O.N. griot " stone(s) " is rather to be assumed as the 
first el. : O.N. Griotby or Griotaby. 


Marton or Martin (old manor) : Merretun DB, Mertona c 1190 Ch, a 1264 LPD 
II. 199, Marton 1235 LF. O.E. meretun " the tun by the mere." Marton was 
situated at the now drained lake of Martin Mere ( : Merton Mere 1396 SC, Marton 
Mere 1546 LF, Merton meere 1577 Harr.). 

Tarlscough (h.) : Tharlescogh c 1190 Ch, Terlesco wood 1577 Saxton. " The 
wood (O.N. skogr) oiparaldr." paraldr is a side-form of poraldr, an O.N. name 
(cf. Bjorkman). The same form is found in Tarlton, Leyl. ; cf. Tharoldstube 
(in Scarisbrick) 1398 SC, Thoraldestub 1303 SC (orig.). 

6. Scarisbrick (S.E. of Southport, v.) : Scharisbrec c 1200 SC, Scaresbrek c 
1240 HS XXXV. 142, 1326 LF, etc., de Skaresbrek 1238 LF, Scarisbrek 13 cent. 
HS XXXII. 188, de Scarisbrec (Scharesbek) 1246 LAR, Scaresbrec c 1270 SC, 
Skaresbrek 1322 LI, 1332 LS ; now [ske-zbrik]. The township is on the whole 
low and flat, but the part where Scarisbrick Hall is situated rises to about 
50ft. above sea-level, the ground sloping away to the W. The village is on the 
slope. The second el. of the name is obviously O.N. brekka " slope." The first 
el., as shown by the regular early a, cannot be O.N. sker. It is no doubt a pers. n. 
of Scand. origin ; cf. 0. Dan. Skar in Scarstorp, Skarsholm (Nielsen). 
Harleton or Hurlston (old manor) : Hirletun DB, vrltonam c 1190 Ch, Hurltona 
1190 CC, Hurlton 1200-46 CC, c 1286 SC (orig.), Hurleton 1246 LAR, 1298 LI, 
1326 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Hurilton c 1280 SC (orig.). Occasional are Hurdilton, 
Hurdleton 1468 SC, Hirdylton 1451 CC. It is difficult to give a definite etymology, 
as the early forms may go back to various O.E. bases. I am inclined to believe 
that the first el. is an O.E. pers. n. *Heorla, a derivative of Heor- in Heorwulf, 
etc. O.E. eo appears in Lane, names sometimes as M.E. u, i ; cf. Rivington, Sa. 
(p. 48). The different forms of the name are well accounted for by such a base. 
Aspinwall or Asmall : de Aspenewell 1246 LAR, Aspinwalle c 1280 SC, de 
Aspenwall 1332 LS. Now [asmal]. O.E. cespen adj. "aspen" and wcella 
" well, brook." 

Bescar (h.) : Birchecar 1331, 1359 SC, Birchcarre 1546 LF. O.E. birce " birch " 
and carr from O.N. kiarr. 

Drummersdale : Drombulsdale 1546 LF. Bjorkman, E.St. 44, 253, suggests 
as first el. a Scand. nickname corresponding to Swed. drummel " lout " and 
compares e.g. O.N. drumbr " a log," drumbi a nickname, and Icel. Drymbilsrud. 
This seems to be right. 

Gorsuch : Gosfordesich c 1200 SC (orig.), Gosefordesiche c 1280 SC (orig.), de 
Gosefordesiche 1283 LI, de Gosefordsik 1332 LS, Gorsiche 1519 DL. Numerous 
other examples are found in SC. The second el. is O.E. sic " water-course." 
Gosford means " goose-ford " ; cf. de Gosford 1367 Moore MSS. 
Snape (h.) : Snape 1200-46 CC, c 1270 SC (orig.), 1341 IN, 1546 LF. Cf. the 
Withinesnape (in Harleton) c 1280 SC (orig.). M.E. snape " pasture" (see p. 17). 
Whams Farm (N. of Scarisbrick) : IQuassum c 1240, Quassam c 1300. W hassum 
1338, 1386, Whassomheyes 1492 SC. This must have been close to Martin Mere ; 
Mere Hall (cf. del Mere 1361 SC) is close by. Whassum recalls O.Swed. hwas 
(Swed. vass) " reed." At " the reeds " seems a suitable name. 
Wyke House : Wik c 1180 SC, Wyk 1276 LAR, the Wyke 1440, Longe Wik 1577 
SC, the Wyke, Long Wyke, the High Wyke 1503 LP I. 21, 23. O.N. vik " bay." 
The place was no doubt named from a bay in Martin Mere. 



This detached portion of Walton, situated S. of Southport, must have been 
formerly connected with the adjoining par. of North Meols. Formby and North 
Meols are situated along the sea, and much of the ground consists of sandhills. 
Formby (v.) : Fornebei DB, Fornebia 1177 LPR, Fornebi 1203H LPR, Forneby 
1252 IPM, 1298 LI, etc., fforneby 1332 LS, Formby 1509 LF. This may be 
" the byr of Forni," as suggested by Wyld and assumed by Bjorkman (Forni is a 
known O.N. name), or " the old byr " from O.N. forn " old " (Harrison). In 
favour of the latter alternative it may be pointed out that Fornaby " the old 
by " is a common Swed. name (Hellquist, Ortnamnen pa -by p. 51). An old 
village may have been so named in contradistinction to new settlements made 
by Scand. immigrants. 

Ravensmeols (old manor, now partly washed away by the sea) : Mele DB, 
Molas 1094 Ch, Ravenesmeles 1190-4 Ch, 1246 LAR, etc., -mueles 1232 LAR, 
-moles 1246 LAR, -moeles 1284 ChR, Rauenesmdis c 1200 CC ; -meles 1269 LAR, 
RauenesmeV 1332 LS, Ravenmeles 1468 LF ; now [re-vn mrlz]. First el. O.N. 
Hrafn pers. n. ; second el. O.N. melr " sandbank, sandhill." The forms 
-moeles, -moles, -mueles are Norman spellings, probably pointing to e, which 
is due to compensation-length, an h having disappeared after I (cf. Noreen, 
Aisl. Gr. 119, 2). 

Ainsdale (old manor, v.) : Einulvesdel DB, Ainuluesdale c 1190 Ch, Aynuluis- 
dale c 1200 CC, Aymulvedale 1295 ChR, de Haynuldisdal (Aynuluesderi) 1246 
LAR, Aynolsdale 1451 CC. The first el. of the name may be O.E. Mgenwulf 
(Searle) or a hypothetical O.N. Einulfr. The former is the opinion of Bjorkman, 
the latter that of Wyld. I am inclined to decide in favour of the latter alterna- 
tive, because the names of this district are preponderatingly Scandinavian. 
O.N. Einulfr is not found, but the analogous O.N. Einbiorn is, and Enbiorn is 
a common O.Swed. name. 


The district of Southport, on the sea. 

1. Birkdale (S. of Southport) : Birkedale c 1200 CC, 1305 Lacy C, etc., Berkdale 
1311 IPM ; Birkedene c 1200 CC. O.N. birki " birch-copse " and dak " dale." 
Birkdale was formerly a part of Argarmeles. 

Argarmeles : Erengermeles DB, Argarmelis 1243 LI, Agermoles 1246 LAR, 
Argarmel 1249 IPM, Argaremeles 1254 IPM, Argarmeles 1255 IPM, Arkmell 
1330 LI, Argarmelys in Byckedale 16 cent. DL. The name has disappeared ; 
most of Argarmeles has been washed away by the sea. In 1503 John Shirlok, 
aged 80 years, deposed that he never knew of any place called Argarmelys, but 
that he had heard that there once were such lands, which had been drowned in 
the sea. The place of them was unknown to him (LP I. 24). 

2. North Meols : Otegrimele, Otringemele DB , Moles a 1149-Ch, Moeles 1153-60 
Ch (orig.), de Molis 1229 LAR, Molis 1242 LI, Mels 1311 IPM ; Normalas 
c 1190 Ch, Nor Muelis 1229 LAR, Nortmelis 1243 LI, Nortmoles 1246 LAR, 
North Meles 1312 LI, Northmeles 1229 LAR, 1322 LI, 1332 LS, etc. The original 


name was M eles or a compound with a pers. n. as first el. This pers. n. is corrupt 
in the only extant forms. O.N. Oddgrimr may have existed, though it is not 
evidenced. But probably it is O.N. Audgrimr, often found in England as 
Oudgrim, Odgrim, etc. (Bjorkman, Personennamen). Later the old name was 
supplanted by North Meols. 

Crossens (v. ; near a slight head-land) : Crossenes c 1250 Farrer, Hist. N. Meols, 
de Crossenes 1323 LCR, Crosnes 1327 LS, 1341 IN, Crossons 1550 Farrer op. cit. 
32. " The ness with the cross or crosses." 

Blowick (near Southport) is presumably O.N. Ud-vik " the dark bay." Wyke 
in North Meols is mentioned in early documents : le Wyk 1354, le Wike 1460 
Farrer, Hist. N. Meols, le Wyk in Northmeles (a certain water, parcel of Merton 
Mere) 1503 ib. 116. Cf. Wyke in Scarisbrick. 


Lailand hvnd' DB, (de) Lailand Wapentachio 1188 LPR, Serjanteria de Leiland 
1200 LPR, W apentake of Leiland 1229 ChR, Lailondesire 1226 LI, Leylandesire 
1243 LI, Leylaundschyre, etc., 1246 LAR, Leilondshire 1327 LS, Wapentach' de 
Leylondshir' 1332 LS. 

Leyland hundred, the smallest in Lancashire, occupies the district S. of the 
mouth of the Ribble. The surface is level and low in the W., but rises in the 
E., where an altitude of c 1,200ft. is reached at Great Hill ( : Grethull LPR 375). 

Names of Rivers 

Douglas (joins the Ribble near its estuary) : Duglis a 1220, Dugeles a 1232, 
Duggles a 1233 CC, 14 cent. Higden, Dugles a 1235 CO, Duggils, Bugles, pron. 
Duggels c 1540 Leland, the Duglesse 1577 Harr., Dowles 1577 Saxton. Hogan 
gives from an Ir. source the form Dubh glaisi (g. sg.). The name is British and 
means "the black stream"; it is a compound of *dubo- "black " (Welsh du, 
etc.), and a word for " stream " corresponding to Welsh glais, Ir. glais " stream." 
The name is common in Wales and Ireland : Douglas, Irel. ; Dulas, Wales 
(Angles., Grlam., Montg., etc.). Early Welsh forms are dubleis LL 198, dibleis 
ib. 191 (Monm.), dubleis, dugleis ib. 78 (Cam.). 

Asland (the name of the lower course of the Douglas) : Asklone a 1217 CC, 
Ascalon 1223 LF, Askelon, Eskelon a 1250 CC, Asteland 1550 DL, Astland c 1555 
DL, Oslande 1590 Burghley. The name is a compound of O.N. askr " ash " 
(and eski " ash-trees ") and lon(e), identical with Sc. dial, lane " the hollow 
course of a large rivulet in meadow-land ; a brook whose movement is scarcely 
perceptible ; the smooth, slowly moving part of a river." This lane is supposed 
in NED to be perhaps a different word from lane " road " ; but cf. e.g. Swed. 
pad " road, path ; ^ilso river valley " NoB I. 119ff. The same word is perhaps 
found in (aquam de) Hangelan, Hangelon c 1200 CC (Ainsdale). The river Asland 
is a " lane " in the sense given above. 
Perburn (earlier name of Buckow Brook, a trib. of the Douglas) : Perburne 


c 1200 CO, Perburn(e) c 1250 LPD II. 200. Per- is probably O.E. peru " pear," 
in M.E. also " pear-tree." 

Yarrow (a trib. of the Douglas) : Yarwe c 1190 CO, Earwe 1203 LF, Yarewe 
1246 LAR, Yarugh 1276 IM, Yaro c 1540 Leland, the Yarowe 1577 Harr. The 
Yarrow is a fairly important river, whose name may with probability be looked 
upon as British. An O.E. Gearwe or the like we may derive from Celt. *garwo- 
" rough " (Welsh garw, Ir. garbh, etc. ; cf. Garw, Glam.). The upper part of the 
river seems to be rapid. With an O.E. Earwe we may compare the Gaul, river 
name Arva (Stokes 19) and Arrow, the name of a place and river in Warw. 
( : Arne for Ante 710 BCS 127, Arve DB). Cf. Yarrow, Sc. 
Lostock (a trib. of the Yarrow) : Lostoc c 1200 CC, Lostok 13 cent. WhC 860ff. 
Cf . Lostock in Salford, p. 39. Lostock can hardly be an old river-name. I suppose 
a place so called was once situated on the river, which came to be called Lostock 
Water or the like and finally Lostock. Lostock Hall in Walton-le-Dale may be 
the place, but the name is apparently not evidenced until the 14th cent. (VHL 
VI. 295). 

Wymott Brook (a trib. of the Lostock) : (aqua de) Wimoth c 1215 CC, (Molen- 
dinum de) Wimode c 1225 CC, (aqua de) Wimode c 1250 CC, Wymote (r.) 1547 
LP III. 16. This name possibly contains O.E. mupa " mouth of a river " 
and must then originally have denoted the confluence of the brook with the 
Lostock. If we may assume such a small brook to have a Brit, name, I suggest that 
Wi- is identical with the obviously Celtic river-name Wye in Bucks, Kent, Heref . 
Sid Brook (joins the Yarrow from the S., near Croston) : Suthebroc c 1190, 
c 1200 CC. " The southern brook." The sound development is curious. 
Chor (brook in Chorley). A back-formation from Chorley. Harrison 1577 calls 
it Ceorle. 

Warth Brook or Warthe Dean (between Heapey and Anglezark) : Worddeyn 
LPR 375. O.E. worp " enclosure," etc., and denu " valley." 


A district N.W. of Wigan and the Douglas. It is on the slopes of Harrock 
Hill, the elevation being 382ft. at Standish. 

1. Standish- with-Langtree (in a bend of the Douglas ; near Wigan). 
Standish (v.) : Stanesdis 1178 LPR, Stanidis c 1190 Ch, Stanedis 1207 LPR, 
1212 BF, Stanedich 1213 LPR, de Stanediss 1245 LAR, Stanediss (de Stanedis, 
Stanidiss, Stonidis) 1246 LAR, Stanedisch 1253 LAR, Stanedisse 1276 LAR, 
Staunedesse, Stanedis 1276 IM ; Standische 1288 IPM, Standissh 1304 LF, 1327, 
1332 LS : Standish 1330 LF, Standich c 1540 Leland. O.E. stdn " stone " and edisc 
" park or enclosed pasture for cattle " (Wyld). Cf. Standish, Glo. (Stanedis 
872 BCS 535, late copy), Farndish, Beds, (fearn edisc 824 BCS 378 ; incorrectly 
explained by Skeat), Cavendish, Brundish, SufE., which show the same loss of the 
first vowel of edisc as Standish. 

Langtree (old manor) : Longetre c 1190 Ch, c 1200 CC, 1330 LF, Langetre 1206 
LF, c 1250 LPD II. 201, 1288 IPM, 1292 PW ; Langtre 1258 LAR, 1311 IPM, 
Longetr' 1332 LS. " The long (high) tree " (O.E. lang and treo). Cf. Langtree 
(hundred), Glo. 


Birley Wood : de Birlegh 1332 LS. O.E. byre " byre " and leak. 

2. Shevington (W. of Standish ; h.) : Shefinton c 1225 CO, Sewinton 1243 LI, 
Schevinton 1288 IPM, Shevynton 1322 LI, 1324 LCR, 1328 LF, etc., Sheuinton 
1332 LS ; Shevyngton 1312 LI, 1372 Gaunt R, 1420 LF, Scyvyngton 1324 LI, 
Sheuyngton 1327 LS. 

The same first el. is found in Schevynlegh 1329, and Shevynhulldiche 1362 in 
Charters and Deeds relative to the Standish family (ed. J. P. Earwaker). Both 
names denote places in or on the border of Shevington. They tell us that the 
first el. of Shevington cannot be a word with the suffix -ing and also render it 
extremely improbable that Shevin- is the gen. of the (somewhat doubtful) O.E. 
pers. n. Sceafa. Preservation of the n in all three names would be highly remark- 
able. The name Shevinhull, which probably designates the hill on the slope of 
which Shevington village stands (Shevington Moor), perhaps suggests that 
Shevin is an old hill-name, but a definite etymology of such a name cannot be 
given without more illustrative material. Somewhat similar names are Shaving- 
ton, Shr. (Scevintone DB) and Shavington, Ches. These places cannot have been 
named from hills. j" 

Crook (h.) : del Crok 1324 LCR. The hamlet stands at a bend of the Douglas. 
The name is M.E. crok, probably from O.N. krokr " bend, hook." 
Gathurst (on the Douglas) : Gatehurst a 1547 DL. First el. perhaps O.E. geat 
" gate." 

3. Worthington (S. of Chorley, on the Douglas) : Wrthinton c 1225 CC, de 
Worthinton 1243 LI, de Wyrthinton (Wurthington, Wurtheton) 1246 LAR, de 
Wurthyncton 1276 LAR, Wrthinton', de Wrthinton 1276 IM, Worthington 1292 
PW, 1318 LF, 1327 LS, etc., Worthinton 1320 LF, 1332 LS. There is a Worthing- 
ton also in Leic. : Wrthinton 1276 HR. Worthington may very well contain 
O.E. wordign (=wordig) " enclosure," etc., or O.E. wyrding " cultivated field " ? 
(B-T.). On the other hand, the names Worston and Worsthorne in Bl. very 
likely contain an O.E. pers. n., of which Worthing- may represent a patronymic. 
Cf. p. 78. 

4. Adlington (on the Douglas, S. of Chorley ; v.) : Edeluinton a 1190 CC, de 
Hedelintona c 1190 Ch, Adelventon (de Aldeventon) 1202 LF, Adelminton 1204 
LPR, Adelinton (de Athelington) 1246 LAR ; Adlington 1288 IPM, Adlinton 1332 
LS. O.E. *Eadwylfinga or *Eadwulfinga tun', Eadwylfingas is a patronymic 
from Eadwulf. Cf. O.E. Eadulfingtune, Thorpe, p. 549 ; Adlington, Ches. 
(Adelvinton 1248 IPM), Edlingham, Nhb. (Eadulfingaham Sim. Durh. 68). 

5. Anderton (S.E. of Chorley) : Anderton 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1327 LS, etc., 
de Andirton 1282 LI, Andreton 1332 LS. Anderton stands on the Douglas, 
called here Anderton water by Leland (c 1540). The name is no doubt identical 
with Anderton in Ches. ( : Anderton 1303-4 RS 59). I suppose the name has as 
first el. O.E. Eanred pers. n. Between n and r a d would develop at an early 
date, and the long diphthong would be shortened. Andersfield, Som. (Andredes- 
feld 1187 PR) seems to contain the same first el. 

Roscoe Low (hill 525ft.) : (rivulum de) Rascahae a 1190 CC, ? de Rascok, de 
Rachecok 1246 LAR. Roscoe seems to go back to an O.N. rd-skogr meaning 
either " roe wood " or possibly " boundary wood." Rascahae is apparently 
an anglicized form. 


6. Heath Charnock (on both sides of the Yarrow, N. of Adlington and Anderton) : 
Chernoc a 1190 CO, Hethechernoce 1270 LAR, Hetchernok 1288 IPM, HethechernocJce 
1322 LI, Hethchernok 1327 LS, 1353 LF, Heth Chernok 1332 LS ; Heghchernot 
1341 IN ; Estcherinok 1278 LAR. The township is also called Charnock Gogard 
(Chernock Gogard 1284 LAR) from a family of the name. The surface reaches 
650ft. above sea-level ; presumably the ground was partly heath. 

The name is identical (minus the distinctive addition) with Charnock Richard. 
Charnock Richard and Heath Charnock, both on the Yarrow, are separated by 
Duxbury township. Either we must assume that Charnock was once a larger 
district, which included also Duxbury, or that Charnock is an old name of the 
river Yarrow, which was applied to two places situated on the river. The river 
may have had different names in different parts of its course. Thus Ock in 
Berks, seems also to have had the name (O.E.) Cern (cf. Skeat, Place-names of 
Berks., s.v. Charney). I have no doubt the name is Celtic. If Charnock is an 
old river-name, we may compare Cerniog, the name of an affluent to the river 
Carno (Montgomerysh., Wales). If it is a derivative of a river-name, this may 
have been identical with the O.E. Cern just mentioned ; and the suffix is the 
well-known Celtic ending -dko (W. -og, etc.). 

Limbrick (h., on an elevation). Perhaps O.N. lind-brekka " lime-tree slope." 
Street : del Strete 1284 LAR, 1323 LCR, 1332 LS, de Strata 1270 LAR. The place 
was probably named from a Roman road (O.E. street, stret), or some other ancient 

7. Duxbury (S. of Chorley, traversed by the Yarrow) : Deukesbiri 1202 LF, 
Dukesbiri 1227 LF, Dokesbiri 1246 LAR, Dokesburi 1288 IPM, Dokesbury 1321 
LF, 1327 LS, etc., Dokesbur' 1332 LS, Duxbury 1506 LF. I suppose the first el. 
is a pers. n. identical with that of Duxford, Cambr. (Dochesuuorde DB, Dukes- 
worth 1286 FA) ; Skeat suggests an O.E. *Duc. 

Burgh (on the N. bank of the Yarrow) : de le Burg' 1276 IM, de Burgh 1288 LI, 
del Burgh 1332 LS, Burghe 1577 Harr. I suppose there was once a burh in the 
place, which would have been very suitable for the purpose. Possibly this 
burh also gave name to Duxbury ; Duxbury Hall, however, is on the other 
bank of the river. 

8. Coppull (S. of the Yarrow, S.W. of Chorley) : Cophill 1218 LAR, de Cophull 
1243, 1254 LI, 1246 LAR, Coppd 1276 LAR, Cophull 1322 LF, etc., CoppuU 1386 
LF, etc. ; Coppehull 1332 LS. Cop means " top " (especially of a hill), " heap, 
mound, tumulus " (NED) ; in dialects also " hill, peak." The name pre- 
sumably means " peaked hill." The hill which gave the place its name is prob- 
ably Coppull Hill (300ft.) S. of Coppull Hall. 

Blainscough : de Bleynescowe 1281 VHL VI. 227, Blaynscow 1538 LP II. 95. 
The forms are too late to allow of a definite etymology. O.N. Blceingr pers. n. 
may be the first el. The second is O.N. skogr " wood." 

Chisnall Hall : Chisinhalli a 1220 CC, de Chysenhale 1285 LAR, de Chisenhall 
1324 AP, de Chisenhale 1332, 1342 LF. I think Wyld correctly identifies the 
first el. with an adj. risen from ris " gravel " (cf. Chesham, p. 61). The second 
is O.E. halh " haugh." Chisnall Hall stands near a brook on level ground. 

9. Welch Whittle (S.W. of Chorley) : Withull 1221 LF, Quitul c 1210 CC, Wal- 
sewythull 1243 LI, Walschewythull 1288 IPM, Whalshequithull 1324 LI, Whithull 


Waleys 1332 LS. The distinguishing addition is the family name Waleys (Walsh), 
literally " Welsh." Whittle is " white hill." There are several heights in the 
township, one of which must have been called " the white hill." 
10. Charnock Richard (S.W. of Chorley, in a bend of the Yarrow) : Chernoch 
1194 LPR, de Chernoc 1243 LI, (Richard) de Chernok 1246 LAR, Chernok Ricard 
1288 IPM, Ricardeschernok 1292 PW, Chernok Richard 1324 LF, Chernok Rich't 
1332 LS. See Heath Charnock. The epithet Richard seems to be derived from 
Richard de Charnock, just mentioned. 


A district W. of Chorley and Standish, bounded on the S. by the Douglas. 

1. Parbold (on the Douglas ; v.) : Iperbolt 1195 LF, Perebold 1202 LF, Perbold 
1212 LI, a 1233 CC, PereboU 1202-30 LPD II. 202, Parbold 1243 LI, etc., de Perbald 
1246 LAR, Perbald 1332 LS, etc. The variation in the early forms is remarkable, 
yet I suppose the name is simply a compound of O.E. peru " pear " (or rather 
" pear-tree ") and bold " homestead," etc. ; cf. Appleton, Plumpton, Plumstead, 
and the like. Iperbolt must be corrupt. The form -bald may partly be due to 
change of o to a in a weakly stressed syllable, partly to inverted spelling, the 
change of a to o being common in Lancashire before I. The early a in the first 
syllable is possibly due to Norman influence. 

2. Wrightington (W. of Standish) : Wrstincton 1195 LF, Wrichtington 1202 LF, 
Wrictinton 1212 LI, Urittington 1246 LAR, Wrytinton 1256 LF, Wrightyngton 
1314 LF, etc., Wrightinton 1327, 1332 LS. This is probably O.E. Wyrhtena tun 
" the town of the wrights " (Wyld); ci.para wyrhtena land 944 BCS 795 (Wilts.) 
and Smeaton, Yks., apparently " the smiths' town." 

Appley Bridge, Moor (on the Douglas) : (boscus de) Appellae, Appelleie, Appeleye 

13 cent. CC. " Apple lea." 

Dwerryhouse (E. of Harrock Hill) : de Dwerihouse 1332 LS. Cf. Dwariden, 

Yks. The first el. is O.E. dweorh, M.E. dwery, etc., " dwarf," here possibly a 

pers. n. 

Fairhurst : Fayrhurste 1539 CC. Self-explaining. 

Harrock Hall, Harrock Hill : Harakiskar c 1260 CC, Harrok-hyll 1501 CC, Harrok- 

hill 1539 CC. O.E. hdr " hoary " and dc " oak." Harrock Hill, on which is 

Harrock Hall (estate), reaches over 400 ft. I suppose the hill was named from 

a place at which there was a " hoar oak." 

Hunger Hill (h.). A common place-name, no doubt meaning literally " hunger 

hill," a hill where nothing grows. Cf. Hungercroft 1200-35 CC (in Worthington). 

Tunley : Tunleg (vill) 1246 LAR, de Tunlegh 1332 LS. O.E. tun and leah. 

Cf. Towneley in Bl. (p. 84). 

3. Heskin (N. of Wrightington, W. of Chorley) : Heskyn (surname) 1257 LAR, 
de Eskin 1260 LAR, Heskyn 1301, 1388 LF, 1332 LS, de Hefkyn 1341 IN, 
Heskin 1497 LF. The township lies on the N. slope of the Wrightington hills ; 
Heskin Hall and Heskin Green (h.) stand near Sid Brook. A satisfactory ety- 
mology of this curious name is offered by a word appearing in various Celtic 
languages : Welsh hesgen " sedge, rush," O.Corn. heschen " canna, arundo," 
O.Ir. sescenn " marsh." The sense " marsh " is probably that of early Welsh 


hesgen in place-names, as hescenn iudie LL 143 (iudic is a pers. n.), Hesgyndv 
(dv=du " black ") Rec. Cam. 200, Penheskyn ib. 103, Cwmhesgyn ib. 200. Heskin 
(Denbigh) is Heskyn 1334 Surv. Denbigh. The township does not now seem to 
be marshy, but very likely there were formerly marshes along Sid Brook. 
Barmskin Hall (S. of Heskin Hall). The name has not been found in early 
sources. It seems to contain the name Heskin. 

4. Eccleston (on both sides of the Yarrow, W. of Chorley ; v.) : Aydeton 1094 
Ch, Ecclestun c 1180 SO, Etcheleston c 1190 Ch, Ekeleston 1203 LF, Echeleston 
c 1200 LC, Eccliston, Ecclestun a 1212 CO, Ecliston 1252 LI, Ecleston 1288 IPM, 
Eccleston 1301 LF, 1327 LS, Eccliston 1332 LS, Egelston 1577 Harr. Cf. Eccles, 
Sa. p. 37. Eccles- is probably from a Brit, form of Lat. ecclesia. A church in 
Eccleston is mentioned as early as 1094. 

Sarscow : Saferscohe CC 494, Sarescogh 1401 VHL VI. 164. Bjorkman Namen- 
kunde, suggests as first member of Safrebi, Line. O.N. Scefari pers. n. This is 
evidently the source of Safara, Sefar(e) on coins of William the Conqueror 
(Brooke, Catalogue of English Coins, 1916), and may be the first el. of Sarscow, 
whose second el. is O.N. skogr " wood." 

Tingreave or Ingrave : Tynedgreve 1393 VHL VI. 163, Tyngreyff 1433 TI, 
Tyngreue 1505 LF. O.E. tyned from tynan " to fence, enclose " and grcef 
" grove." The form Ingrave is due to the fact that the definite article in Lane, 
is often t (< that], which caused the initial T- to be mistaken for the article. 


A district N. of Wigan, in a bend of the Yarrow. The surface is hilly. There 
is only one township. 

Chorley (town) : Cherleg 1246 LAR, Cherle 1252 LF, de Cherlyhe 1254 LI, Cherlag 
1276 LAR, Cherlegh 1278 LAR ; Chorley 1257 LI, 1278 LAR, 1288 IPM, etc., 
Chorlegh 1332 LS, etc. Chorley is probably O.E. ceorla leak ; cf. Chorlton p. 32. 
The same name is found in Ches. and Herts. 

Bagganley (on Bagganley Brook) : cf. bagan brooke 1564 Chorley R, Bagen 
brooke 1577 Harr. Etymology obscure. 
Eaves : de(l) Euese 1288 LI. O.E. efes " border of a wood." 
Healey : Hell[ey] 1202, Helei 1215 LPR, Heley-cliffe LPR 376, Helegh (park) 
1314, 1324 LI. " The high lea." Higher Healey is on the slope of Healey Nab, 
a conspicuous hill (682ft.). 

Kingsley (h.) : de Kingesle 1246 LAR, Kyngele 1535 DL. Presumably " the 
king's lea." 

Knowley : Knolhale 1288 LI, 1314 OR. O.E. cnoll " knoll " and halh " haugh." 
Little Knowley is near the Blackbrook and Knowley Top, which stands at the 
foot of a knoll. 


A large district N. of Chorley. In the east an elevation of c 1,250ft. is attained 
on Withnell Moor. The ground slopes away gradually, until in the W. a level 
of c 50ft. is reached. 

The eastern, hilly part was formerly called Gunnolf J s Moors (embracing the 


townships of Hoghton, Withnell, Wheelton, and Whittle-le- Woods) : Gunnolues- 
mores 1212 LI, Gonolfemore 13 cent. WhC 848ff. 1309 ib. 851, Gonolfemores 1329 
ib. 269, Gunnolfmores 1311 IPM. Gunnolf is an O.N. pers. n. (O.N. Gunnulfr). 

1. Withnell (N.E. of Chorley) : Withinhull c 1160 Ch, Whithen-, Whythen(e)-, 
Withenhull 1246 LAR, Wytenhulle 1276 LAR, Wythenul 1313 LF, Wythinhull 
1332 LS, Wynnell 1580 DL. " Willow hill," dial, withen (O.E. wpig) and hyll. 
The church stands on the slope of Pike Lowe (720ft.). This is very likely the 
hill that gave the place its name. 

Brinscall (h.) : Brendescoles c 1200 WhC 835, de Brendescoles 13 cent. WhC 118, 

de Brendeschales (Bradeschales) 1246 LAR. " The burnt huts/' from M.E. 

brend " burnt " and scale " hut " (O.N. skdli). 

OUerton : de Alreton 1240, 1246 LAR, Alreton 1269, 1276 LAR, Allerton 1278 

LAR, Olreton 13 cent. WhC 848. O.E. alor " alder " and tun. 

Roddlesworth (on the N.E. slope of Great Hill, h.) : Rodtholfeswrtha c 1160 Ch, 

de Rotholueswurth (Roteleswurt) 1246 LAR, Rothelesworth 1327, 1332 LS. " The 

worp of Hrodwulf" Hrofiwulfis a well-known O.E. pers. n. The same pers. n. 

appears to enter into a name in the neighbouring Hoghton : Rothelisden 13 cent. 

WhC 859, Routhelesden 13 cent. ib. 836. The change of [5] to [d] is due to the 

following I. 

Stanworth (h. ; on a hill side, near Roddlesworth river) : Stanword, -le c 1200 

WhC 831, 835, Stanworthe, Stanworthele, Stanworle 1276 LAR, de Staneworth 

1263 LAR. " Stone enclosure." O.E. stdn-worp ; -le is O.E. leak. 

2. Hoghton (S.W. of Blackburn, W. of the Darwen) : Hoctonam c 1160 Ch, 
de Houton 1227f. LAR, Hocton 1241 LF, Hutun (de Hocton, Hothon) 1246 LAR, 
Houaton 1276 LAR, Hoghton 1278 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Howghton 1577 Harr. ; 
now [(h)o'tn]. It is not always easy to distinguish the forms of Hoghton from 
those of Hutton. The first el. of the name is no doubt O.E. hoh " spur of hill, 
ridge." The early forms may seem to point to original Hoc-, but c may very well 
be a spelling for h. The most striking physical feature of the township is a steep 
hill or short ridge, on which is Hoghton Tower (over 500ft. above sea-level). 
The hill answers perfectly the description of a hoe or heugh in NED. 
Brimmicroft (h.) : de Bromicroft 1246 LAR, de Bromycroft 13 cent. WhC 839, 
Bromcroft 1497 LF. Self-explaining. For the change of o to i cf. [briam] for 
broom in N. Lane. (Wright), de Brimyhurst (Broomhurst) 1277 LAR. 

3. Wheelton (N.E. of Chorley, on the Lostock ; v.) : Weltonam c 1160 Ch, 
Whelton c 1200 WhC 835, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Wylton, Welton 1276 LAR, Quelton 
1276 LAR, 1288 IPM, etc., Weleton 1278 LAR, Quilton 1313 LF. I suppose the 
first el. is O.E. hweol " wheel " ; the same word is found in the name Whelcroft 
13 cent. WhC 839ff. (in Wheelton). As Wheelton vill. is on the Lostock, it may 
have been named from a water-wheel, or wheel may have had such a meaning 
as " whirlpool." But wheel was used formerly in the sense of " a circle," as in 
the following instance from RSB : "a quibusdam circulis qui vocantur le 
Wheles juxta Harashowe" (p. 487). Circles made of stones may be meant. A 
place called Hjol (lit. " wheel ") in Norway is thought (NG II. 5) to have been 
named from something rounded about the situation of the place, e.g., a round 
hill. Wheldale in Yks. (Queldale, Weldale DB, etc.) seems to contain O.E. hweol. 
Burton Brook : Burton brok, Burtonbrok 13 cent. WhC 839f. The name seems 


to point to a lost place Burton, which, however, need not have been just in 
Wheelton township. 

4. Heapey (N. of Chorley ; h.) : de Hepeie 1219 LAR, de Hepay (Hepethe) 1246 
LAR, de Hophay 1246, 1249 LAR, de Hephay 1248 LAR, de Hopay 1251 LAR, 
de Heppay 1285 LAR, Hepay 1332 LS, etc., Hepey 1497 LF. The forms seem to 
point to O.E. heope " hip " and hege " hey " as the elements of the name. But 
a first el. heap " hill " would also be suitable, as Heapey is on a fairly con- 
spicuous hill. 

Shackerley (on Warth Brook) : deShakerlegh 1332 LS. Cf. the same name, p. 101. 

5. Whittle-le- Woods (N. of Chorley, traversed by the Lostock ; v.) : Witul 
c 1160 Ch, Whithill in the Wood 1311 IPM, Whithull in bosco 1327, 1332 LS, 
Whithull in the Wodes 1381 LF, Whitle in le Woods 1565 Chorley R ; now [witli 
wudz]. " The white hill." The village is on the slope of a hill called Whittle 
Hills in O.M. 1846-51. 

Copthurst : Coppildhirst LPR 375. " Peaked hill " ; cf. p. 51. The place 
stands at a hill. Coppild- is no doubt miswritten for Coppid- or the like. 
Crook : del Crok 1332 LS, del Crooke 1400 LF. The place stands on the Lostock, 
which makes many turns. But Old Crooke is nearer Bryning Brook, which makes 
a turn at this very place. Cf. Crook, p. 128. 

6. Euxton (N.W. of Chorley, N. of the Yarrow ; v.) : Eueceston 1187 LPR, 
Euekeston 1188 ib., Euckeston 1212 LI, 1242 LAR, Eukeston 1243 LI, 1246 
LAR, 1332 LS 5 etc., Eukestan 1246 LAR, Hevkeston, Heukestone 1277 LAR. 
The modern pronunciation is said to be Exton ; cf. Extonbrugh 1577 Saxton. 
The first el. of the name is no doubt a pers. n., perhaps O.E. ^Efic, Efic (Redin). 
Armetridding (on the Yarrow) : de Armetheriding 1246 LAR, de(l) Ermetridinge 
1332 LS. M.E. ermite, armite " hermit " and ridding " a clearing " (p. 16). 
Cf. " Cloch ubi heremita sedit " (Caton) CC 840. 

7. Leyland (S. of Preston, on both sides of the Lostock ; town) : Lailand DB, 
1212 LI, Leilandia. Lailanda c 1160 Ch (orig.), Leiland 1212 LI, Leyland 1243 
LI, 1391 LF, etc., Leylond 1246 LAR, 1321 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Laylond 1284 LAR, 
1327 LS, etc. I take the name to be simply M.E. ley-land (leland) " fallow land, 
land * laid down ' to grass "; first el. lea, ley, lay " fallow, unploughed," O.E. lag 
(cf. O.N. Idgr " low," O.Fris. lech) found in Iceghrycg (NED s.v. lea-land). 
If this is right, the name may be compared with Fallowfield, p. 30. The first el. 
is hardly O.E. lean ; this ought to have given early M.E. *Lehland or *Leland. 
Blacklache House : Blakelache c 1250 LPD II. 201, del Blakelache 1332 LS. 
" Black letch " or " pool " ; cf. p. 15. 

Earnshaw Bridge (h. , on the flat bank of the Lostock) : Erneshalgh 14 cent. 

PC. " The haugh of Earn or Earne " (cf. Redin). 

Midge Hall : Miggehalgh 1390 LF. The name means " haugh infested by midges "; 

cf. the same name in Am. The place stands on the outskirts of Leyland Moss. 

Snubsnape : Snubsnape 1372, Snopsnape 1549, Snobbesnape 1596 VHL VI. 14f. 

On snape " pasture " see p. 17. The first el. may be compared with E. snub 

" a snag or stub " (1590 Spenser), snub vb. " to crop; to eat close " (EDD), 

Icel. snubbottr " stumpy." 

Worden (S. of Leyland town, sometimes called a vill) : W erdenebroc, (riuulo de) 

Werden a 1250 CC ; Werthen, de Werden 1246 LAR, Wereden 1524 DL. Worden 


Hall is on Worden Brook. Supposing W erthen to be a later form of Werden, 
we may take the name to be a compound containing O.E. denu " valley." The 
first el. may be O.E. wer " weir " or possibly an old river-name ; cf. Wear, 
Durh. (a Celtic name). 

8. Clayton-le-Woods (E. of Leyland) : Claiton c 1200 CO, 1212 LI, 1227 LAR, 
1327, 1332 LS, Cleyton c 1200 CC, etc., Clayton 1246 LAR. O.E. d&g-tun ; cf. p. 70. 

9. Cuerden (S.E. of Preston, in a bend of the Lostock) : Kerden, Aide Kerden 
c 1200 CO, Kerden 1243 LI, 1246, 1285 LAR, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Kirden 1212 LI, 
Keredyn 1278 LAR, Kerdyn 1285 LAR, Kerdon, Kerden 1292 PW, Kyrden 
1451 CC ; now [kjiradn]. Occasional spellings such as Keverden 1554 LF 
show influence from Cuerdale, Cuerdley. The name cannot be a compound of 
can (O.N. kiarr) and O.E. denu, for if so we should expect Mod. Garden. Cf. 
e.g., Carr House (Bretherton) : CarreJwws 1451 CC, del Car 1332 LS. The 
absence of the change e>a indicates that the vowel of the first el. was long. 
The name is perhaps British ; cf . Cerdyn, the name of a river in Cardigan (Wales), 
Kerthen (Cornwall) : Kerthyn 1306 IPM. This is no doubt Welsh cerddin (dd = d), 
Corn, kerden " mountain ash." As regards [d] instead of [5], Haydock p. 99 
may be compared. But the name may be a compound containing O.E. denu. 
If so, the first el. is possibly the O.E. pers. n. Ccer found in Cceresige 972 BCS 
1289, now Kersey, Suff. Or it may be an old river-name of Brit, origin identical 
with Keer in Lonsdale. Lostock is no doubt an English name, and an earlier 
Brit, name must have existed. 

Faldworthings (name lost, but common in early sources) : de Faldworthyng 1278 
LAR, de Faldworthinges 1322 LI, deffaldeworthinges 1332 LS. First el. O.E./a/od 
" fold." The second may be O.E. wyrding " cultivated field " or worftign 
" enclosure " ; cf. p. 21. 


A hilly district E. of Leyland, S.E. of Preston. It contains only Brindle 
township : Brumhull 1203, 1204 LPR, de Burhull 1204 LPR, Burnhull 1206 
LPR, 1246 LAR, etc. ; Burnhulle 1212 RB, 1292 PW, Burnul 1212 LI, de 
Burnhul 1226 LI, de Burnul 1246 LAR, 1251 LI, de Burnhil 1246 LF, de Brunhull 
1254 LF, Burnehill 1332 LS, Birnehill 1448 DL, Brynhill 1480 Ind, Bryndill 
1509 DL, 1511 LF, Bryndhyll 1548 LP III. 32, Brenhull 1556 LF, Brinhill 1558 
Brindle R. 

The place was named from a hill, very likely the conspicuous Hough Hill 
S. of the church. The modern and late M.E. forms seem to point to a first el. 
Bryn- or Byrn-, though the absence of early spellings with i, y is remarkable. 
Brimhill 1227 LF has probably been misread for Brunhitt. If Burn- in early 
sources stands for a pronunciation [byrn] it might represent a Brit, word corres- 
ponding to W. bryn " hill " (cf. Brynn, p. 100). But I am more inclined to 
believe that the base had a u and is simply O.E. burna " brook." Late Bryn-, 
Brin- may be compared with Brynley for Burnley (Brunley) 1574 DL. An 
etymology " Burnhill " (O.E. burna " brook " and hyll) would suit the locality, 
for Lostock Brook rises N. of Hough Hill and flows round it. 
Denham Hall (near the Lostock) : de Deneholm 1332 LS, Denham 1591 Brindle R. 
Apparently O.E. denu " valley " and O.N. holmr " island," etc. 



A mostly low and level district S. of Preston and the Ribble. 

1. Farington (N. of Leyland on the upper Lostock ; v.) : Farinton a 1149 Ch, 
1212 LI, 1242 LF, Farintund 1153-60 Ch (orig.), Farington 1246 LF> 1341 IN, 
etc., de Farenton 1246 LAR, ffarington 1327, 1332 LS. Though all the early 
forms show a vowel between r and n, I believe this is O.E. fearn-tun (fearn 
" fern "). Cf. Farringdon, Berks. (O.E. Fearndun, but Farendone Rob. Gl., 
Ferendone DB, Farindon HR ; cf. Skeat). But an O.E. Faringa tun (Faringas 
being derived from a pers. n. Fara or the like ; cf. Farleton, Lo) is also possible. 

2. Penwortham (v. ; head of a barony) : Peneverdant DB, Penitertham a 1149 
Ch, 1212 LI, 1212 RB, Penuerdham 1153-60 Ch (orig.), penewerha, penuerhd 
a 1160 Ch (orig.), Penfordiham c 1190 Ch, Pendrecham 1200 LPR, Penwertham 1205 
ib., 1205 Ch, 1322 LI, Penwrtham 1204f. LPR, Pentfortham 1204 LPR, Pen- 
wortham 1210 AP, 1215 CC, 1332 LS, etc., Penwirtham 1242 OR, Penw(o)rham 
1242 LI, Penwurtham 1246 LAR, Penwrtham 1255 IPM, Penworttham 1279 C1R, 
Pennewortham 1294 ChR, Penwardine c 1540 Leland ; now [penwaSam]. 

The final el. of the name seems to be O.E. ham or hamm. The middle el. is 
most probably O.E. worp " enclosure, homestead." The first might be O.E. 
penn " a fold," but this does not seem very probable. A combination of the 
elements penn, worp, and ham (or hamm) is not what we should expect. The 
Brit, penn " a hill," etc. (cf. Pendleton, Pendle, etc.) is formally unexceptionable, 
and I am inclined to believe it is really the first el. of the name. It is known that 
there was a Brit, settlement at Penwortham. The place stands on a plateau 
reaching 100ft. above sea-level. It may seem doubtful if such a slight elevation 
could have been called a penn (i.e., " hill "), but the surface falls away sharply 
and the surrounding country is very low. The hill or ridge is really much more 
conspicuous than one would expect. Besides, the Celtic word might here mean 
" end ; promontory." If the first el. is Brit, penn, the rest of the name may be 
O.E. *worphdm or *worphamm, " enclosed homestead " (cf. Wortham in Suff.). 
But it is quite possible only the el. -ham is English, the rest being an adaptation 
of a Brit. name. For the matter of that, the whole name may be British. Dr. 
Bradley, EHR 26, p. 822, thinks some early forms recall Welsh pen-y-werddon 
" head of the green." 

Blasher (or Blashaw) Farm : Blakesawe a 1096 PC, Blacshaghe 1305 Lacy C, 
Blakeshagh 1324 LI. " Black shaw." 

Middleforth Green : Middelforde 1296 Lacy C, Middilford 1324 LI, Mydlefurth 
1546 LP III. 12. " The middle ford." The place is on a brook. 

3. Howick (S.W. of Penwortham, on the Ribble ; h.) : HocwiJce a 1096 PC, 
Hokewike a 1122 Ch, Hocwica 1149 Ch, Hocwik 1202 LF, de Hocvic 1257 LI, 
Hocwick c 1230 CC ; Houwyk 1246 LAR, Hoghwyk 1276 LAR, 1317 LF, 1327 
LS, etc., de Hohwyk 1314 LI, Howyk 1285 LAR, Hoghwike 1332 LS. It is difficult 
to determine if this was originally Hocwic or Hohwlc. The early forms seem to 
point to the former, and the change from Hocwic to Howick would have an exact 
parallel in Win wick (p. 98). Yet c may very well be a Norman spelling for the 
voiceless guttural spirant (h). If Hocwic is the correct form, the first el. would 
seem to be O.E. Hoc pers. n. ; if Hohwic be given the preference, it is O.E. 


hoh as in Hutton. Howick vil. stands on a piece of land (50ft.) jutting out into 
the Kibble estuary. Second el. O.E. wlc " homestead," etc. 
Nutshaw Hall : de Noteschaw 1285 LAR, de Noteshaghe 1332 LS. 

4. Hutton (on the Ribble estuary, S.W. of Penwortham ; v.) : Hotun a 1180 
Ch, Hoton c 1200 CO, 1276 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Hotton 1461 CO. First member 
O.E. hoh, probably in the plural form (g. pi. ho). The ground is low near the river, 
less than 25ft. above sea-level. The village is on somewhat higher land (above 
50ft.) and from this spurs of fairly high ground jut out into the low country. 
These spurs of land I suppose were the hoh's that gave name to Hutton. The 
Canons of Cockersand had a grange in Hutton (now Old Grange ; cf. Grangia 
de Hoton 1273 CO), situated at a place called Hohum 1215 ib. 393f. ; cf. Hohum 
Kar ib., Howin (for Houm) ib. 423fE. Hohum is the dat. pi. of O.E. hoh ; so the 
grange was situated at the hoh's. Old Grange stands at the extremity of a slight 
spur of land reaching 38ft. above sea-level. 

A now lost chapel is mentioned in Cockersand Ch : capella de Ulvedene 
a 1246 CC 420 (also Ulvesdale ib.), Ulvesdale a 1246 ib. 411. " The valley of 
Ulf." Ulfr is a common O.N. name. 

5. Longton (S.W. of Penwortham, bounded on the W. by the Douglas ; v.) : 
Longetuna, Langetuna, Langetona 1153-60 Ch (orig.), Langeton 1178 LPR, 1205 
LPR, 1212 LI, Longeton 1243 LI, 1288 Ind, 1332 LS, etc., Longton 1391 LF, etc. 
" The long village." The township is long and narrow (4 miles in length by 
1 across), and the village " straggles along for over 2i miles " along a road 
(VHL VI. 69). 

CROSTON PAR. (ancient) 

A district on the Douglas. Formerly the parish included the parishes of 
Hoole, Rufford, Tarleton, and Hesketh-with-Becconsall. These are all dealt with 
under Croston. The surface of the par. is mostly low and level. 

1. Bispham (in the S., on the Douglas) : Bispam 1219 LAR, Bispaimhakh 
a 1268 CC, Bispeham 1288 IPM, 1327 LS, Bispham 1332 LS, 1382 LF, etc. O.E. 
*Biscop-hdm " the bishop's manor." Cf. M.E. bisp " bishop." The occasional 
-(h)aim is due to Scand. influence. 

2. Mawdesley (on the Douglas ; v.) : de Madesle 1219 LAR, Moudesley 1269 
LAR, 1288 IPM, Moudeslegh 1327, 1332 LS, Maudeslegh 1382 LF, etc., Maudesley 
1398, 1500 LF, etc. Wyld is no doubt right in identifying the first el. of the 
name with the name Maud (<O.F. Mahaut, etc.) ; the form Maldislei of 1295 
given by Wyld is especially valuable. The name is common in early M.E. 
documents in forms such as Mahald, Maald, Maid (Forssner). 

3. Croston (on the Douglas and Yarrow ; v.) : Croston 1094, c 1190 Ch, 1212 
LI, 1332 LS, etc., Crostona 1153-60 Ch (orig.). Named from a cross ; in VHL 
VI. 91 it is stated that part of the market cross remains. The name is probably 

Finney (on the Douglas) : The Fynny 1559 DL, Fynney 1594 DL. The second 
el. seems to be O.E. eg " island ; water-meadow." The first is doubtful. 
Engl. dial, fin " rest-harrow " might be thought of. 

4. Ulnes Walton (N.E. of Croston, on both sides of the Lostock) : Waleton 
1203 LF, Walton 1341 IN ; Ulneswalton 1285 LAR, 1321 LF, etc., Vlneswalton 


1327 LS, Vines Walton 1332 LS, Oveswalton 1362 OR, Oneswalton 1361 Gaunt R, 
Ulueswalton 1543 LF, Vlswalton 1663, Ouswalton 1666 Croston R. The dis- 
tinguishing epithet seems to have been originally Ulves gen. sg. of Ulf pers. n. 
(O.N. Ulfr) ; Ulf de Walton lived c 1160. Later u in Vines was misread as n, 
and as early as 1331 Vines- appears to have been considered the correct form 
(VHL VI. 108). Yet the old form long survived in pronunciation. On Walton 
" the tun of the Welshmen," see p. 224. 

Barbers Moor (h.) : BarUismor c 1200 CO, Barbars-more 1639 Croston R. Ety- 
mology obscure. 

5. Bretherton (N.W. of Croston, on the Douglas ; v.) : Bretherton a 1190 CC, 
1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc. ; Brethirton 1320 LF, Brotherton 1577 Saxton, 1645 
Croston R. The first el. is a form with i-mutation of O.E. broder or O.N. brodir 
" brother." The most natural explanation is " the tun of the brothers," the 
township having been in the joint ownership of two or more brothers. An 
analogous name is O.N. Brcedragardr NG II. 408. O.E. *bredra-tun or perhaps 
more probably O.N. *brcedratun may be the base. Forms with i-mutation of 
O.E. broder are rare, and M.E. brether, etc., may be at least partly of Scand. 
origin. But it is also possible that Brether- represents the O.N. gen. sg. brcedr. 
Falk shows NG V. 262 that certain Norw. names, such as Brodre-Aas (Buskerud), 
Brorby (Kristians Amt) contain this form. In the case of Brodre-Aas the name 
was given because the place was a part of an estate handed over by its owner 
to a younger brother. 

Bank Hall (on the bank of the Douglas) : de banca 1251 CC, Bankehall 1577 Harr. 
Thorp (old v. or h. ; now lost) : Torp 1177f. LPR, Thorp a 1190 CC, 1212 LI, 
1288 IPM, 1323 LI. O.N. porp (see p. 19). 

6. Hoole (E. of the Douglas, S.W. of Preston. There are two townships : Much 
and Little Hoole. Great Hoole is a village. Hoole is now a parish) : Hull, de la 
Hulle 1204 LF, Hole 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, Holes 1223 LF, Hulle 1241 LF, de 
Hola, de Hull 1246 LAR, Hoole 1508 LF, How 1577 Harr., Howie 1577 Saxton ; 
Magna Hole c 1235 CC, 1296 Ind, 1327 LS, Much Hole 1260 LF, Great Hoole 
1320 LF, Hole Magna 1332 LS ; Litlehola c 1200 CC, parva Hola a 1220 CC, 
Parva Hole a 1251 CC, Parua Hole 1327, 1332 LS, Little Hoole 1423 LF. The 
forms Hulle, Hull show that we have to start from an old form with u, and the 
later oo tells us that the I must have been short. The most probable etymology 
is O.E. hulu " husk," in M.E. also " a hut or hovel." 0. Scand. hula " a 
hollow " would do phonetically, but does not seem to suit the situation of the 

Walmer Bridge (in Little Hoole) : Waldemurebruge a 1251 CC. The hamlet 

stands on a brook. Walmer appears as Waldemure, Waldesmure a 1251 CC, 

Waldemurfeld, Walde[s]murfurlong ib. Waldemure may contain O.E. Walda 

pers. n. or wold " wold," i.e. " forest," and mire, O.N. myrr. 

1. Rufford (W. of the Douglas, E. of Southport, v. ; now a separate parish) : 

Ruchford 1212 LI, Roughford 1318 LF, Rughford 1327, 1332 LS ; Rufford c 1200 

CC, 1293, 1323 LF, etc. " The rough ford." The village stands near the 


Holmes Wood (v.) : Holmes wood 1571 DL. The place occupies a slight elevation 

over the low general level ; it was formerly close to Martin Mere, whose name is 


preserved in Mere Side S. of Holmes Wood. The name means " the islands " 
(from O.N. holmr). 

8. Tarleton (N. of RufEord, v. ; now a separate parish) : Tarleton c 1200 CO 469, 
1298 LF, 1327, 1332 LS, Tarilton c 1212 CO, Tarlton c 1225 CO, de Tarleton 
1246 LAR, Tharleton 1539 CC. O.N. paraldr (=porvaldr) pers. n. and tun. 
Cf. Tarlscough p. 124, Tharlesthorpe, Yks. : Tarlestorp 1188 YCh 1364 (orig.). 
The surface of the district is very low, and the ground is partly moss-land. 
Martin Mere adjoined the township on the W. Tarleton is on slightly higher 

Holmes (h. ; on a slight elevation) : Holmes juxta Maram de Tarlton, tolas 

holmasjuxta Maram de Tarlton c 1210 CO, Holmez 1554 LF. Cf. Holmes Wood 


Mere Brow (S.E. of Holmes ; h.) took its name from Martin Mere. 

Sollom (h. ; S. of Tarleton near the Douglas) : Solayn-, Salaynpull, Solaynpul 

c 1200 CC, de Solame 1372 LF, Solem hey 1451, Sullam 1539 CC, Solom 1554 LF. 

Solaynpull is a " pool " or brook that falls into the Douglas (cf. CC 464). The 

early forms show that Sollom goes back to earlier Solayn, the m having developed 

from n before -pull. The name cannot therefore be identical with Sollom (mosse) 

CWNS XIV. 148 (Cumb.) ; cf. Solom 1282 IPM (prob. the dat. pi. of sol " mire "). 

Derivation from solein adj. " lonely " (a Fr. word) is hardly probable. It seems 

more likely that the name is an old compound of O.E. sol " mire, muddy place " 

and M.E. hain " enclosure, park " (< O.Scand., O.Swed. haghn, etc.), or rather 

an O.N. *Sol-hlein " sunny slope." The hamlet stands on the S. slope of a slight 

ridge, near the low bank of the Douglas. 

Wignall (near Holmes) : de Wygnale 1323 LI, Wygnall (surname) 1451, 1461 CC. 

First el. probably O.E. Wicga pers. n. ; the second is O.E. Tialh. 

Wilshers (VHL VI. 116) : Wlfschahe c 1250 CC. The first el. is perhaps O.E. 

wylf" she-wolf." If it is wulf or Wulf pers. n. the development of the vowel 

may be compared with that of Sid Brook, p. 127. Second el. O.E. scaga 

" shaw." 

9. Hesketh-with-Becconsall (N. of Tarleton between the Ribble and the Douglas ; 
now a separate parish). 

Hesketh [Bank] (v.) : de Heschath 1288 LI, de Heskayth 1298, 1304 LF, de 
Heskeyth 1293 LF, Heskaith 1327 LS, Heskeith 1332 LS, Hesketh 1323 LI, Hesket 
1577 Harr. See further Lindkvist p. 64. who gives earlier examples of Hesketh 
in Yks. ( : Hestesk'eith, -scaith 12 cent.). The correct etymology (O.N. hestaskeid 
"race-course") is given by Wyld (and Lindkvist). Presumably the race-course 
was on the level shore of the Ribble (Hesketh Sands). 

Becconsall : Bekaneshou 1208 LF, 1292 PW, 1341 IN, Bekaneshow 1212 BF, 
Bekanesho 1246 LAR, Bekanshowe 1327 LS, Becanshou 1332 LS. The name is a 
compound of O.N. Bekan (from O.Ir. Beccdn pers. n.) and O.N. haugr " hill." 
Cf. Beacons Gill in Furness. Becconsall Hall stands on a ridge, which reaches 
54ft. above sea-level and falls away sharply to the low land on the shore of the 



A[g]hemundesnes ? 930 YCh (genuine ?), Agemvndrenesse DB, Agmundernesia, 
Amondernesia 1094 Ch, Agmundernes c 1130 Sim. Durh., Aumodernesse 1166 
RB, Hamundernes 1189-93, Agmundernesse 1194 Ch, Agmundernes (Wapentake) 
1206, 1207, 1208 LPR, Aumundirnes 1212 LI, Amundernes 1215 LPR, 1246 
LAR, Augmonderness 1226 LI, Aumondernesse 1284 LAR, Amoundrenesse 1332 
LS, Acmundrenes, Andernes, Aundernesse c 1540 Leland. Further material in 
Lindkvist, p. 1. 

O.N. Agmundar-nes " the ness of Agmundr (Qgmundr)" In the sources 
Amounderness is always used of the hundred or deanery of Amounderness. 
This is apparently the case also in the example of c 930, if that may be looked 
upon as genuine. What ness the name originally referred to it is impossible to 
say. It might be an old name of Rossall Point, near which there must have been 
important Scand. colonies. But Amounderness as a whole forms a ness, and it 
may well be the name was from the first applied to the whole district. 

Amounderness was originally the district roughly between the Ribble and 
the Cocker, the E. boundary being formed by the fells on the Yorkshire border. 
I here reckon to Amounderness the parts that originally belonged to it, though 
they are now in Blackburn or Lonsdale hundreds. 

The W. part of the hundred is flat and is called the Fylde : The File pro 
Fetid 1586 Camden ; cf. del Filde 1246 LAR, del Fylde 1293 LI, delffilde 1325 
LCR, 1332 LS. See Fieldplumpton, p. 151. This is O.E. gefilde " plain." The 
E. part is on the slope of fells, and reaches over 1,600ft. on the Yorkshire border. 

Names of Rivers 

Hodder (a trib. of the Ribble) : Hodder ? 930 YCh (genuine ?), (aq. de) Hoder 
c 1240 Kirkstall C, Hoder 1483 Whit. I. 329, Oder c 1540 Leland, the Odder 1577 
Harr. The name is no doubt British. Etymology obscure. The second el. is 
very likely Celt. *dubron " water " ; cf. Calder, p. 66. 

Loud (a trib. of the Hodder) : Lude 1246, 1262 LF, Loude c 1350 LPR, 1409 
AD V. FromO.E. hlud "loud." Cf. O.E. hludeburnan 956 BCS 982, and O.E. 
Hlyde (river-name), e.g., 956 BCS 945, 972 BCS 1282 (orig.). 
Swill Brook (between Preston and Fishwick). The name belongs to O.E. swilian 
" to wash " and probably means " the brook where clothes were washed." 
Savick or Savock Brook (falls into the Ribble W. of Preston) : Savoch a 1190 CC, 
c 1230 CC, Savock c 1200 CC, SafoJc a 1268 CC, Savok 1252 ChR, Sauoke 1338 
LPR, Savok c 1540 Leland. Probably a British name. The stems in Gaul. 
Sabis, Sabatus or in Samara, Samina (Holder) may be thought of. 
Wyre (falls into Morecambe Bay) : Wir a 1184, etc., CC, 1194-99 Ch (orig.), 
c 1230 FC II. (orig.), Wyr c 1210 CC, Wyir c 1230 FC II. The name is doubtless 
British. I suppose it is identical with Wear, Durh. ( : Uiuri g. sg. Bede, in the 
O.E. translation Wiire, Wire). This has been convincingly identified by Chad- 
wick, in Essays and Studies presented to W. Ridgeway, with the G. river-name 
Weser. A stem *wisur- is to be assumed. The cognate Welsh gwyar means 


" gore, blood." It is perhaps worthy of notice that the Wyre has red-brown 

Skippool (formed by Woodplumpton and Blundell Brooks, which join near 
Poulton) : (ulteran) Skippoles 1330 LC 471, the Skipton 1577 Harr. ; cf. le Polk 
LC 403. Clearly " ship-pool," from O.N. skip " ship " and pool in the sense 
"stream." Skippool was formerly an important harbour (VHL VII. 226). The 
stream gave name to Skippool : Skippull 1593 Poulton R.| 
Brock (joins the Wyre W. of Catterall) : Brock, Broc c 1200 CO, Brok, Broc 
1228 C1R, Broc, Brocke, Broke c 1250 CO, etc., Broke 1338 LPR, Brok c 1540 
Leland, the Brooke rill 1577 Harr. I suppose this is simply O.E. broc " brook." 
Colder (joins the Wyre at Catterall) : Caldre, Colder 1228 C1R, Caldre a 1230 CC, 
Kaldir 1324 LI, (pasture of) Caldre 1314, 1324 LI ; now [kolda]. Cf. Calder, 
p. 66. 

Pilling : Pylin 1246 CC, 13 cent. CC. Cf. Pilling township, p. 165. The ety- 
mology of the name is doubtful, but we may compare pill, a name on both sides 
of the Severn and in Cornwall for a tidal creek on the coast, or a pool in a creek 
at the confluence of a tributary pool (NED). The Pilling may be accurately 
described as a pill. The word appears in O.E. as pyll, and in early Welsh as 
pill (LL 188, etc.). A Yks. instance of the word is adduced by Lindkvist, p. 71, 
Larpool : Lairpel c 1146, etc. If the name is Celtic, as seems probable, it may 
contain the Welsh suffix -yn, originally no doubt diminutive, but in Welsh 
usually singulative (Pedersen II. 57f.). 

Wrampool : Wrangepul 1230 CC. O.N. (v)rangr " crooked " and O.E. pol, 
pull, " pool." 

Names of Hills 

Longridge Fell (in the S.E.) : Langrig 1246 LF, Longerige 1409 AD V, Longridge 
hill 1577 Saxton. The fell gave name to Longridge chapel (and town) : Chapel 
of Langgrige 1521 LP I. 90, Longerydche chap. 1554 DL. Longridge is a long 

Parlick (1,416ft. ; in Bleasdale) : (caput de) Pirloc 1228 C1R, Perlak 1228 WhC 
371, Pireloke 1338 LPR, Pyrelok pyke c 1350 ib. The name cannot mean " pear 
orchard " as Wyld suggests. But the etymology may be correct with a slight 
amendment. O.E. loc means " fold for sheep or goats." A sheep fold at which 
grew a peartree (O.E. pyrige) may very well have been at the foot of or on the 
slope of the hill ; this may have been called Parlick (Pirloc) and have given the 
hill its name. For a probable earlier name see under Core, p. 143. 

MITTON PAR. (part) 

Aighton, Bailey, and Chaigley (N. of the Ribble, bounded on the N. and E. by 
the Hodder). In the township is Longridge Fell (1.149ft.). 
Aighton (the S.E. part) : Actun DB, Achintona, Alton 1102 Ch, Aghton, Haghton 
c 1140 Ch, Acton 1246, 1259 LAR, etc., Achton 1277 LAR, Aghton 1292 
LF, 1332 LS, 1335 LF, etc. O.E. dctun " oak town." Cf. Aughton in De 
and Lo. 


Hurst Green (h.) : Hurst c 1200 WhC 22, del Hurst 1278 C1R, del Hirst 1335 
LF. O.E. hyrst. The place stands at a small hill. 

Stonyhurst : del Stanyhurst 1358 LF, Stonyhirst 1577 Harr., Stonyhurst 1577 
Saxton. O.E. hyrst in this and the preceding name apparently means " hill." 
Stonyhurst is in a commanding situation. 

Winkley (at the confluence of the Hodder and the Ribble) : de Wynketley 1243 
LI, Wynkedeley 1292 PW, de Winkedeleg (Wynkedele, Wynkydele, Wynkithelay, 
Wynkythele, Wikedele) 1246 LAR, de Winkedelegh 1257 LI, de Winkedeley 1258 
LI, de Winkedeleye 1293 LI. This name recalls Dinckley (p. 70) and Worsley 
(p. 40). Like these it has as last el. O.E. leah and a middle el. -ket-, -ked- and 
the like. It is possible that Winkley contains an old Brit, name composed of 
Celt. *vindo- " white " (Welsh gwyn, etc.) and *kaito- " wood " (Welsh coed, etc.) ; 
cf. Lichfield, whose first el. (Celt. Letocetum) means " grey wood," and E. Whit- 
wood. There is also a Brit. pers. n. which might possibly be thought of. O.W. 
Guencat LL, Mid. Welsh Gwyngat, M.Bret. Guengat (Loth 195). 
Davyscoles (now lost) : de Daniscole (Daniscales) 1246 LAR, de Dany scales 
1296, David Scales 1305 Lacy C, Danyscoles 1311 IPM, Davidscoles 1324 LI. 
The first el. is perhaps the pers. n. David. The second is scale " hut " from 
O.N. skaU. 

Bailey (the S.W. part) : de Baillee 1204 LF, Beyley 1246 LAR, de Bailegh 1257 
LI, Bayley 1284 LF, Bayleghe 1292 PW, Baylegh 1298 WhC 1059, Bailleye 1338 
LF. The second el. is O.E. leah " lea." The first may be identical with that of 
Bayworth, Berks, (bcegan wyrde 956 BCS 924), Beyton, SufL (Begatona DB, 
Beyton IPM), Baywell, Wore, (bceganwellan 718 BCS 139). These latter no doubt 
contain a pers. n. O.E. *Bcega or *Bcege from the W. Germ, stem *bag- found in 
O.H.G. bdga f. " fight, conflict." Baildon, Yks. may have as first theme an 
Z-derivative of this stem (O.E. *Bcegel), and such a name is possible also in 
Bailey. But the first el. of Bailey may also be O.E. beg " berry." 
Chaigley (the N. part): Chadelegh, Chaddesl, Cheydesleg, de Cheydesle 1246 LAR ; 
Chadgeley 1391 TI, 1537 DL, Chaddesley 1410 CR, Chawgeley 1437 DL, Chageley 
1514'DL, 1529 DL, 1539 LF, Chadesley, Chadysley 1553 LF, Chadesley 1564 DL, 
Chardgeley 1611 Chipping R ; now [tfe'dzli]. 

Two alternative explanations of the name seem possible. The first el. may 
be O.E. Ceadd(a) (cf. Chaddesley, Wore. : Ceaddesleage 816 BCS 357). This 
became Chadgeley in the same way as Quedgeley, Glo. developed from Quedesley 
(c 1142, etc., Baddeley). A [dz] has in this case been substituted for [dz]. Or 
the first el. may be identical with that of Chailey, Suss. (Chegley 1268, Chagelegh 
1284, etc., Roberts), i.e., apparently, an O.E. CcBgg(a). If so, the forms with 
d show substitution of [dz] for [dz]. Cf. Badsberry, p. 148, Pled wick, Yks. 
(Plegwyke 1275, etc., Pledewyk 1534 Goodall). I am inclined to prefer the 
second alternative, as spellings like Cheydesle do not go well with a base Ceaddes- 
leah. Some of the early forms may represent Norman attempts at spelling the 
difficult name, while some may be due to association with Chadswell, the name 
of a place in Chaigley. Chadswell perhaps contains O.E. Ceadd(a). 


WHALLEY PAR. (part) 

Bowland-with-Leagram (a hilly district on the Yks. border, bounded on the 
E. by the Hodder). 

Bowland (the N. part) : Boelandam 1102 Ch, Bouland c 1140 Ch, 1258 IPM, 
c 1540 Leland, Bochlande a 1194, Bochland 1211-32 Kirkstall C, Bowelande 
a 1240 ib., Bogh-, Boughland Percy C 478f., Bowland 1311 IPM, Boghland chace 
1330 PatR, Bowelond 1375 Gaunt R ; now [bolan(d)]. The forest of Bowland is 
the name of a large district, the greater part of which is in Yorkshire. Several 
of the examples given refer to the Yks. part. Some 8 or 9 miles E. of the Lane, 
border, on the Ribble, is Bolton-by-Bowland : Boulton in Bouland 1254 Percy C 
83, Boulton in Bougland 1315 IPM. The early forms tell us that the first el. is 
a word with original// (Bog-). It may be O.E. boga or O.N. bogi " bow ; arch," 
etc., or one of the relatives of these, e.g., O.N. bugr " bend," O.Swed. bugh 
11 bend," abugh " bend of a river." There were no doubt by-forms of these 
with o ; Norw. bog " bow " is actually found. In M.E. bowe is found in this 
sense : pe bowe of the ryuer of Number Trev. ; but O.N. bugr may be the source 
(NED). I suggest that Bowland means " the land by the bend," the bend 
being that made by the Ribble c 1 mile S. of Bolton-by-Bowland. Close to this 
is Bow Laithe ; cf. Bogh 1306, " the great bowe next Rible " 1659 (lands in 
Bolton) PD 183, 283. Bogh (bowe) is clearly a word meaning "bend of a 

Dinckling Green : Denglegrene 1462 Whit. I. 345, Dynkeler Graue 1527 OCR, 
the Inckl&ngreene 1616 Chipping R. The earliest example perhaps points to the 
word dingle as first el. ; the place is in a valley. 

Greystoneley : Graystonlegh 1462 Whit. I. 345, Grayston Lee 1527 CCR. " The 
lea or pasture by the grey stone." 

Lickhurst : Lekehirste 1462 Whit. I. 345, Lykehurst 1527 CCR. O.E. leac " leek " 
and hyrst " copse " or " hill." The place is on a hill slope. 
Loud Mytham (at the confluence of the Loud and the Hodder) : Lowdmytho 
1614, Lowd Mytham 1677 Chipping R. The name means " the mouth of the 
Loud." Mytham is the dat. of O.E. gemypu " junction of streams." The same 
name is found in Mytholme Lodge (at the confluence of the Glazebrook and the 
Mersey). Cf. Trouden Mithum 1356 CR 332 (in Trawden), le Muthom (Altham) 
1413-22 WhC 305, the Mythome 1551, le Mytham 1558 CCR (Wolfenden). 
Leagram (the S. part) : Lathegrim 1282 VHL VI. 379, Lathegrym 1425 CR, 
Laythgryme Park 1349, Laithgryme Park 1362 Hist, of Leagram (CSNS 72), Laythe- 
gryme 1377 CCR, Laythgryme 1462 Whit. I. 346. In Scandinavians, p. 45, 
I explain the name as a combination of O.N. hlada " barn " and Grimr, pers. n., 
the order between the elements being due to Celtic influence. However, I am 
now more doubtful about the name. As pointed out in the place referred to, 
there was a similar name in Bolton-le-Sands : Laithgryme (cultura) 1230-46 
FC II. As I now find, the same name occurs in Li. Asby (WmU : Laythgrym 
1314 CWNS XX. 73. These names cannot well all be compounds with the pers. n. 
Grimr as second el., and I now believe at least Laithgryme (Bolton) and Laythgrym 
(Li. Asby) represent O.N. leid " road " and Scand. grim, -a, -e " a blaze," 
" a mark made on a tree to indicate a boundary." Laythgrym would mean 


" a blaze made to indicate a road." Whether Leagram should be explained in 
the same way or has as first el. O.N. hlada must remain doubtful in absence of 
sufficiently early forms. 


A small parish on both sides of the Loud, N. of Longridge. The country 
is hilly, Longridge Fell being to the S., Parlick and Fairsnape Fell to the N. 
The district was formerly called Chippingdale : Chipinden DB, Cepndela 1102 
Ch, Chippendal 1256, 1258 LAR, Chependall 1256 LAR, Chipindale 1258 IPM, 
Chippingdale 1296 LI. 

1. Chipping (N. of the Loud) : Chypping 1241 AP, Chipping 1242 LI, Chepin 
1244 IPM, 1246 LAR, Chippin 1246 LAR, Chipin 1258 IPM, 1332 LS, etc., 
Chypyn 1274 LI, Chepyn 1322 LI, Schipen, Schypen 1311 IPM. Chipping is 
identical in origin with Chipping in Herts., Glo., Ess., etc., and goes back to 
O.E. ceping " market." The frequent -in instead of -ing in early forms is due to 
the influence of Chippin(g)dale, where n developed owing to assimilation. The 
usual i instead of e (O.E. e) is due to the palatal c ; cf. Biilbring, Ae. Elementar- 
buch 292, Luick, Hist. Gr. 194, 2, note 1. 

Core : Couere 1228 C1R, de Gome 1314 LI, de Couer 1323 LF, 1371 LF, de Coure 
1332 LS. Cf. Couerhill 1284 LAR. Higher and Lower Core are situated on the 
lower slope of Parlick. This name I take to be related to O.E. cofa " room," 
O.N. kofi " room," O.H.G. chubisi " hut," M.H.G. kober " basket," O.N. kofr 
" chest," kofri " hood, cap." It may be a native or a Scand. name. The mean- 
ing may have been " hut." But I think it very likely that Core is really an old 
name of Parlick Point. The name Couerhill of 1284 rather tells in favour of this 
hypothesis. If so, the name is very likely derived from O.N. kofri " a hood, 
cap." The fine hill of Parlick has a very characteristic shape. Seen from the 
W. it looks rather like a slightly oblique pyramid ; from the S. it presents a 
more rounded outline. It seems quite probable that it may have been thought 
to resemble a primitive cap or hood. 1 Or there may have been an old word mean- 
ing " hill " or the like belonging to the group of words under discussion ; cf. 
O.N. kufr " rounded summit," Du. kuif " top of a tree," etc. (Torp-Fick p. 47). 
It is doubtful if Cover in Coverham, Coverley, etc. (Yks.) is related to Core. 
Elmridge (at a ridge of 500ft.) : Helme Ridge 1557 DL, Elmeridge 1602 Chipping 
R. The name does not contain the word elm, but an earlier place-name Helme : 
Logagia de Helme 13 cent. Smith, Hist, of Chipping, p. 8, de Helm' 1332 LS, 
de Helm 1377 LF, Helme 1553 LF, identical with helm " a roofed shelter for 
cattle " (1501, etc., NED). Cf. Helmshore p. 91. Later H- was dropped, as 
it is often in Lane., and the first el. was associated with elm. 
Wblfhall (according to VHL VII. 26, formerly Wolfhouse) : Wolffehall 1600 
RS XII., Wool/hall 17 cent. Whit. I. 330. Wolf Fell is not far North. The 
name may have been originally Wolf Fell House. 

1 This guess is confirmed by the fact that Kofri (< kofri " a cap") is the name of " a 
characteristic, beehive-shaped peak " in Iceland (Bugge, Vesterlandenes Indflydelse, p. 364). 
Bugge's suggestion that Kofri is a Romance word (belonging to Fr. couvrir) is disproved by 
the circumstance that Kofri is found early as a pers. n. in Norway and Sweden, also in 
early place-names (Lind, Lundgren-Brate). 


2. Thoraley-with-Wheatley (S. of the Loud). 

Thornley: Thorenteleg 1202 LF, de Thornideley (Thornythele, Tornelay) 1246 

LAR ; Thorndeley 1258 IPM, Thorndele 1277 LAR, 1323 LCR, Thornedleye 

1278 LAR, Thorndeleghe 1302 LI, Thorndelegh 1332 LS, Thornley 1327 LS, etc. 

Probably " the thorny lea." The first el. is a derivative of O.E. porn, probably 

*pornede adj. (cf. hoferede: hofer, etc.) or, if the form Thornythele be trustworthy, 

possibly pornihte " thorny " or a noun with a p- suffix meaning " thorn-brake " 

and analogous to Frant, Suss, (cetfyrnpan 956 BCS 961, orig.), which I take to 

be a derivative of fern ; cf. O.H.G. Thurnithi (Forstemann). 

Wheatley (old manor) : Watelei DB, Whetelegh 1227 LF, 1332 LS, Wetelay, 

de Wheteleg 1246 LAR, Queteley 1258 IPM, Weteley 1258, 1278 LAR. " Wheat 

lea " ; cf. the same name p. 81. 

Bradley : de Bradeleg 1202 LF, Bradeley, Bradelaybroke 1246 LF, de Bradelegh 

1332 LS, Braidley 1602 Chipping R. " The broad lea." 

Studley : de Stodleg 1260 LAR, Studdeley 1510 LF. O.E. stod " stud " and O.E. 



A district N. of the Ribble N.E. of Preston. The ground slopes from Long- 
ridge Fell down to the Ribble. 

1. Button (the E. part) : Dotona 1102 Ch, Dutton 1258 IPM, 1292 PW, 1338 
LF, etc., Dueton 13 cent. Ind, ? Dighton 1311 IPM, Dytton 1341 IN. I take the 
occasional spellings Dytton, Dueton, etc., to be corruptions and derive the first el. 
from O.E. Dudda or Dudd pers. n. This is corroborated by the name Duddel. 
Duddel Brook is another name for Dutton Brook ; Duddel Hill is a hill reaching 
c 410ft. Early forms of the name Duddel are : de Dodehill 1324 LCR, de Dodehull 
1332 LS, 1357 LF, Duddill 1590 DL. 

Stidd (old chapelry) : de Stede 1276 LAR, Camera Sancti Salvatoris vocata Le 
Stede 1338 Whit. II. 464, (parish, manor of) Stede 1543 ib. The source of the name 
is O.E. styde, stede " place," later also " farm, estate in land/' etc. Possibly 
the meaning is here " place of worship." The chapel dates from the 12th cent. 
In Church Lawford (Warw.) Stude is a place where there was a chapel (Duignan). 
Cf. however (vaccary del) Stede (in Skipton) 1299 Whitaker, Hist, of Craven 3 , 
p. 457. 

Hay Hurst : de Hayhurst 1246 LAR, 1355 LF, de Haihurst 1262 LAR. O.E. 
hege " hedge, enclosure," or heg " hay " and hyrst, probably in the sense " a hill." 
Huntingdon (Hall) : Huntingdenebroc 13 cent. Whit. II. 467, de Huntingdon 
(Huntindene) 1277 LAR, de Huntyngdon 1341 IN. It is difficult to determine if 
the first el. is simply hunting sb. or O.E. huntena g. pi. of hunta " a hunter." The 
second is O.E. denu " valley." 

Ragden Wood (near Starling Clough) : Rakedene klouh 13 cent. Whit. II. 467, 
Ragden Clough 1550 DL. The first el. may be rake " a way, path " ; esp. " a 
narrow path up a cleft or ravine " (<O.N. rdk) ; but O.E. racu " bed of a stream, 
water-course " (in ea-, streamracu) or hrace " throat " are also possible. 

2. Ribchester (v.) : Ribekastre DB, Ribbecestre 1202 LF, 1246 LAR etc., Ribbelcestre 
1215 LPR, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, Ribbikestre 1258 IPM, Ribbechestre 1246 LAR, 
Ribbikhastre 1335, 1355 LF, Ribikhaster 1358 LF, Riblechastre 1362 CR 343, 


Ribbechastre 1373 LF. Ribchester stands on the Ribble. It was the seat of a 
Roman station (Bremetonaci in Ant. It.). O.E. ceaster means " a city or walled 
town," originally one that had a Roman station. The loss of I may be compared 
with that in such (O.E. swilc], etc. 

Knowl Green (h.) : de Cnolle (Knolle) 1246 LAR, de Knol 1262 LF, 1274 LI ; 
now [noul gri'n]. O.E. cnoll " knoll, hillock." 

3. Dilworth (N. of Ribchester) : Bileuurde DB, Dileworth 1227 LF, Dillewrthe 
a 1240 CC, Dillesworth 1246 LAR, Dilleswrth 1256 LAR, Dilwort 1279 C1R, 
Dylleword 1292 PW, Dilleworth 1303 LF. I am inclined to believe that this is 
simply O.E. dile " dill " and worp. The forms with -s- (Dilleswrth, etc.) to some 
extent tell against this etymology, but the s may be intrusive. 

4. Alston-with-Hothersall (W. of Ribchester). 

Alston (the W. part) : Alston 1226, 1257 LI, 1332 LS, etc., de Alleston (Halueston, 
Halfiston, Halleston) 1246 LAR ; now [olstn]. In view of the 1246 forms the 
first el. of the name seems to be some name in O.E. jElf-, perhaps jElfsige as in 
Alston, Wore. : Mfsiges tun c 1050 CD 805, Alsostone, Alstone 1275 (Duignan). 
Hothersall (the E. part) : Hudereshal' 1199 ChR, Hudereshal 1201 LPR, 1226 LI, 
Huddeshal 1206 LPR, Hudersale 1212 LI, de Hodersale 1251 LI, de Hudeshale 
1252 LI, Hudereshale 1257 IPM, Hodresal 1258 LAR, Hudresal 1259 LAR, de 
Hudirsale 1279 C1R, Hodersale 1297 LI, 1332 LS ; now [O&OSQ ; oSasl]. The first 
el. of the name is no doubt a pers. n., identical with that in Huddersfield: 
Oderesfeld DB, Hodersfeld 1280, Hudresfeld a 1297, Huderesfeld 1131 etc. 
(Goodall, Moorman). But it is not easy to explain such a name. The O.E. 
Huthhere ( <\j Hythhere) found once does not account well for the regular d of the 
early forms. The change [5] to [d] before r in rudder (O.E. rodor), spider is 
evidenced a good deal later than in the names Hothersall and Huddersfield. 
It may be a derivative of O.E. Hud(d)a with an r- suffix ; cf. Bickerstafie, p. 121f. 
The second el. is O.E. halh " haugh." Hothersall Hall stands in a piece of level 
ground in a bend of the Ribble. 


A large district N. of the Ribble. The surface is low in the S. and W., but 
rises in the N. and E. 

1. Elston (N.E. of Preston, on the Ribble) : Etheliston 1212 LI, 1259 LAR, 
1332 LS, de Etheleston (Etheliston, Ethelaston, Ethereston) 1246 LAR, Elleston 
1446 LF. The first el. is an O.E. name in Edel- (a Northumbrian side-form of 
Mdel- ; cf. Chad wick, Studies in Old English, p. 176). Elswick seems to contain 
O.E. Eftelsige, and this seems more plausible than dSdelwulf (suggested by Wyld) 
also in the case of Elston. The second el. is O.E. wic " dwelling," etc. 

2. Grimsargh-with-Brockholes (N.E. of Preston, W. of Elston). 

Grimsargh (the N. half) : Grimesarge DB, Grimesherham 1189 Ch, de Grimesargh 

1246 LAR, Grimesargh 1262 LI, 1341 IN, etc., Grymesargh 1324 LI, Greymesargh 

1301 LF ; now [grimza]. " The ergh (or pasture) of Grim." On ergh see p. 10. 

Grimr is a well-known O.N. pers. name. The land of the township is chiefly in 


Brockholes (the S. part ; in a bend of the Ribble) : Brochole 1212 LI, de Brocholes 


1244 LI, Brochol, Brokhol 1246 LAR, Brocholes 1290 IPM, Brokholes 1319 LF, 
1332 LS, etc. O.E. brocc " badger " and hoi " hole, burrow." Cf. Brockhall, 
p. 71. 

3. Ribbleton (v. ; near the Ribble) : Ribleton 1201, 1206 LPR, 1354 LF, Ribbelton 
1226 LI, 1327 LS, de Ribelton, de Ribbeton 1246 LAR, Ribbilton 1297 LI, Rybbelton 
1332 LS. " The tun on the Ribble." 

Scales : Ribelton Scales 1252 ChR. O.N. skdli " hut." 

4. Fishwick (E. of and now part of Preston) : Fiscuic DB, de Fiskwic 1202 LF, 
Fiswich 1203f. LPR, Fyswic 1216-22 LI, Fissewyk, Fiskewik 1247-51 LI, Fiswyke 
1252 IPM, Fischewik 1269 LAR, Fixwyk, Fyssewyk 1297f. LI, Fisshewyk 1326 
l$,ffisshwik 1332 LS. I believe (with Sephton) that this is simply O.E. *fisc-wic, 
which I take to mean " place (village) where fish is sold " ; cf. especially saltwic 
" place where salt is sold " (B-T). Or it might be " village where fish is caught." 
Fishwick is on the Ribble, and the ancient highway from Preston to the S. passes 
through the township. Fishwick is also the name of an old parish in Berwickshire 
near the Tweed. 

5. Preston (town) : Prestvne DB, Prestonam 1094 Ch, Prestona 1153-60 Ch 
(orig.), 1169 LPR, Prestone 1166 RB, Preston 1176fL LPR, 1196 LF, 1212 LI, 
1332 LS, etc., Presteton 1180ff. LPR. O.E. preosta tun " the priest's manor." 
Preston must have been an old rectory manor. 

Avenham Park : Avenham 1591 DL. The name is identical with Avenham or 
Enam in Singleton, with Avenames (Newton) 1212-42 CO, Auenam de Farlton 
(Westmorl.) 1208-49 ib. M.E. avenam is clearly a Scand. word ; cf. O.Swed. 
afnam " land severed from an estate." In a note to Guisb. C II. 442 ovenam 
is explained as " land taken up from, or out of, a larger tract unappropriated 
and unenclosed," i.e., " a purpresture, encroachment, or intak." That may be 
the exact meaning also of avenam. 
Deepdale : Dupedale 1228 C1R, de Depedale 1354 LF. " The deep valley." 

6. Lea, Ashton, Ingol, and Cottam (on the Ribble, W. of Preston). 

Ashton (the S.E. part, now partly urban) : Estun DB, Astuna 1153-60 Ch (orig.), 
Estona 1169 LPR, Eston 1201 LPR, 1212 LI, Assheton 1326 LF, Asshton 1327, 
1332 LS. O.E. cesc-tun " ash town." 

Tulketh: Tulket c 1130 Sim. Durh., 1199 ChR, (villa de) Tukhut a 1250 CC, 
Tulkid 1252 ChR, Magnum Tulket a 1255 CC, Tulkut, Tulchut, (Kar de) Tulkut 
a 1268 CC, Tulketh 1292 PW, de Tulkith 1293 LI, Tulcood, Tokyth 1545 DL. 
This is, in my opinion, a Brit, name, to be compared with M.Bret. Toulgoet 
(Loth 234), Bret. Toulhoet, a fairly common name ; also with Twll-cod (Llandaff , 
Wales) : tollcoit, Tvll Coit LL 188, (fontis) tollcoit ib. 189. The first el. is Bret. 
toul " trou," Corn, toll, Welsh twll " hole, pit," the second Bret, koat, O.Corn. 
cuit, Welsh coed " wood." Toulguet means " le bois troue." Toulhoet, 
and probably Welsh Twll-cod, mean " le trou du bois." This is probably 
also the meaning of Tulketh. The quotation Kar de Tulkut is especially to be 
noticed. A place called Hole House is (or was) near Tulketh. 
Lea (the S.W. part) : Lea DB, Lehe a 1190 CC, Le 1212 LI, Legh 1246 LAR, Lee 
1284 ChR, 1297 LI, 1332 LS, etc. O.E. leah " lea." The Savick Brook divides 
Lea into two parts, formerly called French Lea and English Lea. French Lea 
was given a 1189 to Warine de Lancaster, a Norman. 


French Lea : Le Franceisa, 1194 Ch, Le Franceis 1207 ChR, Lee Francia CC 209, 

Lee Fraunceis (Frauncheys) 1259 LAR, Le Gallicana a 1268 CC, Lee Gallica 1377 

LF, 1422 CR, La Lee Fraunceys 1334 LF ; Frenkesslee 1278 LAR. 

English Lea (now Lea Town) : EnglesM[ea] 1201 LPR, Le Engleis 1207 ChR, 

Englesshelee 1385 LF, Lee Anglicana 1422 CR. 

Greaves : del Greues 1246 LAR, del Grevys 1334 LF. O.E. grcef " grove." 

Sidgreaves : Sidegreves, Side Greves c 1230 CC, de Sydegreues 1246 LAR. First 

el. O.E. sid " wide, large." 

Cottam (the N.W. part) : Cotun a 1230 CC, de Cotun 1227 LF, Cotum c 1230 CC, 

1246, 1284 LAR, Kotum, Cotton 1246 LAR, Cotam 1292 PW, Gotham 1577 Hair. 

O.E. cotum dat. pi. of cot " cottage," (often) " sheep-cote." 

Ingol (the N.E. part) : Ingole 1200 ChR, 1314 LI, Igole, Ingool (Yngole, Yngoil) 

1199-1206 Ch (orig.), Ingol 1246, 1284 LAR, de Ingoles 1246 LAR, Ingel 1257 ib., 

Inghoo 1558 LF. The second el. is O.E. holh (or O.N. hoi) " hole ; hollow, 

valley." The first is presumably a pers. name. O.E. Inga (Searle) may be 

English or Scandinavian (Bjorkman). The occurrence of the name in Inkpen, 

Berks, indicates that it is at least partly native. 

7. Broughton (N. of Preston) : Broctun DB, Broctona a 1160 Ch, Brocton 1201 
LPR, 1212, 1226 LI, Broucton 1262 LF, Brouton 1269 LAR, Broghton 1303 LF, 
1332 LS, Broughton 1490 LF. O.E. broc-tun " the tun on the brook." Blundel 
Brook flows through the township. 

Fernyhalgh : Fernehalgh 1500 DL, Fernyhalgh (Chap.) 1516 DL. " Ferny haugh." 
Ingolhead (adjoining Ingol) : de Thyncoleheued 1246 LAR, de Ingolheued 1310 
LI, de Ingolhed 1332 LS, de Ingolfheved 1341 IN, Ingolheved 1380 LF. The first 
el. is no doubt the place-name Ingol. Ingolf- shows transition of -h into -/. The 
second el. is O.E. heafod, whose sense is here not very clear ; perhaps " upper 
end." There does not seem to be any hill at Ingolhead. 

Sharoe (h.) : Sharoo, Shayrawe, Sharow 1502 DL, Sharoe 1513 ib., Sharowe 
1558 LF. Perhaps the CharaudhoJce (Sharoe oak ?) 1338 LPR 425 contains the 
name. Sharoe is on slightly rising ground between Sharoe Brook and a brook 
that forms the boundary between Broughton and Fulwood. We may compare 
Sharow, Yks. : Scharhow 1285-1316, Scharhowe, -hou 1303, etc. (Moorman). 
The elements may be O.E. scaru " boundary " (in landscaru, landscarhlinc) and 
O.N. haugr " hill," or O.E. hoh " ridge." Charaudhoke is one of the bounders 
of Fulwood. But the early forms are not sufficiently clear. 
Urton or Durton (near Broughton Hall) : Overton 1502 DL 1. 12, Durton al. Urton 
al. Overtowne 1567 DL (VHL VII. 119), Urton 1544 LF, Vrton 1591 RW 247. 
The name may be O.E. ofertun " shore town " or rather ofertun " upper town," 
as the place does not stand close to a stream. D- is perhaps the Fr. prep, de, 
added when the name was used as a family name. 

8. Haighton (N.E. of Preston, S. of Blundel Brook) : Haktun DB, Aulton 
1201 LPR, Halicton 1212 LI, Halechton 1226 LI, Halton a 1268 CC, Haighton 
1327, 1332 LS. O.E. halh " haugh " and tun. Haighton Hall and Haighton 
House stand on level ground near Savick Brook. 

New Chingle Hall : Chynglethall 1501 LF, Shynglehatt 1516 DL. " The hall 
covered with shingles." Chingle is a side-form of shingle, " thin piece of wood 
used as a house-tile " (c 1200 NED) ; cf. Singleton, p. 154. 


9. Barton (N. of Preston and Broughton) : Bartun DB, a 1220 CC, Barton 1212 

LI, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Berton 1226 LI. O.E. bcertun, beretun " barton " ; cf. 

Barton in Eccles, p. 38. 

Newsham (h. ; formerly in Goosnargh) : Neuhuse DB, Newesum, Neusum 1246 

LAR, Nusum 1249 IPM, Neusom 1252 IPM, 1332 LS ; de Neusum c 1260 CC, 

Newesum 1312 LI, Neusum 1327 LS. " (At) the new houses." 

Hollowforth (in Newsham ; h.) : de Holughford 1332 LS, Holoforth 1558 LF. 

" The hollow ford," or " the ford in the hollow." The place is on Barton Brook. 

LANCASTER PAR. (detached portions) 

1. Fulwood (N. of Preston, now partly suburban) : ful(e)wude 1228 C1R, 
Fuluuode 1252 ChR, Fulwode 1297 LI, Folewode 1323 LI. O.E. ful " rotten " 
or " dirty " and wudu " wood." Fulwood belonged to the forest of Lancaster. 
Cadley : Cadileisahe 1228 C1R, Cadilegh 1314, 1324 LI, 1338 LPR. Apparently 
O.E. Cadan leak. But the regular i in the second syllable is curious. 

Hyde Park (name lost) : hyda 1256-8 LI, park of Hyde, Hide 1323f. LI, parco de 

Hyde 1323 LC 449, de Hide 1332 LS, Hydeschaghbroke 1338 LPR. O.E. hid 

" hide." I suppose Hyde is the name of a lost village or farm ; Hyde is a common 


Killinsough : Kelangeshalgh, Kelandeshagh 1324 LI, Kylaneshalgh 1363 M. 

The first el. may be the O.N. pers. n. Kylan from Ir. Cuilen. The second el. is 

O.E. halh " haugh." K. stands between the Savock and a tributary brook. 

2. Myerscough (N.W. of Preston and Barton) : de Mirscho(h) 1246 LAR, de 
Miresco 1265 LI, Mirescowe 1297 LI, Mirescogh 1323 LI, 1323 LC, Merscow 
G 1540 Leland. O.N. myrr " bog " (>E. mire) and skogr " wood." The ground 
of the township is low and level and traversed by several streams (the Brock and 

Aschebi DB is thought to be a lost vill. in Myerscough. Aschebi no doubt stands 
for Askebi, the first el. being O.N. askr " ash " ; cf. O.Swed. Askby and Askaby. 
Badsberry : Baggerburgh 1363M, Badgerburgh 1430 LC 577, Baggesburgh 1496 DL. 
Evidently " badger-burrow " ; cf. p. 8. A late name ; badger is a Fr. loanword. 
The development of [dz] to [dz] is remarkable ; cf. Chaigley, p. 141. 
Midghalgh or Midge Hall : Migehalghlegh 1314 LI, Migelhalgh 1324 LI, Migel-, 
Migehalgh 1326 LC 454f. Cf. Mugehalc (Ashton, Preston) a 1268 CC and Midge 
Hall, p. 133. O.E. mycg " midge " and halh " haugh." The place stands a 
few hundred yards from Barton Brook ; the intervening ground is low and level. 
Stansacre : Stannesacre 1553 DL. Earlier material is needed. The first el. may 
be O.N. Steinn pers. n. 


This large parish consists of two parts, separated from each other by the 
parishes of St. Michael's and Preston. The chief portion is W. of the said 
parishes, and stretches from the Ribble in the S. to the Wyre in the N., with 
Hambleton N. of the Wyre. This portion is in the Fylde. The smaller portion 
(Goosnargh Chapelry, comprising Goosnargh and Whittingham townships) is 
on the border of Chipping and on the lower slope of Longridge Hill. 


1. Whittingham (N.E. of Preston, N. of Blundel Brook) : Witingheham DB, 
Whitingham 1200f. LPR, 1246 LAR, Witingheham, Witingeheim, Whitingeheim 
1202 LF, Witingeham, Whitingeham, de Wytinghaym 1246 LAR, Whitingham 
1332 LS, Whetyngham 1310 LI. O.E. Hwitinga ham, Hwitingas being a patrony- 
mic from O.E. Hwita. The forms in -haym are due to Scand. influence. 
Ashley : de Esseleye a 1250 CO, de Ashelegh 1323 LI. O.E. cesc " ash " and leak. 
Chingle HaU (estate) : The Chyngle Hall 1530 RW 268, Shinglehall 1546 DL, 
Synglehall 1571 DL. See New Chingle Hall, p. 147. 

Comberhalgh : de Cumberhalgh 1310 LI, Cumberall 1497 LF. The place was 
apparently on Blundel Brook. The name is preserved in Cumeragh Lane, which 
crosses Blundel Brook. The second el. of the name is O.E. halh " haugh." The 
first may be O.E. Cumbra pers. n. or Cumbra " Briton." The only objection 
against this etymology is the fact that the same name is found also in Cronton 
(Combral 1337 WhC 817) and in Houghton, De. (Cumbrall VHL IV. 167), which 
would seem to indicate that the first el. is rather a common noun. There are a 
M.H.G. kumber "rubbish," Norw. dial, kumar "bud," Swed. dial, kummer, 
kumber the same. There may have been an O.E. word of similar form and 
Duxendean : Duxenden 1587 DL. Etymology obscure. 

2. Goosnargh (N.E. of Preston) : Gusansarghe DB, Gunanesarg 1206 LPR, 
Gosenharegh, Gosenargh, Gosenarch, Gusenhach 1246 LAR, Gosenhar' 1257 IPM, 
Gosnarhe, Gosenarwe, Gosenarewe 1269 LAR, Gosenarch 1277 LAR, Gosenargh 
1284 LAR, 1306 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Gosnargh 1297 LI ; now [gu'zna]. Second el. 
ergh, argh " shieling " (p. 10). The first is apparently a pers. n. Gosan or Gusan 
from Ir. Gosan, Gusan (see Hogan, p. 81, 693). 

Barker : Barker 1513, 1514 DL. The second el. of the name may well be ergh 

" a shieling " ; the first being O.N. borkr " bark " or Borkr pers. n. Higher 

and Lower Barker are in a remote situation on a hill-side. 

Beesley : de Beselaye c 1200 CC, Beysleye c 1210 CC, de Biseligh (Besleg] 1246 

LAR, de Byseleye (Byssley) 1277 LAR, de Beseley 1332 LS. Probably O.E. 

Bisi pers. n. (Searle) and leah. Cf. Bisley (Glo.). 

Blake HaU : Blakhall c 1450 HS LXIV. 279, Blackhall 1600 RS XII. Perhaps 

simply " black hall." 

Bulsnape : Bulsnape 1518 DL. M.E. bule " bull " and snape " pasture " ; cf. 

Boysnope in Eccles. Fulesnape a 1220, c 1260 CC is possibly miswritten for 

Bulesnape. But cf. Fairsnape in Bleasdale. 

Inglewhite (v.) : Inglewhite 1662 RW 83. The first el. is probably a pers. n., 

e.g., O.N. Ingulfr. On the second see p. 19. 

Kidsnape : Kydesknape 1520 DL, Kydsnape 1539 CC. M.E. kid " young of 

goat " (a Scand. word) and snape " pasture," see p. 17. 

Longley : Longelee, Longelech c 1210 CC, de Longelyhe 1252 LI. " Long lea." 

Loudscales (on the Loud) : de Ludescal(e) 1219, de Ludreskal 1221, de Ludescales 

1222, de Ludescall 1223 LAR, Lowd Scales 1585 RW 210 ; cf. de la Lude 1262 

LAR. " The scales or huts on the Loud." Scale is O.N. skdli " hut." 

Middleton (on Westfield Brook, a tributary of Barton Brook) : Middelton 1323 

LF, de Midelton 1332 LS. " The middle tun." 

ThrelfaU (old manor ; the N.E. part of Goosnargh) : Trelefelt DB, de Threliffall 


1246 LAR, Threlefal 1258 IPM, Treuelfal 1271 LAR, Trellefalle 1324 LI, Threlefel 
1244 LI. O.N. prcela g. pi. of prcell " serf " (cf. Threlkeld, Cumb.) and O.N. 
fall " clearing " (cf. p. 10). The second el. seems to have been influenced by 
feld and fell. The latter association is all the more plausible as Beacon Fell 
(874ft.) is in Threlfall. The form Treuelfal 1271 shows influence from Treales 
.(p. 152). 

3. Clifton-with-Salwick (on the Ribble, W. of Preston). 

Clifton (v.) : Clistun DB, Clifton 1226 LI, 1257 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Clyfton 1341 

IN. First el. O.E. clif" hill, slope." Clifton vil. lies on a fairly steep slope above 

the marshy land along the Ribble. 

Salwick : Saleuuic DB, Salewic 1201 LPR, 1226 LI, Saleswic 1200 Rot Obi, 

Salewyk 1327 LS, Sawick 1577 Saxton. Salwick is near a small tributary of 

Savick Brook. The elements of the name are probably O.E. salh (pi. salas) 

" sallow " and wlc " dwelling," etc. 

Lund (v.) : ? Lund 1228 C1R, le Lund a 1268 CO, Lundmosse 1595 DL. O.N. 

lundr " grove." 

4. Newton-with-Scales (on the Ribble, W. of Clifton). 

Newton (v.) : Neutune DB, Neuton a 1242 CC, 1243 LI, 1332 LS, etc. " The 
new tun." 

Scales (close to Newton) : Skalys 1501 CC, Skales, Scalis 1537 ib. O.N. skali " hut." 
Dowbridge (h.) : (magnam stratam de) Dalebrig(e), Delbrigeheuet, Dalebrigewara 
a 1268 CC. D. is in the valley of Freckleton Brook. The elements of the name 
are O.E. dcel (or O.N. dalr) " valley " and O.E. brycg. The road alluded to is 
the Danes' Pad, thought to be of Roman origin. The el. -wara (in one example) 
seems to be wra from O.N. (v)ra " corner." 

5. Freckleton (on the Ribble ; W. of Newton ; v.) : Frecheltun DB, Frecheltuna. 
1153-60 Ch (orig.), FreJciltona, ffrekelton c 1190 CC, Frekelton 1202, 1227 LF, etc., 
ffrekilton 1332 LS, Frekilton 1428 LF ; Freketon 1201 LPR ; Frekenton 1201f. 
LPR, 1270 LAR ; Frequinton 12021 LPR, Frequenton 1204 LPR ; Frekintone 
1212 RB ; Frequelton 1212 LI ; de Frikelton 1246 LAR. S. of the vil. is a point 
of land called the Naze : " the famous Neb of the Nese," 1771 Whitaker, Hist, 
of Manchester 1. 129. In Whitaker's time the Ribble formed a large bend here. 
The depth was 15ft. 

This is a very difficult name, to no small extent owing to the variety in the 
early forms. The forms in I (Frekelton, etc.) are obviously to be preferred to 
those in n (Frekenton, etc.), as they are more common and evidenced earlier. 
No doubt n is due to Norman dissimilation. Then there is the question if the 
spellings with qu for k (Frequelton, Frequinton) are worthy of attention. I 
suppose they indicate that a w has been lost after k. Sephton assumes as first el. 
O.E. Frecwulf, but such a name is not evidenced ; the instance in Searle is 
Frankish. If the form contained a w, I think the first el. is an O.E. *Frecwcel 
containing O.E. free " greedy " or " dangerous " (cf. Forster, E. St. 39, 328 ff.) 
and O.E. wcel " pool," referring to the deep place in the river mentioned. This 
seems to me the most probable explanation. If the original form had no w, it is 
perhaps an Z-derivative of the stem in O.E. free, frcec. This may be an O.E. 
*Frecla pers. n. (cf. Freed) or a derivative of the O.E. adj. frecel (M.E. frekel) 
" wicked ; dangerous " (cf. Forster I.e.), a name of the pool. 


6. Warton (on the Ribble, E. of Lytham ; v.) : Wartun DB, Wartuna 1153-60 
Ch (orig.), Warton 1227 LF, 1332 LS, etc. Probably O.E. *weard-tun (cf. weard- 
seld " guard-house," etc., G. Wariburg). This etymology seems fairly certain 
for Warton in Lonsdale, and plausible for Warton in Am. Warton Bank would 
be suitable as a lookout place ; the ground W. of Warton along the Ribble is 
very low and was in old days mostly uninhabitable. O.E. warop (wearp) " shore " 
is also possible as first el., but a name " shore town " is not very distinctive, 
as several old villages are on the shore. 

Cowburn or Cowburgh (old estate) : Couburugh 1189-94 Ch (in ChR 1336), 
Cuburne, insula de Cuburc (Kuburne) a 1246 CC. The original name was probably 
Cu-burne " cow brook," -burgh being due to a deliberate change. 

7. Bryning with Kellamergh (N.E. of Lytham). 

Bryning (h.) : Birstaf brinn[ing] 1201 LPR, Birstatbrunning 1236 LI, Burstad 
Brining 1243 LI, Burwadbruning 1249 IPM ; Brunigg' 1252 IPM, Brining, 
Brunigge 1254 IPM, Brining 1341 IN, etc., Brinyge 1332 LS, Brynin' Waugh. 
The name has a curious history. In the earliest sources it is a double-barrelled 
name. From about 1250 the first part is dropped. I explain the first part as 
an O.N. Bjdrstadr (whence Norw. Bjaastad, Bjastad) meaning " farmstead " ; 
Bjdr- is the gen. of byr (cf. E. byrlaw<byjarlog) ; staftr means " place." The 
same name is Birstwith, W. Yks. : Birstad 13 cent. The second el. may be the 
O.E. pers. n. Bryning or O.Swed., O.Dan. Bryning. Or it may be an earlier 
name of the place, e.g., an O.E. patronymic Bryningas. I suppose Byrstath 
Bryning means Bryning Farm. The order between the elements is due to Celtic 
influence. A Celtic el. is found in the next name. 

Kellamergh (h.) : Kelfgrimeshereg 1201 LPR, Kelgrimesarge a 1246 CC, Kel- 
grimisarhe 1236 LI, Kelghgrymeshare 1285 LAR, Kelgrimisharg 1249 IPM, 
Kelgrimeshar' 1254 IPM, Kelgrymessaregh 1276 C1R, Kelgrimeshargh 1297 LI, 
Kelgmesargh 1332 LS, Kilgrymesargh 1347 LF, Kellamoor Waugh. The " ergh, 
or shieling, of *Kelgrim." On ergh, argh see p. 10. Kelgrim is a Scand. pers. n., 
derived by Bjorkman, Namenkunde, from O.N. *Ketilgrimr. Yet the earliest form 
does not quite bear out this suggestion. 

8. Westby with Plumptons (N. of Lytham). 

Westby (h.) : Westbi DB, Westby 1226 LI, 1257 LF, etc. ; W esteby 1327, Westebi 
1332 LS. " The western by," a Scand. name Vestbyr. 

Ballam (h.) : Balholm 1189-94 Ch (in ChR 1336), de Balholme 1324 LCR, de 
Balghholm 1332 LS. Ballam stands on a slight elevation (c 35ft.) with Lytham 
Moss on the W., Brown Moss on the E. Holm (O.N. holmr) no doubt means an 
" island " in a moss. The first el. is perhaps M.E. balgh adj. "round," cf. p. 7. 
Plumptcn (formerly Fieldplumpton for distinction from Woodplumpton) : 
Pluntun DB, Plumton 1226 LI, 1257 LF, etc., Plumpton 1327, 1332 LS ; Filde- 
plumpton 1323 LI, 1359 LF. O.E. plume " plum, plumtree " and tun. There are now 
two hamlets: Great and Little Plump ton: Little, Le Graunte FildeplumptonlSZS LI. 

9. Ribby with Wrea (N.E. of Lytham, W. of Kirkham). 

Ribby (v.) : Rigbi DB, 1169 LPR, Ribi 1094 Ch, Rygeby 1189-93 Ch, Rigby 
1227 C1R, Riggebi 1226 LI, Riggeby 1226 LI, 1332 LS, etc., Ruggeby 1249 LI. 
" The byr on the ridge " ; O.N. hryggr " ridge " and byr. Ribby stands on or 
at a small ridge. 


Wrea (W. of Ribby ; Wrea Green, h.) : Wra 1201 LPR, 1226 LI, c 1200 CO, 
Wraa 1324 LI, 1380 LF, le Wra 1323 LI, le Wraa 1327 LS ; Wro 1322 LI. O.N. 
(v)rd " corner," etc. ; cf. p. 20. In this case the most plausible meaning of vrd 
is " remote part." 

Compton, or Counton (in Ribby) : Conton 1538 DL, Counton 1559 DL. Perhaps 
O.E. cumb-tun " valley town." 

10. Kirkham (N.E. of Lytham, small town) : Chicheham DB, Chercheham 1094 
Ch, Chircheham c 1130 ib. ; Kyrkham, Kircheham, Kyrcham 1094 ib. ; Kirkeheim 
1196 LF, de Kyrkeym 1243 LI, Kyrkheym 1246 LF, Kyrkhaym 1246 LAR, 
Kyrkeym 1262 LAR ; Kyrkeham 1279 LF, Kirkeham 1332 LS, Kirkham 1387 LF, 
etc. The forms point to O.N. kirkia as the first el. ; ch is no doubt to be read 
& in the early forms. The second el. is O.N. heimr or O.E. ham " home," etc. I 
am inclined to believe that the name is an O.E. *Circehdm, which was 
Scandinavianized wholly (to Kirkeheim) or partly (to Kirkeham). The name 
may, of course, be Scandinavian, but Scand. names in -heimr are at least very 
rare in England. 

11. Treales, Roseacre, and Wharles (N.E. of Kirkham). 

Treales (the S. part ; h.) : Treueles DB, 1206 LPR, 1332 LS, etc., TriveV, TreveV 
1249 IPM, Treneles 1286 IPM, Trades 1324 LI, 1327 LS, Treeles 1431 FA, 
Trales 1577 Saxton, Trayles 1597 DL ; now [tre'lz]. The name is sometimes 
written Trayles (Buhner). I identify the name with M.Bret. Trefles 1249 (Loth 
234), Treflys, Cam. ( : Trefles Rec. Cam. 39). The latter is evidently Welsh trefiys 
" court of the settlement " (Anwyl), a compound of tref " hamlet, town " and 
llys (O.Bret. Us) " court, hall, palace," or Welsh Tref-llys " the township of the 
court or palace." In Owen's Pembrokeshire II. 411 Trellys-coed and T.-cnwc 
(Trefilys Bl. B. of St. David's) are explained in the latter way. Treales is situated 
in the interior of the district on slightly elevated ground ; there are no prominent 
physical features about the place. 

Wharles (the middle part ; h.) : Quarlous 1249 IPM, Werlows, Warlawes 1286 
IPM, Wharlowes 1617 RW 64 ; now [wcvlaz]. Wharles is situated on an elevation 
of some 70ft. To the E. the ground slopes away to about 50ft. The second el. 
of the name may be O.E. Haw " hill," or if the first el. ended in I, O.N. haugr. 
The first el. is extremely doubtful. It seems most probable that it began with 
hw- (wh-). Possible sources are O.E. hwer, O.N. hverr " kettle, basin," O.E. 
hwearf, O.N. hvarf " turning," etc., or O.E. hwerfel " circle," etc. Quarles, 
Norf. ( : Quarles 1302, 1428 FA) is Huerueles DB, which points to O.E. hwerfel as 
its source. As the plural is difficult to explain if the second el. of Wharles meant 
" hill," it seems most plausible that it is here to be taken in the sense of 
" mound " ; the name would then have been given on account of some (funeral ?) 
mounds in the neighbourhood. If so, a combination of O.E. hwerfel " circle " 
and O.E. hldw or O.N. haugr meaning " mounds standing in a circle " may be 
assumed. The same mounds may have given name to Roseacre, which was no 
doubt originally a field belonging to Wharles. 

Roseacre (c 1 m. N.W. of Wharles, h.) : Rasak', Raysak' 1249 IPM, Raysacre 
1283 LF, Reyacre, Raysaker 1286 IPM, Roseaker 1577 Saxton ; now [ro'ze'ka]. 
O.N. hreysi " cairn " and O.N. aker or O.E. ceeer (Wyld, Lindkvist). 

12. Medlar with Wesham (N. of Kirkham). 


Medlar : Midelarge 1215 CO, Midilharie 1216 ChR, Middelharg a 1220 Ch, 
Middelarghe 1226, -erwe 1227 LI, Midelare c 1230 CC, Midelergh 1235 LF, Midel- 
argh 1324 LI, Mithelargh 1292 PW, 1332 LS. The " middle ergh or shieling " ; 
cf. on ergh, argh p. 10. The first el. is O.E. middel, or as suggested by the 1292 
and 1332 forms originally the corresponding O.N. midil, found as a preposition. 
Bradkirk : de Bredekyrk 1235 LF, de Bredekirke a 1242 CC, 1246 LAR, Bretekirke, 
Bredekik 1249 IPM, de Bredekyrk 1276 AP, Bredekirk 1330 LF, 1386 Ind. II. ; 
Bradkirk 1189 Ch (Kuerden's MS), de Bradekirke a 1242 CC, Bradekirke, Brede- 
kirke 1286 IPM, de Bradekyrke LC 417. I believe the name means " plank 
church " (first el. O.E. bred " board, plank ") ; cf. Felkirk, Yks., whose first el. 
is convincingly derived by Goodall from O.N. fiol " board." The second el. is 
Scand. in form, but very likely kirk has replaced an O.E. circe. There seems to 
be no mention in early records and no trace of the church that gave name to the 

Wesham (v.) : West(h)usum 1189 Ch, Westhusam 1194 Ch, de Westhusum 1246 
LAR, Westeshum 1263 IPM, Westsum 1327, 1332 LS, W essum 1431 FA ; Westhus 
1204 LPR. At " the western houses " ; -Tiusum is the dat. pi. of O.E. or O.N. 
hus " house." Wesham vil. is N.W. of Kirkham vil. 

Mowbrick Hall (in Wesham) : Moulebrec, Mulebrec 1249 IPM, Mokbrek 1286 
IPM. O.N. Muli pers. n. (Bjorkman, E.St. 44, 254) and O.N. brekka " slope." 
Mowbrick stands on a slope. 

13. Weeton with Preese (N.W. of Kirkham. E. of Blackpool). 
Weeton (v.) : Widetun DE, Wytheton 1243 LI, Witheton 1249 IPM, 1327 LS, 
Wythington 1286 IPM, Wyhton 1297 LI, Wetheton 1324 LI, 1332 LS, 1346 FA, 
etc., Weton 1341 IN, etc. ; Whiteton 1206 LPR. O.E. widig " willow " and tun. 
There are still some fine specimens of the willow-tree in the village. 
Mythop (in Weeton) : Midehope DB, Mithop 1212 LI, 1249 IPM, Mithop, Methop 
1286 IPM. Cf. Meathop, Wml. ( : Midhop a 1190, Mithehop c 1200 CC, Midhopp 
1254 LI) and Middop, Yks. ( : Mithope DB). Mythop stands on a slight elevation 
(c 50ft. above sea-level) surrounded by low-lying country ; to the W. the level 
is only 19ft. The second el. is O.E. hop " a piece of enclosed land, e.g., in the 
midst of fens " (NED). The first el. would seem to have been originally O.E. 
mid " middle," but Scand. midr seems to have replaced it, as it has in Meathop, 

Preese : Pres DB, Frees c 1200 CC, 1243 LI, 1259 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Prese 
c 1200 CC, de Prehes 1276 LAR, de Preses 1246 LAR. I derive the name from the 
Brit, word found in Welsh prys " covert, brushwood," pres " brushwood, fuel," 
Corn, pres " meadow " (common in place-names). The same name is Prees, 
Salop : Pres DB, 1284 FA, Prees 1316 FA, etc. The long vowel is due to the Brit. 
lengthening in monosyllables (Pedersen 203fL). Sephton derives Preese from 
the Celtic word. 

Swarbrick Hall (in Preese) : Swarte-, Suartebrec 1249 IPM, Swartebrecke 1286 
IPM, de Swart(e)brek 1332 LS ; now [swa'brik]. The first el. is more probably 
a pers. n., O.E. Swart, Swarta (from O.N. Svartr, Svarti, Bjorkman), than the 
adj. O.E. sweart, O.N. svartr. Cf. Mowbrick. The second el. is O.N. brekka 
" slope." Swarbrick Hall stands at a small hill reaching about 100ft. above 
sea-level, the surrounding country being lower. 


14. Greenhalgh with Thistleton (E. of Blackpool). 

Greenhalgh (the S. part ; h.) : Greneholf DB, Grenhole 1212 LI, 1216 ChR, 
1292 PW, Grenole 1215 CO, 1249 IPM, 1270 LAR, etc., Grenol 1249 LI, 1394 LF, 
Grenolf 1327 LS, Grenoll 1332 LS, Grenehalgh 1501 CC ; now [grrna]. The 
name means " the green hollow," the second el. being O.E. Tiolh sb. " hol- 
low " ; cf. Scotch howe " hollow place or depression." Greenhalgh h. is on 
the edge of a shallow depression in the ground. 

Corner Bow or Cornoe (in Greenhalgh ; h.) : Cornege 1189 Ch, de Cornai 1216 
ChR, de Cornay 1215 CC, Gorney c 1230 CC, de Corney 1246 LAR, Cornay 1292 
PW ; Corneraw 1501 CC, Corneyrow 1553 LF ; now [ko'na ro*]. The original 
name was Corney, to which was added raw, row " a number of houses standing 
in a line." Corney apparently means " corn island," i.e., the island where corn 
was grown. But it is also possible Corn- represents O.E. corn, a sideform of 
cran " crane " (cf. Cornbrook, p. 27). Corney stands in a bend of Thistleton 
Brook, which here makes a right angle ; this may have caused the place to be 
described as an " island." But O.E. eg was also used in the sense " land on a 
river " or the like. 

Esprick (h.) : Eskebrec c 1210 CC, Escebrec 1249 IPM, de Askebrek 1332 LS. 
O.N. Eskibrekka " ash slope." Esprick stands on a slope. Ashtrees are still 
common in the hamlet. 

Thistleton (the N. part ; h.) : Thistilton 1212 LI, Thistelton 1219 LF, 1286 IPM, 
1332 LS, Thistleton 1249 IPM. " The tun where thistles grow." 

15. Little Eccleston with Larbrick (N.E. of Blackpool ; on the Wyre). 

Little Eccleston (h.) : Eglestun DB, Eccliston 1212 LI, Parua Eccliston 1261 
LAR, 1332 LS, Little Eccleston 1331, 1369 LF. " Church town," Brit. *ecles 
" church," see p. 37. Li. Eccleston adjoins Great Eccleston in St. Michael's, 
of which it was no doubt originally a part. 

Larbrick (W. of Little Eccleston) : Lairbrec 1212 LI, Leyrbrec a 1213 CC, de 
Lairebrech 1246 LAR, Layrbrek 1332 LS. See further Lindkvist. " Clay slope " 
(O.N. leir " clay " and brekka " slope "). Larbrick stands a little way S. of the 
Wyre at an altitude of 65ft. The ground slopes away to the Wyre. The soil 
is clayey (VHL VII. 181). 

16. Singleton, Gt. and Li. (N.E. of Blackpool ; S. of the Wyre) : Singletun DB, 
Synglentona 1094 Ch, Syngelton c 1190 Ch, Singelton 1177 LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 
LAR, etc. ; Singilton a 1213 CC, 1245 IPM ; de Sengelton 1206 LC 385, Sengleton 
1330 LC 471, etc. ; Schingeltona 1169f. LPR, Schingelton 1172, 1182 LPR, de 
Shingelton, de Shyngelton 1246 LAR, Shingelton 1362 OR ; Singelton (magna 
cum parua) 1327, 1332 LS, Little Syngelton 1303 LF. Singleton Grange : Singel- 
ton Grange 1297 LI. 

The remarkable variation in the early forms corresponds exactly to that in 
the early forms of shingle sb. 1 "a thin piece of wood used as a house- tile " : 
shyngle, schyngle, shyngel 1300, etc. (scincle c 1200), singel, single 1330, etc., 
schengle, shengyll 16 cent. (NED), to some extent also with those of shingle 
sb. 2 " small roundish stones " : chingle, shingle 16 cent. (NED). Chingford, 
Ess. ( : Cingefort DB, Chinggeford 1303 FA, Shingelford 1346 FA) seems to 
contain this latter word. Singleton more probably contains the former shingle. 
The same name seems to be Singleton, Suss., correctly explained by Johnston, 


who also adduces Singleborough in Bucks. (Sincleberia DB, Cincleberge 1262 
IPM ; cf. scincle c 1200 NED). If this is correct, shingle " house-tile " must 
be an O.E. adaptation of Lat. scindula. The variation between single and shingle 
must be due to different substitutions for Lat. sc- ; -gl- for Lat. -did- is remark- 
able. Singleton would thus seem to mean " the tun with shingled roof(s) " ; cf. 
Chingle Hall, pp. 147, 149. 

Mains (manor-house in Li. Singleton) : Maynes 1594 Poulton R. Cf. mains 
sb. 2 (< domain) " the farm attached to a mansion, a home farm " (1533ff. NED). 
Newbigging (now Singleton Grange) : Neubigging 1215 LPR, 1226 LI, 1216 
CO, Newebigging 1215 C1R. Bigging " building " (1300, etc.) is a derivative 
of big vb. " to build ; to dwell " from O.N. byggia. 

17. Hambleton (S.E. of Fleetwood, on the W. bank of the Wyre ; v.) : Hameltune 
DB, Hamelton 1177, 1201, 1206 LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LF, 1332 LS, etc. The first 
el. is no doubt a pers. n. O.E. *Hamela or the like (Wyld) ; cf . Hama and Hemele. 
The name Hambleton is found in Yks. (Hameltun DB), Leic., Line., etc. 
Sower Carr : Sawerker 1622 RW 56. O.N. saurr " mud," etc., and kiarr 
" marsh." 


The S.W. part of the hundred ; on the Ribble. 

Lytham (township, town) : Lidun DB, Lythum 1189-94 Ch (in ChR 1336), 
1300 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Lithum 1201 LPR, 1212 LI, Lethum 1341 IN, 1506 LF, 
Lethom 1494 Ind II, Lethum 1577 Saxton ; now [lifom, le&amj. This must be 
O.E. hlidum " at the slopes " from O.E. hlift. The name seems to refer to the 
slight slope above the Ribble. There is hardly any point in the township higher 
than c 25ft. Most of the district was formerly mossland. 

Eastham (N.E. of Lytham town) : Estholme, Estholmker c 1190 Ch (in ChR 1336). 
" The eastern holm." The place stands on very low ground ; to the E. close by 
is a slight elevation, which was no doubt formerly a holm or island in the moss. 
Kilgrimol (Cimiterium de K.) c 1190 Ch (in ChR 1336), Kylgremosse 1531 LP 1. 210. 
The cemetery by the 16th cent, had been worn into the sea (VHL VII. 216). 
The place is now in St. Annes. The elements of the name are apparently 
Kelgrim as in Kellamergh and hoi " hollow." 


A narrow strip of land along the sea. 
1. Layton with Warbreck, now called Blackpool. 

Layton, Gt. and Li. (villages) : Latun DB, Latona c 1140, Lattuna 1147, Latona 
1155 Ch, Laton 1236, 1297 LI, 1285 ChR, 1332 LS, etc., magna Laton 1275 LC 
380, de Parua Latun 1284 LAR, Great, Little Laton 1340 LF, parua Laton 13 cent. 
WhC 423 ; Lathun, Lathon 13 cent. CC. The first el. I take to be O.E. lad " water- 
course, channel." As regards the long vowel before t from dt cf. Huyton p. 113. 
There are small water-courses in Layton. Another possibility is that the first el. 
is O.N. Id " water along the shore," Norw. dial, laa " peat-water," cf. M.H.G. 
Id " pool, peaty water," etc. Cf. Blackpool infra. Lathun (Lathon) CC is no 
doubt due to association with La thorn De. 


Warbreck : Wardebrec c 1140, Wardebrecca 1147, Wardebrech 1155 Ch, Warthe- 
brek 1324 LI, 1332 LS, etc. " Beacon hill "; from O.N. vardi, varda " beacon " 
and brekka " slope." Warbreck stands on a ridge of 100 ft., on which is also a 
place called Knowle (O.E. cnoll " knoll "). 

Blackpool town ( : Blacke Pull 1661 RW 14) took its name from " a peaty- 
coloured pool of water " (VHL VII. 242), called Put 1252-68 CO 157 ; cf. del 
Pull 1332 LS (Layton). 

Bispham or Layton Hawes : Homves, Howes inter Lithum et Laton 13 cent. CO, 
the Hawes 1531 DL. The plural of how from O.N. haugr " hill." 
2. Bispham with Norbreck (N. of Blackpool). 

Bispham, Gr. and Li. (hamlets) : Biscopham DB, c 1130, 1147 Ch, 1196 LF, 
Bischopeham 1094 Ch, Biscopeham c 1140 ib., Bischopham 1155, c 1190 ib., 
Biscopheyma 1216 Ind, Bisbhaym c 1270 CC, Bispeham 1327 LS, Bispham 1332 
LS, 1340 LF, etc., Byspham in ye Fyle 1577 Saxton. O.E. Biscopham " the 
bishop's ham." The forms with heym, due to Scand. influence, are very rare. 
There is no reason with Lindkvist p. 60 to look upon the name as Scand. and 
derive the first el. from O.N. biskop. It is doubtful if the pronunciation sk is 
evidenced ; with Biscopham in DB, etc., may be compared Biscopestone, Suss., 
Som., etc., in DB. For the development of Biscop- to Bisp- cf. Bispestone, 
Staffs. Biscomb (Bardsley) is probably a different name. 

Norbreck (h.) : Norhicbiec 1241 LF, Northbrek 1267 LAR, 1327, 1332 LS, etc. 
" The northern slope " or " hill " (O.N. brekka). The place is on the slope of a 
small hill N. of Gt. Bispham. 


A district E. and N. of Blackpool, W. of the Wyre. The surface is low and 
mostly level. 

1. Marton (S.E. of Blackpool) : Meretun VR,,Mertona 1176 LPR, Mereton 1177 'ff. 
LPR, 1212 LI, Merton 1286 IPM, 1332 LS, etc., Mareton 1183f. LPR, Marton 
1249 IPM, etc., Great, Little Marton 1297 LI, etc., Merton Magna 1327 LS. 
Marton is named from Marton Mere, now reduced considerably in size, so that 
the hamlets of Gt. and Li. Marton stand at some distance from it. The first el. 
is O.E. mere " lake." 

Linholm is sometimes mentioned together with Marton in early documents : 
Lynholm, Lynolm 1249 IPM, Lenholm 1286 IPM, de Lynholm 1332 LS. " Flax 
holme " (O.E., O.N. Im " flax "). 

Peel : Pile 1593 Poulton R. Peel " a palisade ; a small tower " (<A.F. pel). 
Revoe : Revoe 1595 Poulton R, 1672 RW 225. Second el. apparently O.N. 
haugr " hill." 

2. Hardhorn with Newton (E. of Blackpool). 

Staining (h.) : Staininghe DB, Stenig 1208 Rot. Obi. 425, Stanynggas, Steyninges 
1211-40 WhC 41 9f., Staininges, Stayninges, Staining, de Staning 1246 LAR, 
Staynyng Grange 1297 LI, Staynynge 1312 LI. 

This is no doubt an old name in -ingas, derived from a pers. name or some other 
word. The base seems to be a Scand. word, but I am inclined to believe that 
Staining is rather a Scand. adaptation of an O.E. Stdningas or Stceningas ; cf. 


Steyning, Suss. : Stceningum 880, Staninges DB, but Steininges 1278, etc. 
(Roberts). The form Stanynggas, which looks as if it had been taken out of some 
O.E. deed, to some extent corroborates this. Stan- is not with certainty evidenced 
in O.E. pers. names. But the corresponding Stein- is common in O.H.G. and 
Scand. names ; it is therefore probable that the element was once used by the 
Anglo-Saxons. Derivation from *Stdn pers. n. seems to me most probable, but 
stdn " stone " or a place-name Stan may also be the base. Staining is an old 
manor ; in DB it is assessed at no less than six ploughlands. Hardhorn and 
Newton are not mentioned until fairly late. 

Hardhorn (h.) : Hordern 1298 WhC 439, 1324 LI, 1327 LS, Hordorn 1332 LS. 
O.E. hordern " store-house, store-room." Cf. Hordern, p. 48. Hardhorn must 
have been a storehouse belonging to the lords of Staining or to Whalley Abbey. 
Newton (h.) : Neuton 1298 WhC 439, 1327 LS, Nuton 1332 LS. 
Todderstaffe : de Taldrestath 1332 LS, Talderstath 1526, Talderstafe 1524 DL, 
Toderstaffe 1597 Poulton R. The forms allow of no definite etymology. Todder- 
staffe stands on a brook ; the second el. may be O.N. stpfi " landing-place." 

3. Poulton (N.E. of Blackpool ; with Great Poulton v., Little Poulton h.) : 
PoUun DB, Pultona 1094, c 1190 Ch, 1216 Ind, Pulton 1196 LF 5 1246 LAR, 
1332 LS, etc., Magna, Parva Pulton LC 400, Kirkepulton 1330 LF. " The tun 
at the pool." Poulton township lies between two brooks, which join to form the 
brook called Skippool. I suppose Poulton was named from Skippool, which see. 
Compley : Comptley 1600, Conntley 1605, 1607 Poulton R. An earlier form 
is very likely Cantelawe LC 403. If so, the name seems to go back to O.E. 
Cantan hldw " the hill of Canta." High Compley is on a slight hill. 

4. Carleton (N.E. of Blackpool ; Gt. and Li. Carleton, hamlets) : Carlentun 
DB, Carlton a 1190 CC, Karlton 1243 LI, Karleton 1256 LF, Carleton 1327, 1332 
LS, etc. ; parva Carlton c 1200 CC, Magna Carlton c 1260 ib. Carleton and Carlton 
are common names in Scand. England ; examples are found as far S. as Cambr. and 
Beds. I take it that the first el. is karla the gen. pi. of O.N. karl " a man, a hus- 
bandman," etc. Skeat explains Carlton, SufL so, while Bjorkman, Wyld, 
Sephton take the first el. to be a pers. n. (O.N. Karl, -i}. The name is a Scand. 
counterpart of Charlton, etc. (see Chorlton, p. 32). To some extent Carleton 
may be a Scand. adaptation of O.E. Ceorlatun. 

Hayholme : Hayholm c 1270 CC, de Haiholm 1332 LS, hayome 1594 Poulton R. 

O.E. heg or O.N. hey " hay " and O.N. holmr " island," etc. 

Norcross (Great Carleton) : Northcros c 1200 CC, Nortcros c 1250 CC, de Northe- 

crosse 1285 LAR. The " north cross." 

Riscar : Rysecarre 1598 Poulton R. Probably O.N. hris " brushwood " (or 

O.E. hris) and kiarr " bog," etc. 

5. Thornton (Gt. and Li., N. of Blackpool, between the Wyre and the sea ; v.) : 
Torentun DB, Torrenton 1226 LI, Thorneton 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Thorinton 
1258 IPM, Thornton 1275 LC, 1297 LI, etc. First el. O.E. porn " thorn." 
Burn or Bourn Hall (N. of Gt. Thornton) : Brune DB, 1246 LAR, Brunne 1204 
LPR, 1283 LF, Brone 1324 LI, de Brun 1332 LS ; Brome 1200 LPR, de Brume 
LC 417. O.E. brunna, an older form of burna " brook " ; cf. Burnley in Bl. 
There are two or three small brooks in the neighbourhood. Of course, the place 
may have been named after a spring. 


The Holmes (near Gt. Thornton vil.) : le Holmes 1386 CR 358, Holmes 1489 
PatR, 1525 DL. O.N. holmr " island," etc. 

Limebrest (S. of Gt.Thornton) : theLymebreste 1604 Poulton R. Etymology obscure.f 
Ritherham, now Cleveleys (on the sea) : Rotherholme 1571 DL, Ridthrome 
1588 RW 5, Rytherome 1596 Poulton R. O.E. hryfor " ox " and holm " island." 
Bossall (the headland between the Wyre and the sea with Fleetwood 1 town at 
the N. end) : Rushale DB, Rossall 1212 LI, Rossale (pastura) 1216, 1221 C1R, 
(haya de) Roshal 1222 C1R, Roshale 1228 LF, 1292 ChR, Russal, Rossale 1292 
PW, Rosso hall 1577 Saxton. The ground is low and level. 

The second el. of the name is perhaps O.E. halh " haugh." The first el. 
is supposed by Wyld to be O.E. hros " horse," but the O.E. form is regularly 
hors, and it is doubtful if O.E. hros existed. O.N. hross " horse " is well evidenced. 
If the first el. is hross, however, the second el. should rather be identified with 
O.N. hali " tail," which is found in Norw. place-names to denote a long and 
narrow strip of land or a projecting ridge. Also in Iceland hali is used, e.g., 
in the name Refshali " fox's tail." Rossall might mean " horse's tail " or perhaps 
" the tongue of land used for a horse-pasture." As a matter of fact, Rossall 
has mainly been used as a pasture-ground. On the other hand the spellings 
Rushale, Russall in early sources are noteworthy. Possibly they indicate that 
o was long. Of. Gusansarghe DB, now Goosnargh. If so, Ros- may be identified 
with Welsh rhos (cf. Roose in Furness infra). This word originally meant " pro- 
montory," a sense still preserved in Irish, and possibly preserved in such names of 
promontories in Wales as Rhos-on-Sea, Penrhos Point, and Rhoscolyn Head (near 
Holyhead). If the first el. is the Brit, word, the second is no doubt O.E. halh. 
Stanah (on the Wyre, opposite to Staynall) : Staynole ultra Wyr CC 136, Staynolf 
1324 LI. Stanah and Staynall must once have formed a whole, and it is hardly 
possible in each case to establish to which of the two early quotations refer. 
Of early forms the following may be quoted without an attempt at exact identifica- 
tion: Steinola 1177 LPR, Stanhol 1201 LPR, Stainhol, Steinhol 1226 LI, Steyn- 
holf 1249 LI, Steynhole 1265 IPM. The second el. is clearly O.E. holh or O.N. 
hoi " hollow, hole," probably in the sense " a hollow in the ground." Staynall 
stands at the edge of a depression in the ground. The first el. is apparently 
O.N. steinn " stone " or Steinn pers. n. Again, of course, an O.E. name in Stan- 
may have been modified by Scandinavians ; if so, the first el. is no doubt O.E. 
stdn " stone." 

Trunnah (near Gt. Thornton) : de Truno 1271 CC, 1287 LC, Turnoll 1525 DL, 
Trunnall 1593, Truno 1600 Poulton R. Etymology obscure. The second el. 
appears to be O.E. hoh (or O.N. haugr). The place stands at a slight rounded 
elevation. The only suggestion I can make as regards the first el. is that it may 
go back to an O.E. *trun or the like, related to O.E. trendan " to roll," trinde 
" round lump, ball," Engl. trundle, O.Fris. trind, trund " round," etc. ; cf. 
NED s.v. trend vb., Falk and Torp s.v. trind, Torp-Fick, p. 170. The base is 
found without d in O.H.G. trennila " ball," M.H.G. trinnen, trennen. The O.E. 
*trun might be an adj. meaning " round " or a noun meaning " a lump " or some- 
thing like that. 

1 Named from Sir Peter H. Fleetwood ; the town dates from the earlier half of the 19th 
century (VHL VII. 237). 



A district E. of Fleetwood and the lower Wyre. 

1. Stalmine with Staynall. 

Staynall (on the Wyre ; h.) : Stay note (citra Wir) a 1190 CC, Stainold, Stainhole 
a 1220 FC II., Steinole 1206-35 FC II. (orig.), Staynoll 1332 LS, Steynolff 1520 LF. 
See Stanah, p. 158. 

Stalmin[e] (N.E. of Staynall, h.) : Stalmine DB, Stalmin 1206 LPR, 1236-46 
FC II. 237 (orig.), etc. ; Stalmyn 1262 LF, 1297 LI, etc., Stalmynne 1332 LS, 
Staylmyn 1443 LF ; Sto'min Waugh. 

The second el. of the name is obviously O.N. mynni " mouth of a river." 
The first el. seems to be O.E. stall (steall) " pool " (cf. Rawtenstall). But we 
expect as the first el. a word meaning a stream ; cf. Airmyn, Yks., situated 
at the point where the Aire falls into the Ouse. Stalmine does not stand at the 
junction of two streams, but near a very slowly moving stream. The following 
seems to me the most plausible explanation of the name. The el. stall here 
means " a stream " ; stell in dialects means not only " a pool," but also " a 
large open drain, a brook, a small running stream " (cf . EDD). The same sense- 
development from " pool " to " stream " is seen in pool (p. 15). Stalmine is 
now more than a mile E. of the place where the brook falls into the Wyre. But 
it is quite possible that at one time the course of that river was more easterly 
than it is now ; it seems very plausible that Staynall and Stanah were once 
on the same side of the Wyre, viz., on the W. bank. If so, Stalmine would have 
been a good deal nearer the mouth of the stream than it is now, especially at 
high water. Of course, the original Stalmine vil. may have been farther W. 
than the present one. 

Corcas Lane (in the N.W. part of Stalmine) preserves an interesting old name : 
Corchole, Corchola a 1220 FC II., Corchole a 1235 ib. ; Corkea Hill 1677 Stalmine 
R. This is probably the Ir. pers. n. Core or O.N. korki " oats " (from Ir. coirce) 
and O.E. holh or O.N. hoi " a hollow." 

2. PreesaU with HackinsaU (N. of Stalmine with Staynall). 

Preesall (v.). Three types of the name may be distinguished : (a) Pressouede DB, 
Preshoued c 1190 Ch (PatR 15 R II.), Preshoueth a 1248, Presoueth a 1265, 
Preshout c 1265 CC, Preshefd (written -hesd) 1256 Ind. ; (6) Pressoure 1094, 
c 1190 Ch, Preshouere c 1190 Ch, Presoura 1169 LPR, Pressora 1177 ib., Presoure 
1202 ib. ; (c) Preshou c 1190 Ch, 1200 CC, 1246 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Presho 1199 
LF, 1261 IPM, Preeshou 1355 LF, Preeshowe 1327 LS, Priso 1590 Burghley. 

The surface of the township is low and flat, but Preesall vil. stands on a 
short ridge which falls away steeply to the N. and is very conspicuous ; it is 
marked as a beacon hill in Burghley's Map 1590. The first el. of the name is no 
doubt identical with Preese p. 153. The old British name of the district was 
probably Pres. The second el. is in the earliest instances (type a) O.N. hofud, 
here used in the sense " a steep ridge." Type c seems to contain O.N. haugr 
" hill," which supplanted the original second el., because hpfud at an early date 
was forgotten in the living language. Type b seems to contain O.E. ofer 
" shore." As Preesall stands near the bank of the Wyre, Presouer is a natural 
popular etymology for Pres(h)oueth. 


Parrox Hall (estate) : Parrock hey 1456 VHL VII. 258. The name seems to 
contain O.E. parroc " enclosure." 

Hackinsall (opposite to Fleetwood) : Hacunesho c 1190 Ch, 1221 C1R, 1246 LAR, 
1262 IPM, Akenesho 1202 LPR, de Hacuneshou 1246 LAR, Hacunshou a 1246 
CO, Hakenesho 1285 LAR, Hacounshou 1332 LS, Haconeshou 1357 LF ; cf. Wyld 
and Lindkvist, p. 181. 

The first el. is the O.N. pers. n. Hdkon. The second in the earliest quotations 
would seem to be O.E. hoh " projecting ridge," etc., whereas the later ones 
point to O.N. haugr. I believe, with Lindkvist, that the name originally contained 
O.N. haugr. Hackinsall stands on a slight elevation in a low and level district. 
Knott End (h.) : Hacunshou Cnote c 1265 CO. M.E. knot " a hill " ; cf. p. 9. 
There is a slight hill close to the hamlet. 

Lickow : (Campus de) Licol c 1250 CO, Lickol c 1265 ib. The second el. is 
obviously O.E. hol(h] or O.N. hoi, probably in the sense of " a hollow." The first 
el. is doubtful. O.N. lykkia " enclosure " might be suggested. Cf. also Lickle, 
p. 191. Or we might compare O.E. Licepyt 945 BCS 803, Lichepet DB (Lickpits, 
Hants) ; this may contain a word derived from the verb lick. 
3. Pilling Lane (the N.E. district, on the border of Pilling) : the lower end of 
Pyllyn 1583 CC. Clearly " the road to Pilling." 


Michelescherche DB, eccl. Sci Mich' Sup' Wiru c 1195 Ch, eccl. Sci Mich' is 
sup' Wir' 1204 AP, (cap. pertinens) Sancto Micaeli super Wiram 1205 LPR, 
ecclesie beati Michaelis super Wyre 1326 LC 453, Sainct Mihels c 1540 Leland, 
Mighel church 1577 Harr. The church is in Upper Rawcliffe. 

The parish is situated N.W. of Preston on both sides of the Wyre with a 
southern extension on the Woodplumpton Brook. The district is flat and low. 
1. Out Rawcliffe (N. of the Wyre ; v.) : Rodeclif DB, Outroutheclif 1324 LI, 
Outerouthclif 1327 LS, Outrotheclife 1332 ib., Outrauclif 1443 LF. Out, Middle, 
and Upper Rawcliffe are difficult to keep apart when no prefix is added. 
Examples of Rawcliffe : Boutecliue (!) 1206 LPR, Raucheclive 1267 LAR, 
Routhecleve 1286 IPM, Raudeclif c 1540 Leland, the Rawcliffes 1577 Harr. The 
name means " red cliff " (O.N. raudr " red " and O.N. klif " steep hill," or 
O.E. clif" cliff "). The name is fairly common in England, see Lindkvist p. 159. 
The surface of the township is low, but Out Rawcliffe stands between two patches 
of higher land, reaching an elevation of 50ft. Out Rawcliffe is to the W. of 
Upper Rawcliffe, which is higher up the Wyre. 
Middle Rawcliffe : Rodeclif DE, Middle Routheclive 1249 IPM. 
Ashton : ? de Asshton 1332 LS (Preesall). " Ash village " ; cf. p. 29. Ashton 
is presumably an old English village or homestead. 

Liscoe : Liscoe 1677 RW 54. Second el. no doubt O.N. skogr " wood," the first 
being e.g. O.N. hlid " slope." 

Moorham Hill : Early forms not found. The second el. is no doubt holm. The 
place is on a piece of higher land in the old mossland. 

Skitham : Scytholm CC 47. O.N. skitr " dirt " and holmr " island." The place 
stands at a slight elevation surrounded by mossland. 


2. Upper Rawcliffe with Tarnacre (E. of Out Rawcliffe, on both sides of the 

Upper Rawcliffe : Rodedif DB, Uproucheclive 1246 LAR, Hop Routheclive 
c 1250 CO, Uproutheclive c 1275 CO, Vprotheclife 1332 LS, Uprauclyf 1369 LF. 
Upper Rawcliffe was no doubt originally part of Out Rawcliffe, as the name can 
hardly be explained otherwise ; the ground is low and level. 
Tarnacre (the N.E. part) : Tranaker c 1210 CO, 1292 PW, de Tranaker 1246 LAR, 
Tranacre 1323 LF ; Trenaker c 1275 CC, Trenakyr 1451, Trenakir 1461 CC. 
The second el. is O.N. akr or O.E. cecer ; the first O.N. trani (trana) " crane " 
or the O.N. pers. n. Trani derived from it. As regards the interchange of e and a 
we may compare Trenholme, Yks. (Traneholm 1276 HR), Tranwell, Nhb. 
(Trennewell 1268, Trenwell 1271 IPM, Tranewell 1289 ib., Trenwell, Tranewell 
1324 ib.). The form with e may represent an O.N. form with i-mutation ; cf. 
NoB VIII. 94ff. 

3. Great Eccleston (S. of the Wyre, v.) : Eglestun DB, Eccliston 1212, 1243 
LI, Great Ecleston 1285 LF, Great Eccleston 1296 LF, Magna Eccleston 1346 FA, 
Eccliston Magna 1332 LS. Cf. p. 37. There seems to be no record of an old 
church in Eccleston. 

Copp (h.): O.E. copp " top." Copp stands on a small conspicuous hill (78ft.), 

4. Elswick (S. of Eccleston, v.) : Edeksuuic DB, Hedthelsiwic c 1160 Ch 374, 
Ethelswic, Etleswhic 1202 LF, de Etheliswyc, de Ethereswyk 1246 LAR, Etheleswyk 
1298 LF, etc., Ethelleswyk 1311 IPM, Etheliswike 1332 LS. The form of c 1160 
may point to O.E. Edelsige as the first el. ; anyhow it is a pers. n. in Edel-. 
The second is O.E. wlc " dwelling," etc. 

5. Inskip with Sowerby (S. of the Wyre.. S.E. of Gt. Eccleston). 

Sowerby (the E. part) : Sorbi DB, Soureby 1246 LAR, 1324 LI, Sourly 1332 LS, 
1340 LF, etc. ; now [sausrbi]. O.N. Saurbyr from saurr " mud, dirt " and byr. 
Saurboer is a common name in Iceland and Norway, and the corresponding name 
is found in Sweden ; it denotes a village or farm standing on marshy soil. The 
name is common also in England ; see Lindkvist p. 162f. The surface of the 
township is low and level. Sourelandes in Sowerby are mentioned 1230-68 
CC 244. 

Inskip (the S.W. part ; v.) : Inscip DB, Hinskipe, Inscype 1246 LAR, de 
Inscipk, Inschip c 1260 CC, Insckyp 1285 LF, Inskip 1330 LF, 1332 LS, etc., 
Inskyp 1341 IN. This is a very curious name. The first el. may be Celt inis 
" island " (cf. Ince, p. 103). Inskip stands on a plateau some 50ft. above sea- 
level ; the surrounding country is low. The second el. of the name is doubtful. 
Two names that show a certain resemblance to Inskip may be mentioned here : 
Minskip, Yks. (Minescip DB) and Brennskip' (Bronnskip') in Denbigh 1334 
Survey of Denbigh. The first el. of Minskip might be identical with Welsh mynydd 
" hill " ; the place is on the slope of a slight hill. The first el. of Brennskip is, I 
presume, Welsh bryn "hill." 

6. Woodplumpton (on both sides of Woodplumpton Brook ; v.) : Pluntun DB, 
Plumpton 1256 LF, Plumton 1287 Ind, Wodeplumpton 1327, 1332 LS, 1369 LF, 
etc. ; cf. Plympton brooke, the Plime or Plimton water 1577 Harr. O.E. plum- 
tun, see Fieldplumpton p. 151. 

Bartle (Higher and Lower, S. of Woodplumpton) : Bartayl (moor) 1256 LF, 


Nezerbartailesheye 1287 Ind, de Bartaill 1323, 1328 LF. The second el. is the 
word tail (O.E. tcBgl) in the sense " a piece or slip of irregularly bounded land 
jutting out from a larger piece " (found from 1472 in Scotland, NED). Higher 
and Lower Bartle, and Bartle Hall stand a good way apart. Similarly O.N. 
hali " tail " is used in Norw. place-names. The first el. is perhaps O.E. bere 
(with vowel as in barley, Barton) or possibly bare adj. or even bar " boar." 
Catforth (on Woodplumpton Brook) : de Catford 1332 LS, Catforthe 1514 DL, 
Gatford hall 1577 Saxton. Probably " cat ford." 

Eaves : Eves 1538 DL, the Eaves 1628 RW 63. O.E. efes, perhaps in the sense 
" edge of a wood." 

Lewth : Lewthe 1622 RW 63. The name is identical with dial, lewth " shelter ; 
a sheltered place " (EDD) from O.E. hleowp " shelter, protection." 


This parish occupies a large district on both sides of the Wyre and its tribu- 
taries the Calder and the Brock, besides Pilling township on the Lune estuary. 
The surface varies a good deal. The W. part is low and level, partly mossland, 
while the E. part is on the slope of the fells (Bleasdale Moor, etc.). 

1. Bilsborrow (S. of Garstang and the Brock) : Billesbure 1187ff. LPR, Billisburg 
c 1200 CO, Bilksburgh 1212 LI, 1303 LF, 1332 LS, etc., Billesburg 1226 LI, 
1259 LAR, Ballisburg' 1245 IPM, Billisburgh 1297 LI, Bilsborough 1508 LF. 
" The burh of Bil" Bil is an O.E. pers. n., found e.g. in Billesley, Warw. (billes 
Iceh 704-9 BCS 123). 

2. Claughton (S.E. of Garstang) : Clactune DB, Clacton 1185f. LPR, 1208 
LF, etc., Clatton 1246 LAR, Clahton 1252 IPM, Claghton 1285 LAR, 1292 PW, 
1332 LS, etc., Clahgton 1297 LI, Clayghton 1554 DL ; said to be pronounced 
Clighton (Bulmer p. 293). There seem to be two alternatives for the explanation 
of the first el. Either it is the pers. n. Clac (probably from O.N. Klakkr, etc., 
Bjorkman) found in Claxtorp, Yks., Clactorp, Line. DB; or it is O.N. klakkr 
" lump, clot," Swed. dial, klakk also " small hillock," Icel. klakkur ' rock." 
Cf. on this word in Scand. and Engl. names NoB VIII. 89f. At least it seems 
probable that some names in Clac- contain the common noun. Claughton stands 
on the slope of a hill which reaches some 400ft. above sea-level. 

Dandy Birks (N.E. of Claughton Hall, in a high situation). Said to be identical 
with Dounanesherg 1241 CC. This contains Ir. Dundn or Dubdn pers. n. and 
ergh " a shieling." See Scandinavians p. 80. 

Hecham or Heigham : Heyham 1241 CC, Hegham 1292 PW, de Hegham 1332 LS. 
The name seems to contain O.E. heah " high " and hamm " enclosure " or ham 
" homestead." 

3. Catterall (S. of Garstang, in the tongue of land E. of the confluence of the 
Brock and the Wyre ; v.) : Catrehala DB, Caterhale 1212 LI, 1301 LF, Katirhal 
1244 IPM, Caterale, Kateral 1258 IPM, Caterale 1323 LF, Caterhale 1332 LS, 
Caterall 1346 FA, 1387 LF, etc. This name has been identified with a Norw. 
name derived from O.N. Kattarhali, literally " cat's tail " (Wyld, Lindkvist 
p. 186). But nothing in the situation of the place seems to render 
such an etymology plausible, while O.E. halh " haugh " is just what one would 


expect as the second el. ; the surface of the township is low and flat, especially 
along the Calder. But if O.E. halh is the second el., the first is hardly Scandi- 
navian. Names in halh very often have as first el. a pers. name, and very likely 
such is the case with Catterall. An O.E. pers. n. Cater or the like is not evidenced 
but is very likely the base of O.E. Cateringas in Cateringatune Thorpe 560 (now 
Catherington, Hants.). A hamlet in Catterall was called Halecath 1212 LI, 
Halechat 1213-42 CO. This seems to be a place-name Hale (<O.E. halh) with 
a pers. n. Cat placed behind for distinction (from Catterall ?). Cf. Torpkat HR, 
Thorp Cuntasse ib. (now Catthorpe, Countesthorpe, Leic.). 
Landskill (on the slope of Bleasdale Fell) : Longstal (for -seal) 1341 IN, Lanscaile 
1589 DL, Langscayles 1594 DL. " The long scale or hut " (O.N. skali). 
Rowall or Rohall or Roe Farm (at the junction of the Wyre and the Brock) : 
Ruhale c 1200 CC, Rouhale 1251 CC, de Rouhale c 1260 CC, de Routhale c 1265 CC, 
de Rouwale 1293 LI, 1325 LCR, Rowall 1443 LF. Cf. Roall, Yks. : Ruhale 
DB, Rughala 1159, etc. (Moorman). O.E. ruh " rough " and halh " haugh." 
The pronunciation is said to be " Rooa." 

4. Kirkland (S.W. of Garstang) : (mortuo bosco de) KirMund c 1230 CC, 
Kirkelund wood, Kirlundfeldes 1247 IPM, Kirk(e)lund (boscus de K.) c 1280 CC, 
Kirkland 1392 LF. " The church grove " ; lund is O.N. lundr " grove." Garstang 
church is in Kirkland. Churchtown is a hamlet close to the church. 
Humblescough : Humbilschough c 1280 CC. Humblescough is on flat ground. 
No prominent physical features suggest a definite etymology. As the second 
el. is Scand. (O.N. skogr), we seem warranted in deriving also the first from a 
Scand. word. O.N. humli " hop plant " or humla " humble-bee " are both 
plausible. O.Swed., O.Dan. Hum(b)li pers. n. is well evidenced in place-names, 
and O.N. Humli also occurs. 

5. Garstang (town) : Cherestanc DB, Gairstag 1194-99 Ch (orig.), Gresteng 1204 
AP, Geresteg 1199-1212 AP, de Gueyrestang 1206 LC, Geirstang 1216 ChR, 
Gairstang 1247 IPM, 1332 LS, etc., Gayerstang 1246 LF, Gayrstang 1246 LAR, 
1292 LF, etc., Gayrstanges c 1275 CC, Gerstang 1278 LAR, Garstan 1577 Harr. 
Further examples are given by Lindkvist, p. 47, who points out that the same 
name is found in Scotland, viz., Girstenwood : Gairstang 1305 ChR. The second 
el. is clearly O.N. stong " pole." The first el. is identified by Wyld with O.N. 
Geirr pers. n., with O.N. geiri " a triangular piece of land," by Lindkvist. It 
seems improbable that the word stong should twice have been combined with the 
same pers. name. Lindkvist's suggestion seems preferable, though it is curious 
also that a combination of geiri and stong should occur twice. 

6. Barnacre with Bonds (E. of Garstang and the Wyre). 

Bonds (near Garstang). The name is apparently late : Bonds 1667 RW 110. 

This may be elliptical for Bond's place or the like. 

Byrewath or Byerworth (on the Wyre) : Birwath c 1260 CC, Byrwath 1290 LI, 

de Burwath 1341 IN, Byreweth 1501 CC, Byrewarthe 1529 DL ; now [baiawa>]. 

The name probably means " the village ford," the first el. being the gen. (bjdr, 

byjar) of O.N. byr " village," the second O.N. vad " ford." O.E. byre " byre " 

is also possible as the first element. 

Dimples : Dymples 1524 LP I. 115, Dimples 1600 RS XII. The name no doubt 

means " the pools " (O.E. *dympel or *dympla " a pool ") ; cf. Dumplington p. 38. 


In O.M. 1846-51 three ponds are marked in the close neighbourhood of Dimples ; 
traces of these are still to be seen. 

Greenhalgh Castle : Grenolf 1347 VHL VII. 315, Grenehaugh c 1540 Leland, 
Grenno cast. 1577 Saxton ; now [grrna]. Cf. Greenhalgh p. 154. The castle 
ruin is on a small hillock, but Greenhalgh Castle Farm is in a slight depression 
in the ground. 

Howath or Howarth (on the Calder) : Hawath, Houwat 1258 IPM, Howath c 1260 
CO, Houwath (pons) c 1280 CC, de Howath 1323 LI, Haweth 1443 LF, Hawith 
1468 LF ; now [haua)>]. The name means the " ford by the hillock " (O.N. 
haugr " hill " and vaft " ford "). The place stands close to Brunahill, which is 
on a slight hill. Lindkvist's suggestion " high ford " (O.N. hor " high " and vad) 
does not suit the topography of the place. 

Lingart (h.) : de Lingarth 1246 LI, de Lingard c 1260 CC, Lyngard 1451, 1461 CC. 
" Flax enclosure," O.N. or O.E. lln " flax " and O.N. gardr " enclosure." 
Barnacre (the larger N.E. part) : Berneacre 1517, Bernacre 1521 DL. Perhaps 
" barn-acre " (O.E. bern " barn " and cecer). Or the first el. might be O.N. 
Biarni pers. n. ; cf. the next name. 

Stirzacre : de Stirsacre 1323 ~LF,de Steresacre 1341 IN. First el. the O.N. ipeis.n.Styrr. 
Sullam Side (on a hill-slope to the E.) : de Solam 1246 LAR. Etymology doubt- 
ful. Sullom Hill reaches 525ft. We might think of O.E. Solan hamm (or Mm), 
if Sola had o. 

Woodacre : Wadacre 1246 LAR, de Wedacre 1245-8 LC, 1325 LCR, de Wedakre 
1293 LI, Wedacre 1363 CC, Weddaker 1521, Wodeacre 1517 DL, Waddiker 
1577 Saxton. O.E. weod " weed " and cecer. Woodacre is due to popular 

7. Nateby (W. of Garstang ; h.) : Nateby, Natebi 1204 LF, parva Nateby 1320 CC, 
de Nateby c 1260 CC, 1292 LF, 1293 LI. As the second el. is O.N. byr " village," 
etc., it is probable that also the first is of Scand. origin. A pers. n. seems most 
plausible, and there are apparently traces of an 0. Scand. Nate ; see Lindroth, 
Ortnamnen pa -rum p. 55. This is probably the first el. of some other names in 
Nate-, as Nateby, Wml., but in some cases O.N. nata " nettle " is very likely 
to be assumed, as in Natland ; cf. Norw. Notland, derived from Notuland, i.e., 
" nettle-land " NG XI. 124. Several E. names in Nate- are adduced and dis- 
cussed, without a definite result, by Lindkvist p. 202. 

8. Winmarleigh (N.W. of Garstang) : Wunemerleye a 1200 CC, Wynemerislega, 
Wynermerisle 1212 BF, Winmerleie c 1220 CC, de Wymmerle 1246 LAR, Wynmer- 
legh 1343 LF, Wimmerlaw c 1540 Leland ; now [win ma'li]. O.E. Winemcer 
pers. n. and leah. 

9. Nether Wyresdale (between the Wyre and Grizedale Brook) : Wiresdale 
1190 CC, Wyresdale 1319 LF, 1327 CC, etc., Nether Weiresdale 1517 DL, Laygher 
Wyresdale 1533 LP II. 28. " The valley of the Wyre." 

Dolphinholme : Dolphineholme 1591 DL, Dolphinhoulme 1621 Cockerham R. 
The elements are Dolfin pers. n. (perhaps Scand.) and O.N. holmr " island," etc. 
Scorton (v.) : Scourton c 1550 DL, Skurton 1563 RW 73 ; now [sko'tn]. Close 
to the church is a deep ravine. It seems plausible to derive the first el. from 
O.N. skor " a rift in a rock or precipice," skura " a score, trench." In Sweden 
Skuru occurs as the name of a deep ravine in Smaland. 


10. Cabus (N. of Garstang) : de Kaibal 1200-10 FC II. 231 (orig.), de Caybel 1246 
LAR, Cayball 1320 CO, de Kaybal[les] c 1250 CO, Caboos c 1550 DL ; now 

This is a difficult name. The topography of the place offers little indication. 
The surface is on the whole low, but there are some slight ridges or hillocks ; 
most conspicuous is a long low ridge running from N. to 6. along the Wyre. 
The first el. of the name may be compared with that of Keysoe, Beds. ( : Kaysho 
TN, etc.), Cainhoe, Beds. ( : Cainou, Chainehou DB), Cassio, Herts. ( : Ccegesho 
793 BCS 267), Keyham, Leic. ( : Caiha' DB), Cayton, Yks. ( : Caitune DB, 
Caytona 1155 YCh 76). All these may have as first el. a pers. n. *Cceg or *Ccega. 
If this is right we may assume the same pers. n. as the first el. of Cabus. Cf., 
however, Cayley p. 100. The second el. is an early M.E. word ball or the plural 
of it. I suggest that this is identical with ball " a knoll, a rounded hill " (W. 
Som.) and Engl. ball in the sense " ball of the hand or foot." Cf. Dan. -balle in 
place-names, apparently to be compared with balle in fodballe " ball of the 
foot " (Steenstrup, Indledende Studier, p. 23). The word balle is here used to 
denote slight elevations. The same word I suppose is found in Swinsty Ball, 
the name of a hill in Kirkby Moor (Furness). I take the second el. of Cabus 
to refer to the elevations in the township mentioned. 

Gubberford (in G. Lane, G. Bridge) : de Gobethayt after 1268 CC, Guburthwait, 
Guberthwat 1398 CC, Tobberthwayte 1587 DL, Goberthwayte 1588 DL. The 
early forms are not clear enough to allow of a definite etymology. The second 
el. is O.N. pveit " thwaite." The first is possibly a pers. n. (e.g., O.N. Guftbiprg). 

11. Holleth (detached township N. of Forton) : Holout 1242 CC, Holauth 1320 
CC, Holouth 1364 CC, Holloth 1521 DL. The elements of the name are O.N. or 
O.E. hoi " hole " and ON hpfud" hill." The township consists of a conspicuous 
hill (c 100ft.). On this are found a number of small ponds, marked in the 6-inch 
map. Two of these are in a fairly deep round hollow. I suppose the name means 
" the hill with the deep pool or pools." 

12. Pilling (on the Lune estuary ; v.) : pylin 1194-99 CC 375 (orig.), Pylin 1201 
CC, 1270 LAR, Pelyn 1320 CC ; Mussam de Pilyn c 1280 CC 270 ; now [pilin]. 
The name is no doubt derived from the river-name Pilling. The surface is very 
low, and to a great extent consists of moss-land. 

Eskham is probably " ash holm." 


Bleasdale (E. of Garstang in the hilly country on the upper Calder and Brock) : 
Blesedale 1228 C1R, (forest of) Blesedale 1297 LI, Blestale c 1540 Leland. Two 
possibilities seem to offer themselves for the explanation of the first el. of the 
name. It may be the O.N. pers. n. Bksi, found in Bleasby, Line, and Notts. 
(cf. Bjorkman). Or it may be identical with the place-name Bleaze (Blease), 
found in BJeaze Wood, Lo., Blease Fell, Wml., etc. This name is no doubt 
identical with Norw. Blesa, Blesan, which are thought to belong to Icel. blesi 
" a blaze, a light spot " (Rygh NG II. 235). It is suggested that the names refer to 
some light spot in the vicinity, e.g., on a hill-side ; Norw. blesa actually means 
" a bare spot on a hill-side." Another meaning of the word is found in Swedish 


dial., viz., " an opening between hills." I am inclined to believe that Bleasdale 

contains the Scand. blesi or blesa in one of its senses. A full account of the name 

will be found in NoB. VIII. 85f. 

Admarsh Church : Admarshe (pasture) 1572 DL, Edmarshe chap. 1577 Saxton, 

Edmersey chappell 1577 Harr., Chappell of Admarsham 1650 LC. The forms are 

too late to allow of a certain conclusion. The second el. seems to be O.E. mersc 

" marsh," the first O.E. Eada or a name in Ead-. 

Blindhurst (on the slope of Parlick) : Blyndhirst 1323 LI, 1341 IN, Blyndehurst 

1324 LI. Probably O.E. blind " dark, obscure," and hyrst, " wood." 

Brooks (near Fairsnape) : (vaccary between) Le Brakes 1323 LI, (vaccary) del 

Brakes 1324 ib., Brakes 1341 IN. " The brooks." 

Fairsnape (Higher and Lower, on the slope of Fairsnape Fell) : Fayrsnape 

(vaccary) 1323, 1324 LI, Fairsnap 1341 IN. O.E. foeger or O.N. fagr " fair, 

beautiful," and snape " pasture " p. 17. 

Grizedale (on Grizedale Brook) : Grisedale 1314, Grisdale 1324 LI, Grysedale 

c 1350 LPR. First el. either the pers. n. Gris (O.N. Griss) or more probably 

the common noun grice " pig " (O.N. griss). Grizedale is also the name of a 

brook in Over Wyresdale. 

Hazelhead : Haselheved 1323, 1324 LI, (vaccary) 1341 IN, Haselheued c 1350 LPR. 

Head means " hill." Stated to be now Broadhead. 

Thorpen Lees (lost) : sthorsmelees 1228 C1R, Thorphynislegh 1338 LPR, Thor- 

fleghsyke c 1350 LPR. The elements are the O.N. pers. n. parfinnr and O.E. 

leak " lea." 

Winsnape : Wensnape 1228 C1R, Wanesnape(broke) 1338 LPR. O.N. vcenn 

" beautiful," etc., may be the first el. ; the second is snape " pasture " (cf. p. 17). 


The part of Cockerham par. S. of the Cocker was originally in Amounderness 
hundred. The E. part of the district is undulating, while the W. part is low and 

1. Cleveley (W. of the Wyre) : Cliueleie c 1180 CO, Cliveley c 1270 ib., Kliflegh 
c 1380 CR 349. O.E. clif " cliff," etc., and leak. Elevations of 200ft. are reached 
in the township. 

Shireshead chapel : Shireshead 1577 Saxton, Shireshed 1577 Harr. The name 
means " the upper end of the shire." Shireshead stands near the Cocker, the 
old boundary between Amounderness and Lonsdale. 

2. Forton : Fortune DB, Forton 1212 LI, 1323 LF, etc., Fortun 13 cent. Ind. 
Probably O.E. ford-tun, i.e., " the tun by the ford." In early documents two 
fords are alluded to in connection with Forton, viz., Langwathforde 1250-68 CC 
(O.N. Langavad " the long ford ") and Scamwath (O.N. Skammavad " the short 
ford "), in Scamwathlithe, etc., 1220-40 CC. The township is bounded on the W. 
by the Cocker, on which the original Forton may have stood. Forton Hall is 
on a trib. of the Cocker. 

3. Cockerham (see further p. 170). 

Crimbles : Crimeles DB, Crimblis c 1155 Ch, Crimbles 1207, 1241 LF, le Crymbles 
1320 CC ; Crimell c 1240 CC ; Grimbles 1364 CC ; Crumles 1206 LF, Crumbles 


1212 LI, de Crumbles a 1265 CO. Gt. and Li. Crimbles are both S. of the Cocker, 
but formerly part of Crimbles was N. of the river. 

This name is common, especially as a field-name. Cf. e.g., Crimble (Heap, 
Bury), Crymyll (Worston) 1518 CCR, and see VHL III. 430, IV. 399. Goodall 
mentions several examples of Crimbles from Yks. Crymel (Cornw.) is found 
OR I. 203, Crumble, Suss. HR II. 205. This name must represent a native 
common noun, apparently an O.E. *crymel or the like. This may be a derivative 
of cruma " small piece, scrap," the meaning being " a small piece of land " ; this 
is corroborated by the fact that the name often has the plural form. 1 Similar 
names are : Scrapps (a small piece of land in Aspull) 1501 CC (cf. scrap " a 
small piece "), the Croats, Glo. (cf. M.E. crote " small piece "). For names of 
similar meaning in Sweden see Liden, NoB IV. 106ff. 

Laithwaite : Lathwayt 1320 CC, Laithwatt 1600 Cockerham R. Probably O.N. 
hlada " barn," as alternatively suggested by Lindkvist, and thwaite. 


Lonsdale hundred consists of two distinct parts, Lonsdale S. of the Sands or 
Lonsdale proper, and Lonsdale N. of the Sands, the district W. of the Kent 
estuary and the Winster. The two parts are best dealt with separately. 
Lonsdale at first meant " the Lune valley," but in the 12th cent, began to be 
used of Lonsdale hundred. Early forms of the name : 

Lanesdale DB, (Burtona de) Lanesdala 1130 LPR, Lansdale (Yks.) 1210 
AP, Lonisdale 1150-60 Ch, Lonesdale (Wapentake) 1169 LPR, 1285 Ind, Lones- 
dele (Wapentake) 1169 LPR, Lonesdala 1188, 1199 LPR, Lounesdal 1267 ChR ; 
Landesdale 1220 C1R, Londesdale 1362 OR, Landes-, Lunesdale c 1540 Leland, 
Lansdale, " corrupt for Lunesdale " 1577 Harr. " The valley of the Lune." 

Lonsdale S. of the Sands comprises roughly the valleys of the Lune with its 
tributaries, and of the Keer. The surface is mostly undulating, with level parts 
along the sea and in the river valleys. There is a large fell district in the S.E. 
part, where an altitude of 1,836ft. is attained at Ward's Stone, and a smaller 
one in the N.E., where a height of over 2,000ft. is reached in Leek Fell. 

Names of Rivers, etc. 

Damas Gill (a trib. of the Wyre) : Dameresgile 1228 C1R, Damergill c 1350 LPR. 
The first el. is possibly a compound of O.E. da " doe " and mere " lake." There 
is a tarn (now a reservoir) near the stream. The second el. is O.N. gil " ravine." 
Lune : loin 1156-60 Ch, Lon 1180-4 CC, 1228 C1R, Loon a 1190, 13 cent. CC, 
Lonn c 1190 Ch, Lone 1202 LF, 1246 LAR, etc., Lon' 1252 IPM, le Loon 1342 
LPD II. 162, Loone 1364 CC, 1389 FC II, Lune c 1540 Leland, 1577 Harr., Luni, 
Loni (gen.) 1586 Camden ; now [hrn, liun]. Cf. Lonsdale supra and Lancaster. 

1 In the following passage from the Chartulary of St. John Pontefract, p. 476, crimble is 
clearly used as a common noun: [ego dedi] " duos crimblos in campis deBrettona . . . , unum 
crimble buttat super molendinum . . . , et unum capud unius crimble buttat super dime" 
[Dearne riv.]. 


The early and modern forms point to O.E. Lon, M.E. Lon as the base. Of 
course, we expect the name of such an important river to be British. It has been 
identified with Alone (the name of a Roman station) in Ant. It. (McClure p. 111). 
This identification is not impossible. Alone goes back to Prim. Celt. *Alaun-, 
which would become Brit. *Alon- (> Welsh Alun). If the name was adopted 
very early, the o might still have been preserved. As regards the loss of the 
initial vowel, it is to be remembered that Brit. *Alon no doubt had the chief 
stress on the second syllable. The a, which occurs in early forms of Lonsdale 
and is regular in Lancaster, might be explained as due to O.E. shortening and 
subsequent substitution for o of the open o alternating with a before nasals. 
But the etymology of the name Lune is to some extent bound up with that of 
Lancaster. This name apparently means " the city on the Lune." Now there 
are two O.E. examples of this name, viz., Landc on two coins of the time of 
Harold I. (1035-39) ; cf. Hildebrand, Anglosachsiska mynt, p. 352f. If these 
forms are trustworthy, they seem to point to the first el. of Lancaster having 
been originally O.E. land ; Landc(cester) might mean " the chief fort of the 
country " or the like. In such a form the d would drop out at an early period. 
If this is right, the similarity between the first el. of Lancaster and the name Lune 
must be accidental, but Lan- (Lon-) must at an early period have been associated 
with the name Lune. This might help to explain the form Lanesdale for Lones- 
dale. After all, the O.E. Landc(cester) may be due to popular etymology.! 
Cocker (a trib. of the Lune) : Cocur ? 930 YCh (genuine ?), Cokir c 1155 Ch, 
Coker c 1175 CO, Koker a 1202 CO. Cf. Cockerham and Cockersand p. 170f. 
The same name is found in Cumb., and Cockerton in Durh. (Cocertune Hist. St. 
Cuthbert) was no doubt named from a river Cocker. A lost stream-name in 
Leyl. is Cokerdene c 1225, c 1240 CC, Kokerdene c 1240 PC ; the name may be 
preserved in Cocker Bar 1 (Leyland par.). If Stokes correctly derives Ir. cuar 
" crooked " from *kukros, the name Cocker is easily explained as the fern, form 
of this : *kukrd > Brit. *kokrd. The Lane. Cocker may be aptly described as " the 
winding river." But the etymology of Ir. cuar proposed is open to doubt. Any- 
how, Cocker is probably a Brit. name. We may perhaps compare the Brit, 
pers. names Cocuro, Cocurus in Holder. 

Conder (a trib. of the Lune) : Kondover a 1220 CC, Kondoure 1225-50 CC, Gon- 
dour\ Gondouere 1228 C1R, Candovere 1246 LAR. The name is no doubt British, 
the second el. being Celt. *dubron (Welsh dwfr, etc.) " water." The first el. is 

Lucy Brook (between Aldcliffe and Lancaster) : Lousibrok c 1300 FC II. First 
el. perhaps dial, lousy " sparkling, frothing, foaming " (EDD sub. louse vb.). 
Escowbeck (Caton) : Escouthebec a 1241, Escouthebroc a 1250 CC. The first el. 
is an O.N. place name Eski-hpfud* " ashtree hill." Cf. on hpfud, p. 13. 
Artlebeck : Arkelbec c 1200, c 1245 CC, Arkelbek 13 cent. LC, Hartlebek 1577 
Saxton. O.N. Arnketill, Arnkell pers. n. and beck. 
Ragill Beck (a trib. of Artlebeck) : Rouchgill, -heued, Rauchgill c 1350 LPR. 

1 But Cocker Brook and Cocker Lumb in Oswaldtwistle Bl. do not contain this old stream- 
name. Cocker is evidently identical with the first el. of Cokaside, Cockaisidemos 1208-25, 
Kokasyd 13 cent. DD ; cf. la Thuercokerdiche 1270-80 ib. This may be identical with Cockey, 
p. 53, or a compound of O.E. cocc " cock " and eg " island, water-meadow." 


Rouch- is no doubt for Routh-, i.e., O.N. raudr " red " ; gill is O.N. gil " a ravine." 
Wenning (a trib. of the Lune) : Wennyng c 1170, c 1177 FC II, Wenninga 
1165-77 FC II. 309 (orig.), Wenning(g)a 1189 Cal. Sc. I. 28, Wening a 1255, 
Wenning a 1260 CC, Wennigh a 1268 CC, the Wenny 1577 Harr. ; now [wenin]. 
See the discussion under Wennington p. 181. The name Wenning cannot be a 
derivative of the Celt. adj. *vindo- in Welsh gwyn (fern, gwen) "white," etc. 
(cf. Afon Wen, in Wales), for the water of the river is peaty-brown. 
Hindburn (a trib. of the Wenning) : Hyndborn 1577 Saxton, the Hinburne 1577 
Harr. ; now [hainban]. First el. no doubt O.E. hind " the female of the hart." 
Cf. the same name in Bl. 

Roeburn (a trib. of the Hindburn) : the Rheburne 1577 Harr., Roburn 1577 
Saxton ; now [ro'ban]. Cf. Roeburndale p. 181. The first el. is probably O.E. 
rcegan g. sg. of rcege " roe." As regards the sound development we may compare 
M.E. (northern) bree from O.E. bregan " frighten " (probably in breed All. Poems 
C. 143), dee " to die," kee " key " (O.E. cceg], etc. The change from Re- to Roe- 
is due to influence from the word roe. Second el. O.E. burna " burn." 
Greeta (falls into the Lune near Tunstall) : the Gretey 1577 Harr. ; cf. de Gretagila 
a 1230 CC (Clapham, Yks.). The name is identical with Greta, Cumb. and Yks. 
It goes back to O.N. Griotd (cf. Griotd in Iceland), from griot " stone(s) " and 
a " river." 

Cant Beck (a trib. of the Greeta) : Kant 1202 LF. Perhaps a back-formation 
from Cantsfield ; see this name, p. 183. If not, the name is probably British. 
Keer (falls into Morecambe Bay) : Keere, Here c 1350 LPR, Keri c 1540 Leland ; 
Docker 1577 Saxton, Harr. Possibly the Celtic adj. found in Ir. as ciar " dusky " 
(cf. Joyce II. 271). The base is *keiro-, which would give Brit. *ker-, a stem not 
to my knowledge evidenced in Brit, languages. But other derivations are possible. 
Docker is, of course, a different name, derived from Docker in Whittington. 
Kent (falls into Morecambe Bay) : Kent 1208 LF, 1272 LI, Kenet 1246 LAR, 
Kente c 1350 LPR. The name is identical with Kennet, the name of an affluent 
of the Thames (cynetan 944 BCS 802), Kennet, Camb., and Welsh Cynwyd, 
O.Brit. Cunetione (abl.) Ant. It. (Holder). 

Hawes Water (Silverdale). Now [o*z wo'ta]. The old name was Arnside Dub : 
Arnolvesheued Dub 1246 LF. Arnside is in Wml. just over the border. The 
elements of the name are O.E. Earnwulf pers. n. and heafod " head, hill." Dub, 
a word of obscure etymology, means " a pool." Hawes is presumably dial. 
hause (from O.E. or O.N. hals) " a narrower and lower neck between two heights 
or summits ; & col" (NED), also " a defile, a narrow passage between moun- 
tains " (EDD). 

Names of Hills 

Clougha, Clougha Pike (S.E. of Lancaster ; c 1,500ft.) : Clochoch 1199 LI I. 92, 
Clochehoc 1228 C1R, Cloghou 1228 WhC, Clough ho hill 1577 Saxton ; now 
[klofa]. The elements of the name are dough (O.E. cloh) and O.E. hoh " pro- 
jecting ridge," etc. Clougha Pike forms a projection from the massive of hills. 
Little Fell (near Quernmore) : Littelfel 1228 C1R. Fell is O.N. fall. 
Stephen's Head (E. of Clougha ; 1,633ft.) : Steuensete, Littelsteudensete c 1350 
LPR. " Stephen's set or shieling." The hill was named from a shieling. A 


similar name is Ughtryshsete, Ughrithsete c 1350 LPR (identified with Great Hill 

on the Yks. border). The first el. is the O.E. pers. n. Uhtred. 

Swaintley Hill (Roeburndale) : Swyneclogheued, Swyn(e)styclogh c 1350 LPR. 

Swynsty- might be O.E. swinstig " pigsty," but is more likely O.E. swln " wild 

boar " and stig " a path." 

Threaphaw Fell (on the border between Lane, and Yks. ; close to the Trough 

of Bowland) : Threpehowe, Threphaw c 1350 LPR. " The debatable hill." Cf. 

threapland " debatable land." The elements are O.E. preapian " to quarrel " 

and O.N. haugr " hiU." Trough (of Bowland) : Trogh c 1350 LPR. O.E. 

trog " trough," later " a troughlike valley." 

Winfold FeU (close to Threaphaw) : Whynfell c 1350 LPR. M.E. whinne " whin, 

furze "and O.N. fiatt " fell." 

Wolfhole Crag (1,731ft. ; N. of Threaphaw) : Wolfakrag, Wlffakragge c 1350 

LPR, Wulfo crag 1577 Saxton, Wulfcragge 1577 Harr. The earliest forms point 

to O.E. wulf-halh, which might mean " wolf's corner or hiding-place." But the 

original form may have been wulf-hol " wolf's lair." 


The district N. of the lower Cocker. On the part of the par. S. of the Cocker 
cf. p. 166. The surface is mostly low and level in the W. with some pieces of 
slightly higher land, but is more elevated in the E., where altitudes of some 
500ft. are reached. 

1. Cockerham (v.) : Cocreham DB, Kokerham 1190 CC, 1202 AP, 1212 LI, 
1246 LAR, Cokerham 1332 LS, Cokirham 1327 LS, 1438 LF ; Cokerheim c 1155, 
a 1160 Ch, 1207 LF, Kokerheim 1206 LF, Kokerhaim 1246 LAR. The elements 
of the name are the river-name Cocker and O.E. ham, in some early forms re- 
placed by Scand. heimr. The village stands near the Cocker. 

Crookhey : Crochaghe c 1200 CC, de Crochaghe 1260 CC, de Crochagh 1314 LI. 
The place is in a bend of the Cocker. The elements of the name are M.E. crok 
(probably from O.N. krokr) " bend " and O.E. haga or O.N. hagi " enclosure." 
Hillam (old manor) : Hillun DB. O.E. hyllum " (at) the hills." Hillam stands 
at the S. end of a ridge reaching 75ft., on which is Norbrick (cf. Norbreck, Am.), 
and near another smaller hill. 

Thursland : Thurselande 1320 CC, Thurslond 1340 CC, Thurlond 1364 CC. 
First el. no doubt the pers. n. Thor, Thur (of Scand. origin). 

2. EUel (in the valleys of the Cocker and Conder) : Ellhale DB, Elhale c 1155 
Ch, 1246 LAR, etc., Elhal 1202 LF, 1246 LAR, Ellehal 1208 LPR, Ellale 1212 
LI, 1277 LAR, 1332 LS. O.E. Ella pers. n. and O.E. halh " haugh, low-lying 
meadow." There are typical haughs on the bank of the Conder where the church 
and EUel Hall stand. 

EUel Crag (at a hill reaching 400ft.) : Craghouse 1490 TI, Cragge 1598 Cockerham 
R. There is also Crag Hall. On crag, a Celtic word, see p. 9. 
Galgate (v.) : Gawgett 1605 Cockerham R. The name is considered to mean 
"the Galloway road," cattle drovers from Galloway having given name to the road 
on which the place stands (VHL VIII. 96). Cf. Galwaithegate CC 976 (Kendal 
or Cowperthwaite). Long Causey (Langcawsall 1599 Cockerham R) may have 


been named from the same road. Two Roman roads are considered to have 
met at Galgate. 

Hubbersty (now lost) : Hobyrstaih a 1236 FC II., Hobirstad a 1250 CC, Hobyrstad 
c 1254 ib. First el. apparently the L.G. pers. n. Huhrecht. The second is doubtful. 
If the place was on the Conder, as the map in VHL VIII. indicates, the second 
el. of the name is probably O.N. stod " landing-place." 

3. Thurnham (on the lower Lune, bounded on the N.E. by the Conder) : Tiernun 
DB, Thurnum a 1160 Ch, 1205, 1230 CC, Thirnum 1301 LF, 1327 LS, Thirnom 
1332 LS, Thernum c 1388 FC. O.E. or O.N. pyrnum (dat. pi. of O.E. pyrne or 
O.N. pyrnir] " (at) the thorn-bushes." 

Crook : (pullum de) Croc a 1190, c 1265 CC, Crokispul a 1160 Ch, Crocpul, 
Crockepul 1364 CC. Crook stands near a bend of the Lune. Cf. Crookhey p. 170. 
Glasson (at the confluence of the Conder and the Lune ; now the port of Lan- 
caster) : (pasturam de) Glassene c 1265 CC, Glasson 1552 LF ; now [glazan]. 
Glasson is in a very low situation, but Old Glasson stands on a piece of slightly 
higher land. The name seems to be identical with Glazen (Glazenwood 1-inch 
map) Ess. : (on) Glcesne 970 Thorpe 517, Glasene 1204-5, Glasnes 1219-20, Glasne 
1223-4 Essex Feet of Fines (ed. R.G. Kirk). Glazenwood is in Bradwell near 
Coggeshall, less than a mile from the Blackwater. It is on rising ground, c 200ft. 
above sea-level ; the ground along the river reaches some 130ft. Glasson and 
Glazen are probably of native origin and may belong to O.E. glees " glass " 
or rather to the base * glees discussed under Gleaston p. 209. But the material 
does not allow of a definite etymology. Glasson in Cumb. (Glassan 1259, 1278, 
Sedgefield) is probably unrelated. It may be Celtic, e.g., an ellipsis of such a 
name as Tref Glassan " the village belonging to Glassan." Glassan is a known 
Ir. pers. name. 

Cockersand Abbey : Cocresha 1207 LPR, Kokersand 1212 LI, Cocressand, Cokere- 
sand 1215 LPR, Cokersand 1229 LAR, Kokirsaund 1297 LI. The name means 
" the Cocker sands, the sandy bank of the Cocker." O.E. sand and O.N. sandr 
are both used in the sense " sandy shore." The abbey, now in ruins, stands on 
the shore near the mouth of the Cocker. The abbey was built at a place called 
Askel(es)cros CC 757f. ; Askel is O.N. Askell pers. n. 


This large parish, the chief part of which is situated on both sides of the lower 
Lune, comprises 14 townships in Lonsdale and 5 in Amounderness. The latter 
are detached and have already been dealt with. The surface of the Lonsdale 
part varies considerably. W. of the Lune it is low and mostly flat. E. of the 
river it is undulating, and rises by degrees till an elevation of some 1,500ft. is 
reached in the easternmost part (in Over Wyresdale and Quernmore). 
1. Over Wyresdale : Wyresdale 1246 LAR, c 1250 CC, 1314 LI, etc. 

The township occupies a large hilly district in the upper Wyre valley S.E. 
of Lancaster. It is sparsely inhabited. In early times the district seems to have 
been used only for pasture. Several of the divisions of the township are still 
called vaccaries, as Greenbank Vaccary, etc. Much of it is desolate fell country. 
The homesteads are chiefly on or near the Wyre. 


Abbeystead : vaccary del Abbey 1323, 1324 LI. The name, which means " the 
site of the abbey," preserves the memory of a house of Cistercian monks in 
Wyresdale, founded by monks from Furness Abbey in the reign of Henry II., 
but soon removed (VHL VIII., 78). 

Catshaw : Cattesagh 1323 LI, Catteshawe 1324 LI. O.E. catt " cat " and scaga 
" shaw." 

Dunkenshaw : Dunokesagh 1323 LI, Dunnokschawe 1324 LI. Cf. Dunnock- 
shaw p. 80. The first el. is no doubt M.E. dunnok " hedge-sparrow." 
Emmetts : Emodes 1323, 1324 LI. The place is in the tongue of land E. of the 
junction of the Tarnbrook and Marshaw Wyres. The name goes back to O.E. 
eagemotu " junction of streams." 

Gilberton (on the Tarnbrook Wyre) : de Gilberdesholm c 1230 CC, Litel-, Over- 
gilbretholm 1323 LI, Litel, Overgilbertholme 1324 LI (old vaccaries). The ele- 
ments of the name are the Norman pers. n. Gilbert and O.N. holmr " island," 

Greenbank : Grenebonk 1323 LI, -bank 1324 LI. Probably " the green hill or 

Hawthornthwaite (S. of the Marshaw Wyre) : Haghthornthayt 1323 LI, Haghe- 
thornthwait 1324 LI, de Haghethorntwait 1325 LCR. O.E. haguporn or O.N. 
hagporn " hawthorn " and thwaite " meadow," etc. 

Lee Fell, Higher and Lower : Mikelegh, Litelegh 1323 LI, Mikellegh, Litellegh 
1324 LI. O.E. leah " pasture," etc. 

Lentworth : Lonteworth 1323 LI, Lenteworth 1324 LI. L. stands N. of the Wyre 
and near a brook, called Gallows Clough. The first el. of the name may be an 
old name of the brook identical with O.E. leontan, liontan (obi. forms) 704-9 
BCS 123, the name of a river in Warw. ; lentan 854 BCS 477, 931 BCS 675, the 
name of rivers in Hants and Berks. This is no doubt a Celtic name, to be com- 
pared with Welsh lliant " a stream." On worth " enclosure," etc., see p. 20. 
Marshaw : Marthesagh 1323 LI, Marcheshawe 1324 LI, Marchshagh, Marschash- 
heued c 1350 LPR. I suppose the correct form is that of 1323, and identify the 
first el. with O.E. mearcl " marten." 

Ortner (N. of Swainshead, on the N. bank of the Wyre) : Overtonargh 1323 LI, 
Hortounargh 1324 LI. The name means " the ergh (or shieling) belonging to 
Overton." Overton is clearly the village of that name on the Lune estuary 
(cf. p. 175), situated at a distance of over 6 miles from Ortner as the crow flies. 
The example seems to indicate that Over Wyresdale was in pre-Conquest time 
common land to the townships round the lower Lune. On ergh see p. 10. 
Swainshead (in the S.W. part, S. of the Wyre) : Suenesat DB, Swaineseste 1199 
LPR, Swaynesheved 1323f. LI. The elements of the name are the O.N. pers. n. 
Sveinn and set, sat " a shieling " (see p. 16). Swainshead Hall stands on a hill 
some 500ft. above sea-level. 

Tarnbrook (on the Tarnbrook Wyre) : Tyrn(e)brok 1323, 1324 LI. Tarnbrook 
was originally, of course, the name of the brook. As e often becomes i in N. 
dialects (cf. gris<.gres "grass," etc.), it seems plausible that Tyrn- stands for 
earlier Tern- and is to be derived from O.N. tiyrn " tarn." However, to judge 
by the map, there is no tarn near the stream. It should be added that Tarnsyke 
Clough is the name of a brook that falls into the Wyre near Tarnbrook. 


2. Quernmore (E. of Lancaster) : Quernemor 1228 C1R, Quernemore 1278 FC II. 
(orig.), 1323 LI, Quermore 1342 FC II., Whermore c 1500 DL ; now [wo-ma]. 
The township lies on the W. slope of Clougha Fell. The second el. of the name 
is O.E. mor " moor." The first is O.E. cweorn or O.N. kvern " quern, mill " 
or possibly " mill-stone " ; cf. Quarlton p. 46. 

Hareappletree or Appletree : Harapeltre 1323 LI, Harapultre 1324 LI, Appultre 

1537 DL. O.E. Mr " grey " and ceppeltreo. 

Hutton (old manor, the N. part of the township ; the name is now lost) : Hotun 

DB, Hoton 1278 FC II. (orig.), Hutton 1557 LF. Cf. the same name p. 136. 

Lythe Brow (on a hill-side S. of Caton) : le Lyht 1278 FC II. (orig.). O.N. hlid 

" slope." In the same document is mentioned the interesting name les Schyrokes 

" the shire oaks " ; the name is now lost. 

Rowton Brook : La Routandebrok 1323 LI, Routandbrok 1324 LI, Rowtane 1537 

DL. Really the name of the brook on which the place stands. The name means 

" the roaring brook " ; first el. the pres. part, routand from M.E. routen " to 

roar " (<O.N. rauta) ; cf. Rawtenstall p. 92. 

Scarthwaite (now apparently lost) : Starkthweyt 1278 FC II. (orig.), Sterwhart 

1530 DL. The early forms do not allow of a definite etymology. Possibly that 

of 1530 points to O.E. stirc " a heifer " as the first el. ; if so, Stark- in the earliest 

quotation must be mis written. 

3. Scotforth (S.E. of Lancaster, bounded on the E. by the Conder ; v.) : Scozforde 
DB, Scoteford 1204 LF, Scotford 1212 LI, 1246 IPM, 1323 LF, 1332 LS, etc., 
Schotford, Scodford 1301 LF, Scodeford 1323 LI, Scotforth 1501 CC. Scotford 
vil. stands near a stream ; the village was no doubt named from a ford over 
this stream. I take the first el. of the name to be O.E. Scot " Scotsman," etc., 
either in the gen. plur. or (originally) in the gen. sing. The name may be com- 
pared with Galgate (p. 170) and refer to Scottish traffic along a road through the 
district or to some event in which a Scotsman or some Scotsmen were concerned. 
Bailrigg : Balrig a 1254 CC, de Ballrugge 1277 LAR, de Balrig 1283 LI, de 
Balerig 1287 LC, Baleryg 1461 CC, Baylerygge 1539 CC, Balerigge 1545 LF ; now 
[be'lrig]. B. stands on the side of a gently sloping ridge. The second el. of the 
name is O.N. hryggr " ridge." The first must be a word with a (M.E.) long vowel, 
perhaps O.N. bdl, M.E. bal " a blazing pile, a bonfire " or more probably O.N. 
bali " a gentle slope along the shore," a word found in Norw. and Icel. place- 
names. Bailrigg is not on the shore of the sea, but no doubt O.N. ball was 
originally used of any gentle slope. 

Big Forth (S. of Scotforth vil.) : de Biggetheit 1242 LAR, de Bigthvait 1246 LI, 
Biggethwayt 1323 LF. Bigthwaite clearly means " barley thwaite " (O.N. 
bygg " barley " and thwaite p. 19). The identification of the early forms given 
with Big Forth is not certain, but plausible. Bigthwaite is stated to be in the 
adjacent Ashton township. Big Forth is near the Ashton boundary. The 
correctness of the identification is to some extent corroborated by the fact that 
it is difficult to explain the name Big Forth if the second el. is 0. E. ford, for the 
place is not on a stream. A change of Bigthwaite to Big Forth is easily explained 
as due to popular etymology. It is worthy of notice that at least in Wml. 
-thwaite is sometimes pronounced [fat] ; cf. Ellis V. 605. Cf. also Gubberford, 
p. 165. 


Burrow (sometimes looked upon as a separate vill) : Burg, Burgo, Burgum 
c 1200 CO, Burgh 1451ff. CC, Burgesbroc c 1200 CO (a brook), (Brentebrec super) 
Aldeburgh a 1268 CC, Burghthwaytethurst LC 336. O.E. burh " fortified place." 
Nothing appears to be known about this old burh. It is worthy of notice that 
the place stands on the old Roman road between Ribchester and Lancaster, and 
in a fairly high situation (on Burrow Heights). 

Hala Carr (E. of Scotforth, near a brook) : Helecarre 1658, Helacar 1659, Hayley 
Karr 1660 Lancaster R ; now [e*b ka-]. I suppose Hala is identical with the 
first part of the lost name Hallatrice : Helewadris 1184-90 CC, Heilewateris 
1190 CC, Halotryse 1545 LF, Halatrash (?) 1659 Lancaster R. The last syllable 
of this is apparently O.N. hris " brushwood " (or O.E. hris " twigs, branches, 
brushwood ") ; cf. e.g., Kelderise (Scotforth) CC 804. This element seems to 
have been added to a name with O.N. vad " ford " as second el. The first el. 
is obscure ; possibly it is O.N. heill " luck " or heill adj. " lucky." 
Hazelrigg : Hesilrig c 1200, c 1250 CC, Haselrig c 1210 CC. H. stands on or at 
a ridge. The elements of the name are O.N. hesli " hazel-bushes " or O.E. 
hcesel " hazel " and O.N. hryggr " ridge." 
Langthwaite : Langethwayte LC 336, Langthwaite ib. 340. " The long thwaite." 

4. Ashton with Stodday (a low-lying district E. of the Lune estuary S. of Lan- 

Ashton Hall : Estvn DB, Eston 1212 LI, Esseton 1301 LF, Esshton 1332 LS, 

Asshton 1327 LS, Assheton 1301ff. LF. O.E. Msctun " ash town." 

Stodday : Stodhae c 1200 CC, de Stodaye 1246 LI, de Stodehahe 1252 LI, Stodhag 

1262 LAR, de Stodagh 1332 LS, Stoday 1440, 1448 LF. O.E. *stodhaga " stud 


Brantbeck : Brantebrec, Brentebrec c 1250 CC, de Brantebre 1246 LI. M.E. brant, 

brent " steep " (from O.E. brant or O.N. brattr < *brant- ; cf . Swed. brant) and O.N. 

brekka " slope." B. is on a fairly steep slope. The loss of the r in the second 

syllable is due to dissimilation. 

Grizehead (apparently lost) : Grisehevet c 1250 CC, de Grisehed 1332 LS. O.N. 

griss " pig " (or Griss pers. n.) and O.E. heafod " hill." 

5. Aldcliffe (S.W. of Lancaster) : Aldedif DB, 1332 LS, Audeclivam 1094 LC, 
Aldeclyue, Audeclyviam c 1190 Ch, Aldecliue 1212 LI, 1327 LS, Aldeclyf 1311 IN, 
Auclyff 1577 Saxton, Awcliffe 1577 Harr. I take the name to represent an O.E. 
Aldanclif; Alda is a known O.E. name. Clif seems to mean " a slope " ; the 
ground rises to 100ft. close to Aldcliffe Hall. 

6. Lancaster (town) : Landc 1035-1039 Hildebrand (coin), Loncastre, Cher- 
caloncastre DB, Lanecastrum 1094 LC, Loncastra 1127 Ch, Lancastra 1162ff., 
1176ff. LPR> Lancastre c 1140 Gaimar, 1198 LPR, 1212 LI, 1225 LF, 1246 LAR, 
etc., Lancaster 1262, 1292, 1314 LF, etc., Langcastre, Langkastre 13 cent. Ind. 
Leland c 1540 gives the local pronunciation as Lancastre, " corruptely spoken 
for Lunecastre viii miles off " ; Camden 1586 gives the local pronunciation 
Lancaster. The name seems to mean " the city on the Lune " ; cf . however under 
Lune p. 168. Chercaloncastre in DB means " Kirk Lancaster " ; there are in 
DB two manors of Lancaster. 

Bowerham (old manor ; now the S.E. part of Lancaster) : Bolerund 1201 LPR, 
Bolerun 1204, 1206 ib., Bulerun 1207 ib., Bolron 1212 LI, 1450 CC, Bolrun 1297 


LI, de Bolroun 1332 LS ; Bolrum 1226 LI, 1212-17 RB, 1215 CO, etc. The name 
seems to be identical with Boldron, Yks. ( : Bul(e)run 1280 IPM, Bolleron 1285 
ib.). It appears to have originally ended in -n ; the -m may be due to assimila- 
tion to the initial labial or to association with names in -ham and -rum (p. 16). 
The first el. is apparently M.E. bule " bull " (probably a Scand. word) or possibly 
O.E. Bula pers. n. The second I identify with a word run found in Cumb. and 
Wml. names, as Poteruns RSB 419, Stelerun ib. 163 (cf. Scandinavians p. 93f.) 
and very likely to be derived from O.N. runnr " a brake or thicket." 
Calkeld Lane (street) : Caldekelde 1220-50 FC II. " The cold well." Keld is 
O.N. kelda " a well." 

Edenbreck (in Lancaster) : Etenbreck 1285 FC II (orig.). The second el. is 
O.N. brekka " a slope." The first is doubtful. 

Priestwath or Priesta, now Scale Ford (VHL VIII. 13) : Prestreguet 1094 LC, 
Prestwath 1317 LC, 1460 FC II., Prestwaith 1371 OR. The name means " the 
priests' ford," the second el. being O.N. vaft " ford," which in the earliest 
quotation is translated by Fr. guet (gue). The last form quoted seems to show 
influence from O.N. veidr " fishery, hunting ; place for fishing," etc. 

7. Bulk (N.E. of Lancaster, in a bend of the Lune) : Bulk 1318 LC, 1327 LS, 
1332 LS, Bulke 1341 IN, Bowke 1581 DL. The ground slopes from some 280ft. 
to some 30ft. A long ridge, on which is a place called Ridge ( : Rigge 1318 LC), 
runs from S. to N. The name might be identical with M.E. bulk " a heap " 
(1440, etc.), apparently a Scand. word ; cf. O.N. bulki " a heap, cargo," Swed., 
Norw. dial, bulk " a knob, bump." If this is right, the name would mean " a 
hill " or the like and refer to the ridge mentioned. But we might also compare 
the O.E. bolca " a gangway." The name might refer to a foot-bridge over a 
stream. Cf. vadum de Bulkes (Am.) 1330 LC. 

Newton : Neutun DB, Neutone 1094 LC, Neuton 1212 LI, Newton 1389 FC II. 

The name is now preserved in Newton Beck. In DB Neutun represents Bulk 


Dolphinlees : Dolfenlee, -ley 1533 DL. The first el. is the pers. n. Dolfin, perhaps 

of Scand. origin. 

8. Overton (W. of the Lune estuary ; v.) : Ouretun DB, Ouretonam 1094 Ch, 
Ouerton 1177, 1205 LPR, 1332 LS, etc., Overton 1201ff. LPR, 1212 LI, etc., 
Orton 1577 Saxton, 1577 Harr. ; now [ovatn, o'vatn]. Overton vil. stands near 
the bank of the Lune. The first el. of the name is no doubt O.E. ofer " shore." 
The meaning " upper town " is improbable. 

Bazil Point (a promontory S. of Overton) : Basul 1199-1206 CC. The second el. 

of the name is O.E. hyll " hill." The S. end of the point rises to 50ft. The first 

el. is possibly the pers. n. from which Basing (Hants) and the first el. of Basing- 

stoke (Hants) are derived. 

Colloway : Collingeswelle c 1200 CC. " Ceiling's well or brook." There is a 

small stream near the place. Colling is an O.E. pers. n., probably native. 

Sunderiand (the southernmost part of the township) : ? de Sinderlaund 1246 LAR, 

? Sunderlond 1262 LAR. O.E. sundor-land. A meaning " outlying, detached 

land " is plausible. Cf. the same name pp. 29, 70. 

Trailholme : Threlhame 1663, Thrilham 1664 Heysham R. The forms, though 

late, point to an O.N. prcelaholmr " island of the thralls." The place stands on a 


small elevation in low-lying country. Cf. Threleholmes (N. Meols) c 1250 Farrer, 
Hist. N. Meols, p. 10. 

9. Middleton (W. of the Lune ; v.) : Middeltun DB, Middelton c 1190 Ch, 1199ff. 
LPR, Midelton 1212 LI, 1332 LS, etc. The village has a middle position between 
Overton and Heysham ; hence its name. O.E. Middeltun. 

10. Heaton with Oxcliffe (W. and N. of the lower Lune). 

Heaton : Hietune DB, Hetun c 1160 Ch, Heton c 1170 Ch, 1212 LI, 1283 LF, 1332 
LS. " The high tun." The township is low-lying, but Heaton h. stands on a 
tract of rising ground, some 50ft. above sea-level. 

Oxcliffe : OxeneclifVB, Oxeclive 1201ff. LPR, Oxecliue 1212 LI, 1297 LI, Oxcliff 
1327, -clif 1332 LS, 1427 LF, etc., Exdiffe 1577 Harr. ; now [okslif ]. The name 
means " the height where oxen were kept." The small hamlet stands on a little 

Melishaw : Melanshow in an early deed VHL VIII. 71 ; now [melifo*, meli/a]. 
The elements of the name may be the O.Ir. pers. n. Mdeldn and O.N. haugr. 
The farm stands at a slight hill, which, however, has now practically disappeared. 
Ovangle : Ovangle 1476, 1586 DL ; now [o'farjgl]. The place stands on a slight 
elevation close to an arm of the Lune which separates the large meadow called 
Salt Ayre from the mainland. This arm makes a wide bend. It seems plausible, 
therefore, that angle might be O.E. angel or O.N. ongull " a fishing-hook," here 
used as a name of the bend or the arm as a whole. The first el. might then be the 
O.N. ofan " above " ; a meaning such as " (the place) above the bend " would 
be very suitable. But there are other names containing an el. angle, with which 
Ovangle may be compared. In Ince Blundell there were formerly two pieces of 
land called Low-angle and the Ox-angle 13 cent. HS XXXIII. 12, 17. The situa- 
tion of these places is unknown. The meaning of angle at least in Ox-angle can 
hardly have been simply " hook " or " bend." But very likely it is identical 
with O.E. angel, etc. ; this word may have developed senses such as " bend of a 
river," traces of which are perhaps to be found in Continental languages (cf. 
Forstemann), and also " land within a bend," " river-meadow " or the like. 
This may be the sense of angle in Ovangle, whose first el. might then be O.E. 
Ofa pers. n. Angel, the name of the district from which the Angles came, may 
belong here ; see on this name especially Erdmann, Uber die Heimat und den 
Namen der Angeln, Uppsala 1891. Cf. Angle (Pembr.) on Angle Bay. 
Salt Ayre : Ayre is O.N. eyrr " gravel-bank." The word is often found denoting 
islands or water-meadows, former sand-banks, in the Lune valley. High and 
Low Ayre are low-lying meadows, liable to floods, W. of Tunstall. Green Ayre 
(Green-aer 1778 West, Guide to the Lakes p. 18) is now part of Lancaster. Cf. 
also under Skerton. Salt Ayre is still partly submerged at high water. 

11. Poulton, Bare, and Torrisholme, on Morecambe Bay 1 ; originally three 
manors. The township is also called Morecambe from the modern town of this 

Poulton-le-Sands (old vil.) : Poltune DB, Pulton 1201 LPR, 1212 LI, 1332 LS, 

1 The identification of Morecambe Bay (formerly Kent Sands) with Ptolemy's Moricambe, 
which gave rise to the name Morecambe Bay, seems to have been made first by Whitaker, 
History of Manchester, 1771 (I, 125). It was accepted by West, Antiquities of Furness, 
1774, and the new name was soon generally adopted. 


etc., Poulton 1226 LI ; Putton 1200 LPR, Pilton 1205 ib. are no doubt corrupt. 
The old vil. stood near the sea, and must have been named from some pool or 
brook (O.E. pel, pull), perhaps from Bare Beck, which falls into the sea a little 
to the E. 

Bare (v.) : Bare DB, 1094 Ch, 1212 LI, 1332 LS, etc., Bar 1206 LF, Barre 1220-25 
FC II. Probably O.E. bearo " grove " ; Bar 1206 no doubt stands for Bar', 
i.e., Bare. 

Torrisholme (h.) : Toredholme DB, Toroldesham 1201 LPR, Turoldesholm 1204, 
1210 ib., Thoraldesholm 1206 LC, Thoroldesholm, Thoroudesholm 1212 LI, 
Thoredesholm 1233 LF, Thorisholme 1323 LI, -holm 1332 LS, Torisholm 1322 LF, 
1327 LS, Torryshulme 1557 LF. The elements of the name are porold pers. n. 
from O.N. poraldr and O.N. holmr. T- instead of Th- is due to A.N. influence. 
The place is situated at the S. end of a ridge reaching 150ft. ; the surrounding 
country is low. 

Hestham (in Poulton). The name no doubt goes back to earlier Hestholm from 
O.N. hestr " horse " and holmr ; cf. de Hestholm 1332 LS (Marton, Am.). The 
place is on a slight elevation in low-lying country. 

12. Skerton (N. of the Lune opposite to Lancaster) : Schertune DB, escartonam 
1094 Ch, Schereton c 1190 Ch, Skerton 1201ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1332 
LS, etc., Schaerton 1249 LI, Skirton 1310 LF, Skyrton 1557 LF ; now [ska'tn]. 
The old village stands on the bank of the Lune opposite to a low flat islet called 
Cow Shard ; further up-stream are Stake Ayre, Rabbit Ayre and others. I have 
no doubt the name means " the village at the ayre or gravel-bank." The first 
el. is O.N. sker " skerry," etc. The ayres were originally gravel-banks such as 
one sees to-day in different parts of the lower Lune. In Engl. dialects scar 
(O.N. sker) means among other things " a bed of rough gravel or stones ; a spit 
of sand running into a lake " (EDD). 

Beaumont (the N. half of the township) : Belli Montis 1190 FC, Bellum Montem 
1292 ib., Belmunt 1212 LI, de Beaumont 13 cent. LC, Beamond c 1320 LI, de 
Bemound 1332 LS ; now [bo'mant]. The name is obviously French and means 
" the beautiful hill." The place, which belonged to Furness Abbey, is in a fairly 
high situation and well deserves the name. Neuhuse DB is said to have embraced 
Beaumont (VHL VIII. 59). 
Scale Hall : Scale 1577 Saxton. " The hut " ; O.N. skdli. 

13. Caton (N.E. of Lancaster, S. of the Lune ; v.) : Catun DB, Catton 1186, 
1197ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1273 LAR, Caton 1185, 1196 LPR, 1327 LS, 1395 LF, etc., 
Katon 1233 LF, 1251 IPM, Ration 1664 RW 52 ; now [ke'tn]. The first el. of 
the name is no doubt a pers. n., e.g., O.E. C(e)atta or O.N. Kdti. If the modern 
pronunciation is not due to the spelling, it is most probably O.N. Kdti, as that 
form might account for both the forms Catton and Caton ; see Layton p. 155. 
Cf . Catton, Norf . (Catetuna, Cattuna, Catuna DB), Yks. (Cattune DB), Caton, Dev. 
Crag House : del Crag 1332 LS. Cf. p. 9. 

Grassyard or Gresgarth : Gresgarthe 1577 Saxton, Gresyard, Girsgarth 1589 

RW 85. O.N. gres " grass " and gardr " enclosure." 

Littledale (the S. part of Caton) : Luteldale 1226 LI, Liteldale 1251 IPM. " The 

little valley." 

Tongue Moor (in Littledale) : Tonge more 1588 RW 222, Tangmore 1636 RW 80, 


Tungmore 1639 RW 295. The place is in the tongue of land between Foxdale 
Beck and a tributary of it. The first el. is probably the O.E. tang " fork of a 
river," discussed p. 18. 

Winder (near Artie Beck ; now perhaps lost, but found in O.M. 1846-51) : 
Wynder (family name) 1501 CC (Caton). See Winder in Cartmel p. 197. 
14. Gressingham (a detached township N. of the Lune, near Hornby) : Gher- 
sinctune DB, Gersingeham 1183, 1194 LPR, Guersingueham 12 cent. LC, Gersing- 
ham 1204 LPR, 1235 LF, 1285 LAR, etc., Gersinghaim 1204-12 CC 921 (orig.), 
de Gersinghaym 1246 LAR, Karsingeham 1212 RB ; Gressingham 1206 LPR, 
1246 LAR, Gressyngham 1341 IN. The name may be compared with Grassing- 
ton, Yks. (Ghersintone DB), Gressenhall, Norf. (Gressinghal 1275 HR), Grassendale 
in Garston (p. 111). The first el. seems to be M.E. gresing, grasing " pasturing, 
pastureland" ( 1440, etc.), a derivative of O.E. goers or O.N.#ras (gres). As regards 
the interchange of Gers- and Gres- cf . M.E. gers, gres " grass." The second el. seems 
to be O.E. ham ; cf. the isolated forms in -haim, due to Scand. influence. But 
O.E. hamm is also possible. The name seems to mean " grazing-farm." 
Eskrig : Escrig 1202 LF, escrig 1204-12 CC 921 (orig.). The place stands on a 
ridge. The name goes back to an O.N. Eskihryggr " ash ridge." 
Higher, Lower Snab : the Snabbe 1584 DL, Snab 1673 RW 316. The places are 
on a slope. Snab " a steep place or ascent ; a rugged rise or point " is evidenced 
in NED from 1797. 


A single- township par. S. of the Lune, E. of Caton. 

Claughton (v.) : Clactun DB, Clahton 1208 LF, 1226 LI, 1252 IPM, 1255 IPM, 
Clacton 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, Clauton 1241 LF, de Clafton 1246 LAR, Clagton 
1255 IPM, Clatton 1257 LAR, Claghton 1297 LI, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Claughton 
1297 LI ; now [klaftn]. Claughton vil. is at the foot of Claughton Moor, which 
rises steeply to some 1,000ft. above sea-level. The name is identical with 
Claughton in Am., and may like that have for its first el. a pers. n. Clac (from 
O.N. Klakkr) or O.N. klakkr " a hill," etc. 


A district on the sea, W. of Lancaster, S. of Morecambe. 

Heysham, Higher and Lower (hamlets) : Hessam DB, Hesseim, Heseym 1094 Ch, 
Hesheim 1180-99 Ch (orig.), Hesam 1212-17 RB, 1297 LI, etc., Hessein 1194 
LPR, Hessem 1201 LPR, Hesham c 1190 Ch, 1208 LF, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, 
etc., Hesaim 1212 LI, Heesam 1246 IPM, de Heshaym 1259 IPM, Hesaym 1272-5 
FC II. (orig.) ; Heghsham 1323 LI, Hyseham 1557 LF ; magna, parva Hesham LC 
298, Hesaym Superiori 1285-8 FC II., Nethir-hessam 1297 LI ; now [hrjam], but 
Ellis, p. 626, gives the form [ :fisBm]. 

The second el. of the name seems to be O.E. ham rather than hamm ; it is 
often Scandinavianized to -haym, etc. The first is no doubt O.E. hces. This word 
corresponds to a L.G. word very common in place-names (as Hees, Haiss, etc.) 
and apparently still in living use in the form hees or hese ; the meaning seems to 
be " brushwood, underwood " (cf. Forstemann, Namenbuch 1196ff., Nomina 


Geographica Neerlandica III. 338). The base of the word is *haisio ; cf. Silva 
Ccesia (=Heserwald) in Tacitus. O.E. HOBS is often used in names of swine- 
pastures. This seems to tell us that at least its original meaning was " beach 
or oak wood." The same stem is found in M.L.G. heister, hester, M.H.G. heister 1 
" young tree," especially " young oak or beech." Examples of O.E. has are : 
hcese 831 BCS 400 (orig.), Lingo, hcese 793 BCS 265 (orig. ; now Hayes in Midds.), 
Hese (Kent) 838 BCS 418. The O.E. form hes(e) is due to the Kentish sound- 
change CB > e, and hyse, hcese, which also occur, are inverted spellings due to the 
changes y, CB > e (in Kentish, etc.). 

Cross Copp (on a small hill N. of Heysham) : Crossecoppe 1272-5 FC II., 1285-8 
ib. O.E. copp means " top, summit." 

Sugham Fields (on a slight elevation, 57ft. above sea-level) : Suggeholm c 1280 
FC II., LC 292. The second el. is O.N. holmr. The first is difficult to determine. 
O.E. Sucga pers. n., sucge in O.E. hegesucge " hedge-sparrow," dial, sug " a 
morass, soft, boggy ground, "Swed., Norw. dial, sugga " sow " may be thought of. 


A district N. of the Lune, N.E. of Lancaster. 

Halton (township ; v.) : Haltune DB, Haltun c 1225 FC II., Halgton, Halghton 
1246-51 LI, Halehton 1251 IPM, Halton 1243 LI, 1246 LAR, 1252 LI, 1332 LS, 
etc. O.E. halh and tun. The village stands on the Lune, where there is a narrow 
strip of flat ground. Halh seems to mean " haugh," i.e., " flat river meadow." 
Aughton (on the Lune ; h.) : Aghton 1320-46 CS 74, 1458 TI ; now [aftn]. 
O.E. Ac-tun " oak town." 

Holgffl (on Holgill Brook) : Hollegyll 1329 LC, Hollgill 1331 ib. O.E. hol(h) 
or O.N. holr adj. " hollow " and gill " a ravine." 

Sideyard or Sidegarth (near Aughton) : Sydeyard, Shydeyard 1323 LI, Sideyard 
1458 TI. The same name is found in Caton : le Sigard, boscum de Sidyard a 1250 
CC. The first el. is no doubt O.E. sld adj., with the meaning " large " or perhaps 
" distant." The second varies between O.E. geard and O.N. garftr. 
StreUas : Stralous 1210-35 FC II., Stralaw(e}s 1366-7 ib. Strellas Lane, S. Beck, 
and S. Bridge are elm. N.W. of Halton vil., near a couple of hills, one of 300ft. 
I suppose the name consists of O.N. strd (or possibly O.E. *stra by the side of 
strea) " straw " and O.E. hlaw " hill." 

Stub Hall : de Stub 1212 LI, Stubbe 1376 LF, le Stub 1458 TI. O.E. stubb " stub, 
stump of a tree." 


The nucleus of this parish is the tongue of land between the Lune and the 
Wenning. To the N. of the Lune is Arkholme with Cawood, and S. of the 
Wenning is a large district consisting to a great extent of fell country. Most of 
the district is hilly. 

1 1 am inclined to believe that a word corresponding to G. heister is the first el. of 
Hesterheugh (a hill at Yetholm, Scotland) : Hesterhoh 12 cent. Hist. St. Cuthbert (Sim. Durh. 
p. 139). As G. heister seems to go back to a base *haistra-, Hester- must, if my suggestion is 
correct, be derived from a side -form with an ion-suffix (haistrion-) ; cf. O.E. bece "beech" 
(O.H.G. buohha), birce,pyrne by the side of beorc, porn, etc. (Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, 83.) 


1. Melling with Wrayton. 

Melling (near the Lune ; v.) : Mellinge DB, Mellynges 1094 Ch, c 1200 LC, 
Mellingues 12 cent. LC, Mellinges 1196f. LPR, 1271 LAR, Melling c 1190 Ch, 
1227 ChR, 1246 LF, etc., Mellyng 1332 LS, 1363, 1375 LF ; Mailing 1229 LF. 
Melling represents an O.E. Mellingas, a patronymic derived either from O.E. 
Moll or from the stem Mall- in Mailing, Kent, and Suss. It is identical with 
Melling in De, p. 119. 

Wrayton (old manor) : Wraiton 1229 LF, Wretton 1227 ChR, Wraton 1271 LAR, 
1327, 1332 LS, de Wraton 1247 CC. Further examples in Lindkvist p. 199. 
First el. O.N. (v)rd " corner." The place stands on the Greeta in a situation 
remote from the main valley. 

Cringleber (at a small round hill). The name means "round hill," the first el. being 
O.N. kringla " circle " (cf. O.N. kringlu-myrr " round marsh "), the second O.E. 
beorh or O.N. berg " hill." Cf . Cringlebarrow p. 189 and Cringelborhanes, etc., p. 85. 

2. Hornby (v., castle : near the confluence of the Wenning and the Lune) : 
Hornebi DB, 1212 LI, Horneby 1227, 1229 LF, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Hornby 
1297 LI, 1500 LF, Home Castelle c 1540 Leland. The first el. of the name is a 
dissyllabic word, no doubt the pers. n. Home DB (probably Scand.). It is note- 
worthy that Horni seems only to be evidenced in E. Scand. sources. 

3. Farleton (on the S. bank of the Lune) : Fareltun DB, 1154-89 Ind, Farletones 
1208 LF, Farelton 1212 LI, Farleton 1235 LF, 1246 LAR, etc., Farlton 1243 LI, 
ffarleton 1332 LS. The name is apparently identical with Farleton, Wml. : Farel- 
tun DB, c 1170 Ind., Farletone 1190-5 Ch, Farlton 1227, Farleton 1244 (Sedge- 
field). The first el. of the name would seem to be a pers. n. It might be O.N. 
Faraldr (cf. Bjorkman, Namenkunde). But in view of Farlham, Cumb. ( : Farlam 
1169, etc., Farlham 1234, etc. : Sedgefield) it is perhaps rather the somewhat 
doubtful O.N. Farle (cf. Bjorkman, op. cit.) or an O.E. name corresponding to 
it and derived from the stem Fara- found in O.G. names (cf. Forstemann). 
Akefrith (old manor ; now lost) : Farleton Eichefrid 1154-89 Ind, Farleton 
Okesrith (for -frith) 1246 LF, Akefrith man. 1529 DL. O.E. dc " oak " (in the 
earliest ex. Scandinavianized ; cf. O.N. eik) andfyrhp " frith." 

4. Arkholme with Cawood (between the Lune and the Keer, N.W. of Melling). 
Arkholme (v.) : Ergune DB, Argun 1195 LPR, Argum 1196 ib., Erghum 1246 
LAR, 1332 LS, Hergun 1243 LI, Ergum 1271 LAR, 1279 ChR, Arwyn 1519 LF, 
Erholme 1539 LF. The dat. pi. of ergh, argh " shieling, mountain pasture " 
(see p. 10). The township is hilly ; it reaches 466ft. at Cragg Lot. Arkholme 
vil. is near the Lune. 

Cawood : (nemus de) Kawode c 1225, c 1250 CC, (moss of) Cawode c 1350 LPR. 

Cf. Cavuda (silva) CC 469 (Hoole, Leyl.) and Cawood, Yks. (Lindkvist p. 184). 

First el. M.E. kd " jack-daw," probably a native word. Cawood was the forest 

of the lords of Melling. 

Gunnerthwaite (near the Keer) : Gunnerthwait 1633 RW 26. " The thwaite 

of Gunnarr." Gunnarr is a well-known O.N. name. 

Kitlow (on a hill) : Kydloo 1445 VHL VIII. 205, Kitley 1647 RW 309. This 

might be an old *Ketilhow, " the how (O.N. haugr) of Ketill" 

Locka : Lochawe 1271 LAR, de Loghagh 1325 LCR, de Logkagh 1326 ib. O.E. 

*lochaga from loc " lock, enclosure, fold " and haga " enclosure." 


Storrs : de Stordis 1243 LI, Estrodes 1271 LAR, the Storthes c 1350 LPR, del 
Starches 1332 LS, Stones c 1590 RW 263. O.N. stord '' brushwood, underwood." 

5. Wennington (h.) : Wennigetun, Wininctune DB, Wenington 1212 LI, W enigton 
1227 ChR, 1271 LAR, Weninton 1229 LF, 1243 LI, Wenyngton 1332 LS, 1346 
LF, etc. The hamlet stands on the river Wenning, whose name is evidenced 
from 1165 on, and it would seem obvious that the first el. of the name is that of 
the river. But Old Wennington (Old Wenigton 1227 ChR, Old Weninton 1229 
LF) stands near the Greeta. If the epithet Old may be taken to prove that the 
original Wennington was that on the Greeta, it does not seem quite probable 
that it was named after the Wenning. If it is not, Wennington, like Wennington 
in Hunts, must have as its first el. the patronymic Wenningas (from O.E. Wenna 
pers. n.). I am inclined to prefer the second alternative. The river-name would 
then have to be explained either as a back-formation from Wennington (which, 
in view of the early occurrence of the name, is somewhat hard to believe) or 
else as an independent derivative of the pers. n. Wenna : " the stream belonging 
to Wenna," no doubt the same Wenna as the ancestor of the Wennings. 
Button (on a ridge or hill between Wennington and Old Wennington) : Hoton 
a 1227 CO, Hotunn a 1242 ib. First el. O.E. hoh " ridge," etc. Cf. the same name 
in Leyl. 

6. Roeburndale (a wide tract of hill country on both sides of the Roeburn) : 
Reburndale 1285 IPM, Rebrundale, Reynbrundale 1301 FC II., Reburncedal 
1341 IN, Rybburndale 1372 Gaunt R, Roberundale 1528 LF. " The valley of 
the Roeburn." 

Harterbeck (on a brook): Hatherbecke 1576 RW 277, Harterbeclc 1587 ib., 

Hartherbecke 1609 ib. 24. The first el. may be identical with that of Harter 

Fell, Cumb. (Herterfel c 1210 FC II.), i.e., the gen. of O.N. hiortr " hart " or 

Hiortr pers. n. 

Haylot (on the slope of Haylot Fell) : Hailett 1584, Hayloth 1624 RW 228. 

No doubt literally " hay lot " ; lot means " allotment for grazing on a fell." 

An early example of this lot is Yuelotesheuede 1228 C1R, which means " Yew 

Lot Hill." 

Mallowdale (near the Roeburn, on the slope of Mallowdale Fell) : Malydall 1574 

RW 277, Malladale 1640 RW 159. Probably simply " mallow dale." 

Outhwaite (on the lower Roeburn) : Wlvetheit 1199 ChR, Ulthuayte 1528 LF. 

Probably " the thwaite of Ulf " ; Ulfr is a common O.N. name. 

Salter (on the slope of Goodber Fein : Salter 1612, 1625 RW 222, Lower Salter 

1613 RW 310. The name is identical with Salter in Cumb. (Salterghe 12 cent.), 

a compound of O.N. salt sb. or saltr adj. " salt " and ergh " a shieling." The 

meaning of the first el. is not obvious. 

Scambler (apparently lost) : Seamier 1536 DL, Scambeler 1569 ib. The first el. 

is apparently the Scand. pers. n. Skamel (found in O.Dan. ; cf. O.N. Skamkell), 

found also in Scamelbrec c 1250 Wetherhal Reg. The second is no doubt ergh " a 


Smeer Hall : Smerhawe 1418 TI, Smearehaw 1639 RW 317. The second el. is 

probably O.E. haga or O.N. hagi " enclosure." The first is apparently O.N. 

smior " butter." The meaning of the name would be something like " fat 

pasture." In Scand. place-names smor " butter " is sometimes used to denote 


good soil or the like. In Swed. dialects smormdse means " a pasture where cows 
give the best butter." Of. Lindroth, Ortnamn pa -rum, p. 70. But the first el. 
may also be O.E. smeoru with a sense " mire " or the like. 
Stauvin : Stoneing 1646, Stouvin, Stowing 1678 RW 24, Stowving 1786 Yates ; 
now [stauvin]. Etymology obscure. 

Winder (on the slope of Caton Moor) : Eye Winder 1618 RW 317. Of. Winder 
in Cartmel, p. 197. 

7. Wray with Botton (a long strip of hillside land along the Hindburn). 
Wray (v.) : Wra 1227 ChR, 1229 LF, 1271 LAR, etc., Wraa 1327, 1332 LS ; 
now [re*]. The village stands on the Hindburn in a rather remote and out-of-the- 
way situation. The name is O.N. (v)rd " corner." 

Botton : de Bottun c 1230 CO, Botine 1246 LF I. 95, Botten 1341 IN ; Botnebek 
1235 LF. Botton is the district round the upper Hindburn valley. The name 
is O.N. botn " bottom ; the innermost part of a valley," also used as a place- 
name in Iceland. An essentially correct explanation is given by Sephton. 
Summersgill : Somerscall 1606 RW 222. " Summer scale or hut," " hut for 
use in summer " (O.N. sumarr " sommer " and skdli " hut "). The place is on a 
hill side. 

Thrushgill : Thursgill 1631 RW 317, Thurskeale 1672 RW 293. The elements 
of the name are apparently O.N. purs " giant " and gil " ravine." Higher and 
Lower T. are on the steep slope W. of the Hindburn. Cf. Thursgyll c 1350 LPR 
(near Capernwray) and Thursegilemos CO 958 (Bland, Yks.). 


A narrow strip of hilly country between the Hindburn and the Yorkshire 
border, chiefly S. of the Wenning. The church, however, is on the N. bank of 
the river. There is only one township. 

Tatham : Tathaim DB, 1215 LPR, Tateham 1202, 1463 LF, Thatham, Thataim 
1212 LI, Tatham 1226 LI, 1317 LF, 1327, 1332 LS, etc., Tatam 1297 LI. O.E. 
Tata, a common pers. n., and ham, sometimes supplanted by O.N. heimr. There 
is no village Tatham ; it must have been on the Wenning. 
High Gale : Gail a 1225 CO. O.N. geil " ravine." 

Gamblesholme (on the Hindburn, E. of Wray) : Gamelsholme 1661 RW 258. 
First el. the O.N. pers. n. Gamall. 

Ivan : Ivo 1520, 1597 DL, Ive 1528 LF, Ivoth 1603 RW 317, Iva(h] 1631 RW 277. 
The place is close to Ivah Great Hill (647ft.). The name is obscure ; the second 
el. may be O.N. hpfud " head, hill." 

Lowgill : Lawgill 1520 DL, 1528 LF. Probably " low ravine." 
Lythe (on the slope of Lythe Fell) : Lyeth 1588 RW 37. O.N. Mid " slope." 
Robert Hall (old seat) : Robertes hall 1577 Saxton. The place was named after 
Robert Cansfield, who inherited it in 1515 at the age of three (VHLV 
Whiteray (on Whiteray Beck) : Wytewra 1235 LF, Whitraye 1622 RW 311. 
The place is high up among the hills. The elements of the name are O.N. hvitr 
or O.E. hwit " white " and O.N. (v)rd " corner," etc. 



Ireby township on the Yks. border belongs to Thornton par. in Yks., but is 
reckoned as belonging to Lancashire, owing to early connection with Tatham. 
The township is situated E. of the Lune and Whittington. 
Ireby (v.) : IreU DB, Yreby 1212 LI, Yrebi 1215 LPR, Ireby 1241, 1317 LF, etc., 
Yrby 1297 LI, Irby 1332 LS. Of. Ireby in dumb., Irby in Ches. The first el. 
is the pers. n. Ire (O.N. Iri) or, more probably, Ira, the gen. of O.N. Irar " Irish- 


This parish, situated between the Lune and the Greeta, forms the N.E. part 
of the hundred. The surface is level along the Lune, but rises to considerable 
altitudes in the N.E. on the Yks. border. 

1. Cantsfield (between Cant Beck and the Greeta ; v.) : Cantesfelt DB, Canceveld 
1202 LF, Cancefeld 1208, 1229, 1235 LF, Kancefeld 1243 LI, Cancefeud 1271 
LAR, Caunsfeld 1327, 1332 LS, Cauntefeld 1341 IN , now [kansfi'ld]. The early 
forms are a good deal influenced by Norman spelling. We may start from a late 
O.E. Cantesfeld. The first el. has some connection with the name Cant Beck. 
But Cantsfield vil. stands some way S. of Cant Beck on a small tributary of the 
latter. Yet it is no doubt possible to derive Cantes- from Cant, the name of the 
brook (found from 1202). On the other hand, Cant may be a back-formation 
from Cantesfeld, and the first el. of the latter may be *Cawpers. n., a side-form of 
Canta, which is no doubt a pet form of names such as Cantwine (C entwine). 
I am inclined to prefer the second alternative. The vil. and hall stand at a 
piece of level land extending to Cant Beck. 

Laithbutts : Lathebolt 1202 LF. There seems to have been a place called Lathe- 
bote in Whittington : Lathebote 1219 LF, -bot a 1219, c 1260 CC. Cf. also Lathebot 
c 1200 CC 579 (Ainsdale, De.). Laithbutts is obviously identical with these two 
names. The first el. is O.N. hlada " barn." The second may be Norw. dial. 
bot " a piece " ; also, " a patch of land." Cf. bceti in place-names in the Faroe 
Islands (Jakobsen), a derivative of bot. But it is curious that the combination 
Lathebot is so common. Cf. Lathebot (Rimington, Yks.) 1276 PD. 
Scaleber (on the slope of a hiU near the Yks. border) : Scaleberg(e) 1202 LF. 
First el. O.N. skdli " hut." 

Thurland Castle (W. of Cantsfield vil.) : Thurland 1465 PatR, 1539 CC, 1577 
Saxton, 1586 Camden, Thorsland 1500, 1514 DL, Thurlande 1577 Harr., Thurs- 
land 1578 RW 104 ; Fyrrelande c 1540 Leland. The name, according to VHL 
VIII. 232, does not occur until 1402. The first el. is apparently a Scand. name 
in par-, pur-. Possibly Thurland is identical with the Thorolfland mentioned 
in CC 903 (1247) under Wennington, which is separated from Cantsfield by the 

2. Tunstall (E. of the confluence of the Greeta and the Lune ; v.) : Tunestalle 
DB, Tunstall 1235 LF, 1246 LAR, 1271 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Tunstal 1227, 1229, 
1235 LF, 1246 LAR, Tunstale 1338 LF. This is a fairly common place-name 
occurring in various parts of England (Kent, Sufi 1 ., Staffs., Yks., Durh., etc.). 
The name is identical with O.E. tunsteall (O.E. tun and steall "place"), which 


seems to mean " site of a farm ; farmstead." It may be compared with O.E. 
hdmsteall " homestead " and O.N. names in -stadr such as Bolstafir, Bjdrstadr, 
etc. (Rygh, Indl. p. 76). 

3. Burrow with Burrow (on the Lime) : Borch DB, Burg 1212 LI, Burg' 1252 
IPM, Burgh 1259 IPM, 1332 LS, etc., Burros 1577 Saxton, Burros 1577 Harr. 
There were two manors, distinguished as Over and Nether Burrow : Over-, 
Nethirburgh 1370 LF. Burrow is, of course, O.E. burh " fortified place." There 
are remains of a Roman fort (VHL II. p. 519). A Roman road runs along the 
E. boundary of the township. 

Cowan Bridge (at Leek Beck) : Collingbrigke, Colligbrige c 1200 CO. First el. 
presumably Colling pers. n. as in Colloway p. 175. There is a place Collin Holme 
in Tunstall. 

High Gale (on Eller Beck) : Gale 1465 PatR, Overgaile 1606 RW 25. Gale is 
O.N. geil " ravine." 

4. Leek (the N.E. part of the parish ; v.) : Lech DB, Leec 1196 CO, Lecke 
1212 LI, Lee 1251 IPM, Leek 1252 IPM, 1327 LS, Leek 1332 LS, 1370 LF. Leek 
vil. stands on Leek Beck, and, of course, took its name from it. The source is 
very likely O.N. Icekr " brook." But the name is found so often in England (cf. 
e.g., Leake Notts., Yks., Lines., Leek Staffs., Warw.) that it is difficult to believe 
that the O.N. word is always the source. Partly the name is probably a side- 
form without assibilation of Leach, Lache (Glo., Ches.) from an O.E. word for 
" brook " found in M.E. as leche, lache, in Mod. E. as leach, letch (NED s.v. letch). 
Fairthwaite (apparently lost) : de Fauerwayt 1262 LF, Fagherthwayt 1324 
VHL VIII. 238, Fayretwhayte parke 1465 PatR. " The beautiful clearing," 
O.N./a#y " fair " and pveit (p. 19). 

Old Town (estate) : Allan (for -tun) 1212 LI. " The old tun" Perhaps the oldest 
settlement in Leek. 

Todgill (Todgilber O.M. 1846-51) : de Toddegill 1332 LS, Todgill 1590 RW 27. 
The place stands in a valley by a hill (547ft.). The first el. of the name is no 
doubt tod " a fox " (1170 NED), the second O.N. gil " a ravine." 


A single-township par. W. of the Lune. The part near the Lune is level. 
Whittington proper forms the N. half, Newton with Docker the S. half. 
Whittington (v.) : Witetvne DB, Witington 1212 LI, Quitinton a 1219 CC, Whiting- 
ton 1246 LAR, 1327 LS, Wyttinton 1252 IPM, Whitynton 1332 LS. No doubt an 
O.E. Hwltingatun, Hwltingas being a patronymic derived from Hwlta. Whitting- 
ton was in pre-Conquest time an important place, the centre of the great lordship 
of Whittington held by Tostig. The vil. is near the Lune. 
Bleaze Wood (high up on a hill-side W. of Whittington) : Blese a 1219 CC. Cf. 
Bleasdale p. 165. 

Sellet Hall : magnum Sekhout a 1219 CC, a 1268 ib., Selleth hall 1577 Saxton. 
The place is situated on the slope of Sellet Bank, a hill of 379ft. The name 
probably represents a Scand. Selhpfud, from sel " hut, shieling " and hofud 
11 a hill." 
Thirnby (old manor ; the name is now lost) : Tiernebi DB, Thirneby a 1219 CC, 


Thirnebi a 1268 CC. Of. Thrimby, Wml. : Tirneby 1200, Thirneby 1241 (Sedge- 
field). The first el. is no doubt an O.Scand. pers. n. Thyme, found as pirne 
in a York doc. of 1023 (Bjorkman, Namenkunde). The name seems to be 
evidenced only in E.Scand. 

West Hall (old manor) : Westhalle 1416 TI, West hall 1577 Saxton. The place 
is W. of Whittington vil. 

Newton (old manor) : Neutune DB, Neuton super Lon a 1219 CC. " The new 

Docker (h.) : Dokker 1505, 1507 LF, Docker towne 1577 Harr. The name is 
identical with Docker, Wml. : Docherga 1294 (Sedgefield). Its second el. is 
ergh " a shieling " (cf. p. 10). The first is perhaps O.N. dokk " a hollow, valley " 
(cf. Scandinavians p. 77). The hamlet stands on fairly high ground in a valley, 
through which runs a brook. 
Yarlside is a small round hill of c 250ft. Cf. the same name in Furness (p. 201). 


A district N. and N.E. of Lancaster, on Morecambe Bay. The surface is 
undulating. In the E. elevations of some 400ft. are reached. 
1. Slyne with Hest (N. of Lancaster). 

Slyne (v.) : Sline DB, Asselinas 1094 Ch, Slynes c 1190 Ch, Slina 1177 LPR, 
Slin 1185 LPR, Sline 1203 LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, 1332 LS, etc., Slyne, 
Slyndale 1200-10 FC II., Slyne 1246 LAR, etc., Slene 1248-51 LI, de Slen c 1250 
CC, de Slene 1332 LS ; de Sleen c 1200, a 1240 CC ; now [slain]. Slyne stands 
on a ridge. Near Slyne Hall is a small, prominent hill. 

The early forms point to a M.E. Sline (with short i) ; [slain] must be a 
spelling-pronunciation. Related names are perhaps Slynehead p. 107, Slindon, 
Staffs. (Slindone DB), Slindon, Suss. (Eslindone DB). But the last two may have 
as first el. *slind-, with d lost. I believe Sline goes back to an O.E. *slinu or the 
like, related to Norw. dial, slein " gently and evenly sloping terrain," sleina 
" to glance aside ; to slope." These contain a stem parallel to hlin- in O.E. 
hlinian " to lean," Goth, hlains " hill," Norw. Uin " slope," etc., Lat. clino, etc. 
(Torp-Fick 111). Interchange of initial sk- and k- and the like is a well-known 
phenomenon in Aryan languages ; cf. Noreen, Urg. Lautlehre 201 ff., Brugmann 
I. 818, and especially Johansson PBB XIV. 289ff., where O.E. slind, Ir. sliss 
" side " by the side of O.N. hlib, Lat. clino, etc., are pointed out. O.E. *slinu 
may have meant " a slope " ; this seems a suitable meaning here. A meaning 
" hill " is also possible ; cf. especially Goth, hlains. As regards the formation 
of the word we may compare O.E. cinu " chink " by the side of O.E. cinan 
" to burst." 

Hest (with Hest Bank, h.) : Hest 1177ff. LPR, 1212 LI, 1332 LS, etc., Heste 
1327 LS, Heest 1246 LI, Ernst 1557 LF ; now [hest]. This is apparently another 
interesting old name containing an otherwise lost word. The form Heest points 
to a word with a long vowel, O.E. Hcest or Hest. The name is to be compared 
with the Cont.-Germ. Haist dealt with by Forstemann, p. 1198, and considered 
by him to belong to the L.G. hees (see Heysham). O.E. *hcest very likely had about 
the same meaning as hces. It may be the first el. of Hesthope (Shrops.) 1341 IN. 


Stapleton Terne (old manor) : Stopeltierne DB, Stapiturnam 1094 Ch, Stapil- 
thorne a 1189 FC II., Stapelthorn c 1190 Ch, Stapelthurn 1201 LPR, -e 1212 LI, 
Stapilterne 1201 (orig.), 1220-40 FC II., Stapelthiern 1226, Stappilterne 1297 LI. 
O.E. stapol " pillar, post " and pyrne " thornbush." Cf. to stapola dome 901 
BCS 596, to dam dome deer se stapul stent CD 1096. The meaning seems to be 
" the thornbush by the staple." The change to Stapleton Terne is due to 
association with tern " tarn." 

Ancliffe : Ancliffe 1537 FC II., Lytell, Great Anclyff 1539 ib. Ancliffe Hall is 
on a slope. The first el. of the name is doubtful. It may, of course, be the 
well-known O.E. pers. n. Anna. 

2. Bolton-le-Sands (v.) : Bodeltone DB, Boeltone 1094 Ch, Bothelton c 1190 Ch, 
1201, 1202 LPR, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, etc., Bohtheltun 1201-16 FC II. (orig.), 
Bouelton 1256-8 LI, Boulton 1206 LPR, 1226 LI, -e 1248 LI, 1310 LF, Bolton 
1265 IPM, 1297 LI, 1327, 1332 LS, etc. O.E. bopl " dwelling " and tun ; cf. 
p. 8. The addition le-Sands refers to the situation of the village near the sands 
of Morecambe Bay. 

The ground must formerly have been to a great extent marshy, to judge by 
numerous names in -myre " mire," found in early sources, as Enge-, Wedholm- 
myre LC 177. In the marshy land were several pieces of higher land designated 
by names in -holm. Examples are : Calfholme c 1240 FC II., Gerefholm 1204 
LPR (Grefholm c 1245 CC) " the greave's holm," Serlesholme 1323 LI " the holm 
of Serle." 

Dertren (in Dertren Lane, Yate) : Dritern (for Driteru, i.e., -rum) 1204 ChR, 
Driterum 1204ff. FC II. O.N. or O.E. drit " dirt " and rum, perhaps " a clear- 
ing." The change -m>-n has a perfect analogy in Dendron p. 209. The nasal 
seems to have been assimilated to the dental consonants in the words. 
Hawkshead : Houkeshout 1220-50 CC, Haukesheued 1230-50 FC II. O.N. Haukr 
pers. n., and O.N. hofud " head ; hill," later replaced by Engl. head. Cf. Hokes- 
welleLC 182, Haukeswelle ib. 215 (in Bolton-le-Sands), which has the same first el. 
Hatlex : in Magnis Hakelakes 1230-5 FC II., in Parvis Hakelakes, Litel-, Mekel- 
hakelakes 1246-67 ib., de Hakelakes 1250-70 FC II. 139 (orig.), Hadex 1586 RW 
93, Hakles 1526, Hackleek 1557 LF ; now [hatliks]. Hatlex farms are on a brook 
called Hatlex Beck. The second el. of the name is no doubt lake sb. "a small 
stream." The first may be a pers. n., e.g., O.E. Hacca or O.N. Haki, or possibly 
hackle " stickleback " (found from 1655, but probably a native word representing 
O.E. *hacule, *hecile ; see NED). The plur. form is probably due to the fact 
that there are (or were) two farms of the name. 

Inglebreck : Hingelbrec c 1200 CC, Ingelbrec 1201-16 FC II. (orig.). Probably 
O.N. Ingolfr or Ingialdr pers. n. and brekka " hill, slope." 

Ramshead (apparently lost) : Ramesheued c 1204 FC II., -e c 1242 ib., Ramshouth 
LC 242, Rameshout c 1320 LI. O.E. ram " ram " or Ram pers. n. and O.E. 
heafod or O.N. hofud " hill." 

3. Kellet, Nether and Over (townships and villages S.E. of Carnforth) : Chellet 
DB, 13 cent. RSB 453, Kellet 1194f. LPR, 1242, 1246 LAR, 1297 LI, etc., 
Kelled 1199f. LPR, c 1200 CC, Kelleth 1212 LI, Keleth 1235-45 FC II., 13 cent. 
Ind, Kellett 1246 LAR, Kellit 1257 LAR, de Kellettes LC 150. Kellettam inferi- 
orem LC 173, Netherkellet 1299, 1343 LF, 1332 LS, -kellett 1327 LS, Nether 


Kellettes 1297 LC. Ovrekellet 1277 LAR, Overkellet 1278 LAR, Kelkt superiori 
c 1275 CO, Ovirkellet 1285-7 CO, Ouerkellet 1332 LS. 

Wyld derives the name from O.N. kelda " spring " and hlid " slope." In 
Anglia Beiblatt XXIII. 189 I have expressed some doubt as to the correctness 
of this etymology. Wyld bases his etymology on the form de Keldelith LC 150 
(deed from c 1225, but in a late transcript). I am not convinced that Keldelith 
refers to Kellet. There is a Kelleth in Wml., which is often written Keldelyth 
and the like in early sources (see Sedgefield). Very likely Keldelith in LC refers 
to Kelleth. Yet I now believe Wyld's derivation is correct ; the analogy of 
Kelleth seems to me convincing. The early reduction of the original form may be 
due partly to the base having been O.N. *Keldhlid, where the d would easily be 
dropped between the Vs, partly to A.N. influence. The early change of -d to -t 
is apparently due to A.N. influence (cf. Zachrisson, A.N. Infl. p. 951). The name 
then means " the slope of the spring." Over Kellet stands by Kellet Seeds (470ft.); 
Nether Kellet is on the slope of a hill. The spring which gave name to the place 
may have been that mentioned CC 907 : Yerleskelde " the earl's spring." 
Addington (in Nether Kellet) : Addington 1786 Yates. I have found no earlier 
forms of the name. Addington 1311 quoted by Wyld is a mistake for Adlington, 
Le. If it is an old name in the district, it probably represents O.E. Addinga tun. 
Birkland Barrow : Berchlundberghe, Berkelondberh, Birkelundeberh 1200-50 CC, 
Birklundberg' 1230-40 FC II. Cf. Birkelundewra 1268-75 CC. The place stands 
on a hill. The name is a compound of Birkelund (O.N. birkilundr " birch copse ") 
and O.N. berg or O.E. beorh " hill." 

Capernwray (h., hall) : de Coupmanwra c 1200 LC, Koupemoneswra 1212 LI, 
de Caupemanneswra 1228 C1R, de Copmannewra, de Coupmanewro 1246 LAR, 
Copynwra c 1350 LPR ; now [ke-pnre-]. See further Lindkvist, p. 146. O.N. 
kaupmadr " merchant," here perhaps used as a pers. n. (Lindkvist, Bjorkman, 
Personennamen) and O.N. (v)rd " corner," etc. The place stands in a remote 
situation near a brook falling into the Keer. 

Helks Wood (near Birkland Barrow) : le Helkis c 1270 CC. Helks in Lane, and 
Yks. dialects means " large detached crags ; a confused pile or range of rocks " 
(EDD). Helk is apparently from O.N. helkn, holkn " barren, rocky ground." 
The loss of n probably took place in English, as no form without n is evidenced 
in Scand. languages. Helks Wood is on the slope of a hill reaching 400ft. 


A district N. of Lancaster on the lower Keer and Kent Sands. Most of it 
is hilly, but there is some flat, partly marshy country, especially on the Keer 
and the Kent estuary. 

1. Carnforth (S. of the lower Keer ; v.) : Chreneforde DB, Corneford 1212 BF, 
Kerneford 1246 LAR, 1312 LF, 1332 LS, etc. (the usual early form), Carneforde 
1356, Corneford' c 1388 FC. The second el. of the name is O.E. ford ; the vil. 
stands on the Keer. The first el. I take to be a form of O.E. cran " crane " ; cf . 
the common name Cranford. It might be a sideform with e, identical with cren 
in Barbour. But it is quite possible that e (in Kern-, etc.) is merely an inverted 
spelling for a, due to the fact that in A.N. e often became a before r, especially 


in a pretonic position. Chreneforde in DB has an exact parallel in Crenefort 
by the side of Cranefort DB (Suffolk). As regards the form Kerneford we may 
compare early forms of Cranwich, Norf. : Kernewiz 1275 HR, Kernewiss 1283 AP. 
Metathesis is found in O.E. cornuc, for cronuc, cranuc, a derivative of crew. 
Cf. also Cornbrook, p. 27. 

2. Warton with Lindeth (N. of the Keer, on Morecambe Bay). 

Warton (the E. part ; v.) : W artun DB, Warton 1246 LAR, 1285 LAR, 1332 
LS, etc. Probably O.E. Weard-tun, from weard " guard " ; cf. Warton, Am. 
The village stands at the foot of the dominating Warton Crag (534ft.), an 
ancient beacon hill, on which there are remains of an old earth- work. But O.E. 
warod, weard " shore " is also a possible first el. 

Hubberthorne (now lost) : de Huberthorne 1246 LI, de Hubrightthorn 1302 VHL 
VIII. 178, Hoburthornes 1416 TI. The first el. is the L.G. pers. n. Hubreht, 
Hubrecht, as in Hubbersty, p. 171. 

Hyning : del Heyning 1299 LI. Cf. le Haynigne (Yks.) Percy C 247, le Henyng 
(Bolton-le-Sands) LC 186, 190. The name is identical with haining " enclosure " 
(1535, etc.) ; cf. hain " enclosure " (1205ff.), hain " to enclose " (15 cent.) from 
O.N. hegna " to fence " (NED). 

Maureholme (a lost old manor) : Maureholme (cultura) c 1240 FC II., Moureholm 
1324 IPM, Morholm', Moreholme 1356 FC, Maureholme 1431 FA. See further 
Lindkvist, p. 148, who derives the name from O.N. maurr " ant " and holmr 
" island," etc. M. is supposed to have stood on a hillock E. of Warton. 
Tewitfield (or -mire) : Tewhitmyre c 1388 FC, Tuwhitfeld 1500 DL. First el. 
tew(h)it " lapwing or pewit." 

Lindeth (the W. part) : Lyndeheved 1344, 1347 OR, Lyndhevede, Lindheved, 
Lindehevede 1356 FC, Lyndesheved 1412 FC, Lynteth 1501, Lyndeth 1537 CC. 
O.E. lind " lime-tree " and heafod " head ; headland." L. occupies a steep 
headland. The change of -d to -th may be due to association with the word heath. 
Fleagarth : Flegarth 1548 DL. The first el. is doubtful. O.N. fld " a small 
ledge on a hill-side " may be suggested. 

3. Borwick (N.E. of Carnforth, on the N. bank of the Keer ; v.) : Bereuuic DB, 
de Berwik 1228 C1R, Berewyk 1285 LAR, 1323 LI, -wik 1327 LS, Berwik 1332 
LS, 1518 DL, -wyk 1446 LF, Barwyc hall 1577 Harr. O.E. berewic " berewick, 
demesne farm " ; cf. Barton p. 38. The change of e or a to o is remarkable, but 
late ; Borwyc 1255 LI is probably corrupt for Berwyc. 

4. Priest Button (N.E. of Borwick ; v.) : Hotune DB, Hoton 1327, 1332 LS, 
1382 LF, Presthoton 1406 CR, 1438, 1443 LF. Cf. Hutton p. 136. The village 
stands at a spur of land in a sheltered position. Priest was added to distinguish 
the place from Hutton Roof in Kirkby Lonsdale (Wml.). The manor was in 
the hands of the rector of Warton. 

5. Yealand (W. of Burton in Kendal ; there are two townships, old manors and 
villages, Yealand Redmayne and Yealand Conyers) : Jalant DB, de Y aland 

1206 LC, Yaland 1200-25 CC ; Hielande 1202 LF, Hieland 1204-12 CC (orig.), 

1207 LF ; Yeland 1190 CC, 1208 LF, 1212 LI, 1243 LI, etc., leland 1227 LF, 
Yelond 1246 LF, 1332 LS ; Yholand 1246 LAR ; Mukelelond, Litylelond 1323 LI, 
Elandes 1577 Saxton ; Yeland Redman 1395 LF, 1341 IN, Yeland Coygners 
1301 LF, 1341 IN, Yeland Conyers 1353 LF ; now [jeland]. 


The etymology depends upon whether the early forms Hieland(e), Yholand 
are to be disregarded or not. An inorganic H- is not uncommon in early forms 
of names, but in this name they are unusually- frequent. If the name originally 
began in H- I would derive it from O.E. Healand ; if not, from O.E. Ealand. 
The villages are situated on the E. slope of a ridge ; " high land " is an accurate 
name. On the other hand, Leighton Beck is less than a mile N. of Yealand 
Conyers village and forms the N. boundary of the township ; but the inter- 
vening land is occupied by White Moss. O.E. Ealand would mean " the land by 
the stream." The first alternative seems to me distinctly preferable. 1 We 
must in any case assume that O.E. ea became [ja] and [je]. Hea- would have 
become [hja], and by loss of [h] in this unusual position [ja]. A change of ea 
to ya, ye is found elsewhere ; see, e.g., Zachrisson, A.N. Infl. p. 65f. The relation 
between Yaland and later Yeland is not sufficiently clear. After the Conquest, 
Yealand was divided into two manors named from the families by which they 
were held. 

Cringlebarrow Wood (on a hill S.W. of Yealand Redmayne). Cf. Cringleber, 
p. 180. 

Hilderston (near Leighton Beck) : Hildriston a 1190 CC, Hildrestona 1190 CC, 
de Hildreston 1260 CC, Hildrestonheuet a 1220 CC. The first el. is obviously 
an O.E. pers. n. in Hild-, perhaps Hildered, found in the time of Canute, or 
Hilderic, as in Hildersham, Cambr. (Hildricesham DB). 

Leighton (old manor) : Betheleghton 1246 LF, de Lecton 1255 LT, Leghton 1301 LF, 
Legkton Conyers 1325 LF ; now [le'tn]. O.E. leactun " garden." Bethe- in the 
earliest quotation may stand for Beche-, i.e., Beck ; cf . Leighton Beck. Leighton 
Hall stands a good way from Leighton Beck stream, and Leighton is a part of 
Yealand Conyers, which is separated from Leighton Beck by Yealand Redmayne. 
We must assume that in early days Leighton extended as far as Leighton Beck, 
as it could give that brook its name. This is corroborated by the fact that 
Leighton House stands N. of Leighton Beck (in Wml.). Probably Leighton was 
in pre-Conquest time the name of the whole district occupied by the Yealands. 
But Bethe- might also be a form of the name Beetham. Leighton before the 
Conquest belonged to Beetham lordship (Wml.). Early forms of Beetham 2 are : 
Biedvn DB, Bethum 1190-9 Ch. 

Waitholme (on an elevation in mossy land). Cf. Waitham, p. 198. 
Yealand Storrs (near Yealand Redmayne and Storrs Moss) : Yelondstorthes 
1558 LF, Yealand Stors 1593 RW 126. Cf. Storrs, p. 181. 
6. Silverdale (on Morecambe Bay ; v.) : Selredal 1199 ChR, 1246 LF, de Sellerdal 
1246 LAR, Sellerdal 1341 IN, Celverdale 1292 PW, Siluerdale 1320-46 CS 74, 
Silverdale 1382, 1507 LF. 3 Silverdale proper is no doubt the valley in which 
the church stands. The name simply means " silver valley." It refers to the 
silver-grey rocks which form a prominent characteristic of the place. Such 

1 Wyld suggests as first el. the O.E. word corresponding to G. gau (O.E. -ge, etc.). This 
would not account for the early forms. 

2 Beetham is apparently a Scand. name, identical with (2nd-, Ut)bjoe in Bergenhus, 
Norway ; cf. Wthbiwdom 1482. Bjoe is O.N. Biddar, pi. of bjddr " a table," etc. The name 
refers to flat ground (NG. xi, 90f.). 

3 Forms such as Syfrethelegh 1202, Siuerdelege 1241 LF, refer to a place in De. 


lime-stone rocks are found especially in the high ridge N. of the church (called 
Silverdale Nab by West, Guide to the Lakes, 1778), at the cove near the sea 
where Cove Hall is, and in the hill E. of the church. No doubt these cliffs were 
formerly to be seen in more places than they are now. 

Challen Hall : Challendhall 1574 RW 301 ; now [t/alon ho'l]. Chalkn is probably 
a family name ; cf. Challen in Bardsley. 


This parish is in Wml. with the exception of one township. 
Dalton : Dalton a 1225 CC, 1228, 1235 LF, etc. The place seems to have been 
named from the valley N. of Dalton Hall. 

Deerslet or Deerslack : de Duresslet 1324 LI, Durslett 1451, 1461 CC. Apparently 
O.E. deor or O.N. dyr " deer " and O.N. sletta " flat ground," whence Yks. 
dial, sleet " a flat meadow ; a level moor " (EDD). 


This district, which is separated from the rest of the hundred by a strip of 
Westmorland, forms the southernmost part of the Lake District. It is bounded 
on the E. by the Kent estuary, the Winster, and Lake Windermere, on the W. 
by the Duddon, on the N. by the Duddon and the Brathay. It consists to a great 
extent of fell country, and abounds with lakes or tarns, rivers and streams, 
and hills with distinctive names. Settlements of importance are found chiefly 
in the southern parts, and to some extent in the river valleys and on the lakes. 

Names of Rivers 

Winster (a trib. of the Kent) : Wynster 1577 Saxton, Winstar 1577 Harr. Cf. 
Winstirthwaytes 1249 (Sedgefield), stated to be an early form of Winster in 
Kendal, also Wynster 1538 RW 215 (a place). I identify the name with Vinstra, 
the name of two rivers in Norway. Vinstra is derived by Bugge (in Rygh, 
N.E. 342) from the adj. vinstri " left." The Winster may have been called " the 
left one " in contradistinction to the Leven, which forms the W. boundary of 
the Cartmel district, while the Winster forms the E. boundary. Or the com- 
parison may have been with the Gilpin in Wml., which runs parallel to the 
Winster ; the point of view would then have been that of people coming up the 
Kent. The derivation from the Brit, words found in Welsh gwyn " white " 
and O.Bret, staer " water " suggested by McClure, p. 150, is rendered impossible 
by the fact that the Winster has dark brown water. 

Eea or Ay (runs through the Cartmel district). No early forms have been 
found. 1 The present pronunciation [e'J points to O.N. a " river " as the source 
rather than O.E. ea. 

1 West, Guide to the Lakes, 2nd ed. 1780, and Antiquities of Furness, 2nd ed. 1813, gives 
the Eau, " pronounced commonly Eea," as the name of the Leven after its junction with the 
Crake. Stockdale, Annales Caermoelenses, p. 542, states that the Kent is called the " Ea " 
in its passage over the sands. 


Leven (empties Lake Windermere into Morecambe Bay) : leuenam 1157-63 Ch 
(orig.), Leven 1196 LF, Levenam 1196 FC, Levene, Leuene 1246 LAR. The name 
Leven is found elsewhere. Bartholomew mentions one Leven in Yks. and three 
in Scotland. There is every reason to suppose that the Engl. and the Scotch 
Leven are identical in origin. The Scotch Leven occurs in early sources as 
Lemain (g. Lemna), and is thus identical with Ir. Lemain (see Hogan). The 
names are derived from a word meaning " elm," O.Ir. lem, Welsh llwyf, etc. 
The v in Leven is due to Brit, lenition. 

Crake (empties Coniston Water into the Leven) : crec 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Crate 
1196 LF, Crec, Crate 1196 FC, Craik 13 cent. FC ; now [kre'k]. There is a river 
of the same name in Wml. : Craik 1247, Craik, Crayc 1257 FC. The name is 
perhaps preserved in Crake Hall near Skelsmergh. I suppose the name Crake 
is cognate with Welsh craig " rock," earlier creic in Penncreic LL 229. It may be 
a derivative of that word, or it may go back to a Brit, name of the type Afon 
Creic " the rocky stream " or the like. The river in parts of its course has a 
rocky, stony bed, and it runs past rocky hills. It is also possible that the river 
was named from some place called Creic. The place Craikeslith near the Crake, 
mentioned in a Final Concord of 1196, may have been named from the Crake, 
but also from one of the hills W. of the Crake. A similar explanation no doubt 
holds good for the Wml. Craik. 

Dulas : Water of Dulas (in Finsthwaite) 1565 West, App. ix. The stream that 
runs past Stott Park and falls into Lake Windermere may be meant. The 
name seems identical with Douglas p. 126, but appears in a later form. 
Levy Beck (falls into the Leven estuary). No early forms have been found. 
Lebby Beck 1867 Morris. An earlier name of the stream is given by Harr. 1577 : 
The Rawther. This seems to be most probably corrupt for Rawthey, i.e., O.N. 
Raud-d " the red river." 

Duddon (falls into the Irish Sea) : Dudenam 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Duden c 1180 
Ch, 12 cent. RSB, Dudene 13 cent. RSB, Dodyn c 1280 RSB, Dodyne, Doden, 
Dodin c 1300 FC ; Duthen 1196 LF ; now [dudn]. I believe the name is a com- 
pound, the second el. being O.E. denu " valley." If so, the compound was 
obscured at an .early date, as indicated by spellings such as Dodyn. The first 
el. may be an old Brit, river-name identical with Celt *dubo- " black " (Welsh 
du, etc.). Cf. Duff in Ireland (Hogan, s.v. dub, dubh) and Dove Ford, p. 220. 
As regards the disappearance of the final v we may compare Douglas in Ley land. 
The river Duddon has clear water, but a dark bottom. Or the first el. may 
possibly be the O.E. pers. n. Dudda or Dudd. 

Steers Pool (a trib. of the Duddon) : Styrespol 1235 LF, Sterispul c 1300 FC. 
O.N. Styrr pers. n. and pool " a stream " (cf. p. 15). 

Otterpool (in Angerton) : Otrepul, Otirpul, Otterpul FC I. 325ff., Otrepole 1424 
FC II. " The otter pool." Cf. the same name, p. 95. 

Lickle (a trib. of the Duddon) : Licul c 1180 Ch. Cf. de Likyl 1246 LAR. The 
name seems to be a compound with O.N. hylr " pool " as second el. Hylr, 
like pool, may have come to be used also of a slowly-moving stream. The lower 
course of the river is characterized by numerous wide bends. It seems plausible, 
therefore, that the first el. may be O.N. lykkja " a loop." 

On the Lickle is a place called Croglinhurst, no early forms of which have been 


found. The first el. Croglin- is identical in form with Croglin, the name of a 

river in Cumb. If Croglinhurst is an old name, it seems extremely probable that 

the Lickle was once called Croglin. 

Brathay (falls into Lake Windermere) : Braitha 1157-63 Ch (orig.).. 1196 LF, 

Braiza 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Brayza 1196 FC ; now [bre'Si]. O.N. Breidd " the 

broad river," as suggested by Collingwood, Scand. Britain p. 213. The lower part 

of the river is remarkably broad. The river gave name to Brathay Hall : Braihey 

1577 Saxton. 

Yewdale Beck (falls into Coniston Water) : Ywedalebec 1196 LF. Yew is, 

of course, O.E. iw " yew." 

Names of Lakes 

No sufficiently early forms have been found of Gaits Water 1 (Gait is very 
likely a pers. n. of O.N. origin, as suggested by Wyld), Helton Tarn, Levers 
Water. 2 

Blelham Tarn (in Hawkshead) : Blalam terne 1537 Beck Ixv, Blalam Terne 
1539 FC II. ; now [blelam]. The first el. is O.N. Udr " blue, black " ; this suits 
the case. The second cannot be determined with the material at our disposal. 
Possibly it is the word lum " a pool," found several times in Bl. 
Coniston Water or Thurston Water : turstiniwatra 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Thurstaine- 
water 1196 LF. See further Lindkvist, p. 96. The first el. is the O.N. pers. n. 
porsteinn or rather pursteinn. The lake was named from a previous owner. 
See also under Coniston infra. The name Thurston Water was formerly applied 
also to the river Crake or to its upper part. Thurstane Water in Egton (a fishery) 
is mentioned in FC II. 605 (1539). West (1774) tells us that the Crake was called 
Thurston or Coniston water as far south as Lowick Bridge or Under Nibthwaite 
(p. xxxii). Thurston Vale is the name of the valley S. of Coniston Water 
in O.M. 1846-51. 

Elterwater (a tarn on the N. boundary, partly in Wml.) : heltewatra, Elterwat' 
1157-63 Ch (orig.), Elteswater 1196 LF, FC, Helterwatra 1196 FC, Elterwater 
FC I. 393, Elterwaterpark 1539 FC II. The name probably represents an O.N. 
* Elptarvatn (cL Swed. Amtervatten), the first el. being the gen. sg. either of O.N. 
elptr " swan " or of Elptr, a river-name derived from it. Elpt is a common 
element in Scand. names of lakes and rivers. See the detailed discussion of the 
name in NoB VIII. 86f., and cf. Noreen, NoB I. 5fi. The change of Elptar- 
to Elter- is regular ; cf . the loss of / in halter from O.E. hcelfter and O.Norw. 
alt<alpt (Noreen, Aisl. Gr. 281). Engl. water seems to have replaced an 
original O.N. vatn, as it often has in Shetland names (Jakobsen p. 163). It may 
be added that another example of the el. Elter- seems to occur in N. Lane., 
viz., Elter Holme, the name of a slight headland in Esthwaite Water. 
Esthwaite Water. See p. 218. 

Standing Tarn (N.E. of Dalton in Furness) seems to have been formerly Green 
Tarn : greneterne c 1535, Greneterne 1537 Beck Ixvi. 

1 Goats Tarn 1774 West (Map), Goats Water 1786 Yates, Goats-water 1843 Jopling ; Gaits 
Water 1849 The Old Man. 

2 Lever Water 1774 West (Map), Levers Tarn 1786 Yates, Levers Water 1830 Leigh ; now 
[li'vez wo'te]. 


Windermere : ? Wonwaldremere 1 c 1130 Sim. Durh., Winendemere, Wynandrem' 
1157-63 Ch (orig.), Winandermer 1196 ~LF,.Winendremer 1196 LF, 1246 FC, 
Wynandermer 1272 IPM, Winnandermare 1282 FC, the Winander Water 1577 Harr. 
The first el. of the name must be identical with that of Winderwath, the name 
of a place near Great Asby in Wml. : de Vinanderuuat' c 1277 CWNS XX. 74, 
Wynandeswath 1288 ib. IX. 325 ; cf. also Sedgefield. Windermere and Winder- 
wath are far apart and must have been named independently of each other. 
This shows that Windermere cannot have as its first element an old name of the 
lake, as might be supposed. In all probability Winder- is a pers. n., as has been 
suggested by Wyld and others. This is all the more probable as personal names 
are the first el. of the names Thurston Water and Ullswater in Cumb. (Ulveswatre 
1324 IPM). Ullswater is a lake of about the same size as Windermere. But 
Winder- cannot be the gen. of an O.N. *Wignandr : a name corresponding to 
O.E. Wignod would have had the form *Wignannr. There is no O.N. name to 
which Winander- may be with certainty referred. But the O.Swed. Vinnunder, 
Vinandus, found in Finnland ( Vinandus de Tenalum 1329, Vinnunder i Vinnund- 
bdle 1410 ; cf. Lundgren-Brate), may be the name sought for. Vinandus 1329 
is also called Vinaldus, and Brate is inclined to believe that the name is Low 
German. But Vinandus must be identical with Vinnunder, as the two names 
were borne by persons from the same district, and Vinnunder seems to be in all 
probability an old Swed. name (Vinunder, g. Vinandar). It would seem to be a 
name analogous to Anunder and the like ; see Noreen, NoB I. 143ff, i.e., a name 
with O.N. vondr " staff " as second el. The chief objection against this etymology 
is the fact that the el. Vin- (O.N. vinr " friend ") is not with certainty evidenced 
in Scand. names as a first el. If Wonwaldremere Sim. Durh. belongs here, it 
seems to point to the second el. having orice begun with a w. This would go very 
well with the etymology suggested, for names in -vondr sometimes retained v 
in certain forms. The Saxon form Winwadremer given by Camden 1587 cannot 
be traced. I believe, then, that Winander- represents the gen. sg. of an 0. Scand. 
Vinundr, gen. Vinandar. 

Names of Hills, etc. 

Apart from names of minor hills which have given names to places, very few 
hill-names have been found in early sources. 2 

1 The identification is not certain. The entry in which the name occurs refers to the year 
791. If Windermere is meant, the name cannot well have formed part of a contemporary 

2 The absence of names such as Wetherlam, Old Man, etc., in early sources, is remarkable. 
It is curious that West, in his Antiquities of Furness 1774, and Guide to the Lakes 1778, 
does not mention the names of any Furness hills, though he was a resident of Tytup Hall, 
N. of Dalton-in-Furness, and enumerates a great many Cumberland and Westmorland hills. 
The first mention of hill-names such as Old Man I find in Yates's map of 1786 : Dow Crag, 
F airfield, Grey Friar, Stickle Pyke, Scar (=Walney Scar), Weatherlom, Yewdale Cragg, also 
Old Man Quarry. Smith's New and Accurate Map of the Lakes 1800 has Fairfield, Grey 
Friar, Old Man, and his map of the county of Lancaster 1801 adds Stickle Pyke and Weather - 
ton (!). Wetherlam I find in the map in Wordsworth's Guide to the Lakes, 3rd ed., 1822 ; 
in the text occurs Walna Scar. Leigh's Guide to the Lakes 1830 has Walney Scar. 

Of the names, Grey Friar is self-explaining. Stickle in Stickle Pike is O.E. sticol " lofty ; 
steep." The hill is steep and pointed. Names such as Dow Crags, Fairfield, Wetherlam 



Caw (1,735ft. ; in Dunnerdale and Seathwaite) : Calfheud 1170-84 Ch. The 
early form seems to mean " the top of Caw." Calf is, of course, O.E. calf or 
O.N. kalfr " calf." A reasonable theory is that the word calf is here used in 
the same way as when it denotes a small island situated near a larger one. This 
has actually been suggested by Collingwood, OWNS XVIII. p. 94, though he 
thinks Calfheud refers to a point on Dow Crags. The fells W. of Coniston Water 
consist of a mountainous range with peaks such as Coniston Old Man (2,633ft.), 
Wetherlam (2,502ft.) and others, with the minor height called Caw further south. 
To anyone who has seen the fells, e.g., from the S.E., I think, it will seem very 
plausible that Caw could be looked upon as the " calf " of the more northern 
group. The loss of the -/ of Calf may have taken place in such a combination 
as Caw Pike. 

Flan Hill (N. of Ulverston) : Flan (the name of a place) 1597 RW 81 . There is 
a M.E. word flan (<O.N. flan) " a sudden gust of wind " c 1475 (NED). A 
hill-name Flan-how or the like seems quite plausible, and Flan 1597 may be 
an elliptic form. Perhaps the Norw. name Flamberget (Flanberg 1723) has the 
same first el., but the author of NG XVI gives a different suggestion. 
Latterbarrow (Hawkshead). No early forms are on record. In Scandinavians, 
p. 91, I suggest that Latter- in this and some other names may be early Ir. lettir 
11 a hill, a slope." I find now that Latter- at least in some of these names can be 
explained in another and simpler way. There is an O.N. word Idtr (<J*lahtra-) 
meaning " lair of an animal," and letre in Norw. dialects means " small house 
or shelter for animals, especially pigs " (Aasen). Swynlatermire (Asby, Wml.) 
CWNS XX. 73 very likely contains O.N. Idtr in the sense " lair of wild swine " 
or " pig-sty." One of these senses seems plausible in Latterbarrow, La. and Cumb., 
and in Latterhead, Cumb. Also Hulleter in Colton (p. 216) may very well con- 
tain this Idtr, the first el. being e.g. O.N. holl " hill." But it seems very difficult 
to believe that Whinlatter in Cumb. (the name of a hill of 1,696ft.) can be so 
explained. I find that the identification of Latter- with O.N. Idtr is suggested by 
Collingwood in Thorstein of the Mere (1895). 

Tarn Hows (N. of Coniston Water) : Ternehowys 1538 FC II., Ternehowes 
1560 ib. O.N. tiprn " tarn " and the plur. of O.N. haugr " hill." The hills were 
named from the tarns close by. 

Wrynose Hawse (on the border between Lane, and Cumb.) : Wreineshals, 
Wraineshals 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Wrenhalse 1157-63 FC, Wranishals c 1180 Ch, 
Wreneshals 1196 LF, Wrenosse hill 1577 Saxton. The second el. of Wrynose is 
hause (O.N. or O.E. hals) " a narrower and lower neck or connecting ridge between 

cannot be explained without earlier forms. Old Man probably contains the common words 
old and man, but their exact meaning is doubtful. Perhaps the most probable explanation 
is that man is here used in the sense " a cairn or pile of stones marking a summit " (cf. NED), 
and that the name originally referred to the mediaeval beacon (Collingwood, CWNS 18, p. 93). 
Another possibility is the following. Old Man is a miners' term for an old vein that has 
become exhausted or has been abandoned for a long time (NED, EDD). It is no doubt 
an adaptation of G. alter mann, used in the same sense (Grimm Wbch, Mann 14). In Yates's 
map Old Man occurs only in the name Old Man Quarry, though it is possible the words at the 
same time do service as the name of the hill-top. Old Man Quarry may have been named 
from an " old man," Old Man being subsequently taken to be the name of the hill. But Mr. 
Collingwood tells me there are no traces of any old mines near the top of the Old Man. 


two heights or summits ; a col. . . . Generally at the head of two stream 
valleys which descend opposite sides of the hause, forming a pass over the ridge 
or mountain chain at this point " (NED). This description suits Wrynose Pass (or 
Hawse) to a nicety. The Duddon and Brathay both rise at Wrynose and flow 
different ways. After the second el. of Wrynose had been obscured Hawse 
was added again. The first el. may be an O.E. pers. n. (V)reini, a by-name 
from (v)reini " stallion " (Wyld) ; O.Swed. Vrene may have existed (Bjorkman, 
Namenkunde). But I find it at least as probable that the first el. is simply the 
O.N. (v)reini " stallion." It may be the name, as suggested by Collingwood, 
who thinks, however (OWNS XVIII. ), that the base of the name may be vrein- 
hestshals, that the name alludes to the fact that the road is one which needed a 
strong horse. But the name may equally well have been given owing to some 
accident that once befell a stallion at the spot or the like. 

Lonsdale N. of the Sands falls into two parts, separated by the Leven and 
Lake Windermere. The Eastern, smaller part consists only of Cartmel parish, 
while the Western part, the Furness district, consists of several parishes. 


Early forms of the name : Ceartmel 12 cent. MS Gale (Sim. Durh. 231) ; 
Cartmel 12 cent. Hist. St. Cuthbert (Sim. Durh. 141), Cartmel 1177, 1189, 1194 
LPR, 1215 ChR, etc., Carmel 1188 LPR, Karmel 1190 CC, Kartemel 1199 ChR, 
Kartmel 1206ff. LPR, 1270 ChR ; Caertmel c 1188 Ind ; Kertmell 1157-63 Ch 
(orig.), Kertmel 1188 Ind, c 1190 Ch (orig.), 1205 LPR, 1279 LF, etc., Cermel 
1187 LPR, Kertemel 1297 LI. Curtmel 1169 LPR is no doubt miswritten. 

The name is used of the parish, village (or town), and priory of Cartmel. No 
doubt it originally denoted the village. For the etymology it is of importance to 
establish whether the first syllable originally had the vowel a or e. Forms such 
as Kertmel are probably more common in early sources than Cartmel and the like. 
But the earliest forms are probably Cartmel, Ceartmel, those heading the list. 
These are found in MSS of the 12th cent., but very likely represent late O.E. 
forms. They render it likely that the O.E. base was Cartmel or Ceartmel. Kertmel 
is probably a traditional spelling, the e being a so-called inverted spelling (cf. 
Carnforth, p. 187). 

The name is probably Scandinavian. The fact that Cartmel is stated in the 
Hist, of St. Cuthbert to have been given in 677 by King Ecgfrith to St. Cuthbert 
might point to the name being British or at least pre Scandinavian ; but there 
is no proof, even if the statement is trustworthy, that the place was called 
Cartmel at that early date. The second el. is no doubt O.N. melr " a sand-bank." 
Cartmel vil. stands on the Eea. There are not now any sand-banks or sand-hills 
in the neighbourhood, but very likely there were formerly. The slight bank 
between the two arms of the Eea may very well have been a sand-bank, especially 
as the stream has a sandy bottom. The first el. I identify with O.E. ceart, found 
in place-names (Chart, Kent, Surrey), Norw. kart (O.N. *kartr) " rough, rocky, 
sterile soil." The meaning of O.E. ceart was probably about the same as that of 
kartr. Cartmel may be a compound of O.N. kartr and melr. Or the O.E. name 
of the place may have been Ceart : if so, we must assume that Cartmel was 


coined by Scandinavians adding melr. Close to the town, on the W., is a piece of 
rocky ground, Cartmel Park, which would be accurately described as a ceart 
or kart. This may have been called O.E. Ceart. Another possibility is that 
Cart- is an old name of the Eea, as suggested by Bradley, EHR 26 p. 822. If 
so, it is probably to be compared with the (somewhat doubtful) Norw. river 
name Kart-, dealt with by Rygh, Norske Elvenavne, and presumably to be 
derived from kart. 

Cartmel is not in DB, but is evidently represented by Cherchebi, a name 
equivalent to the later Churchtown, a name of Cartmel vil. : Churchtowne 1585 
Cartmel R. Cherchebi is O.N. Kirkiubyr " church- village." 

The ground of the district varies considerably. The S. part and the country 
along the Leven estuary are very low, and were in early times to a great extent 
uninhabitable. The Eea valley is broad and level. On both sides of it are 
irregular ridges, the eastern one of which continues as Cartmel Fell to the N. 
boundary of the parish. Much of the district is fell country. 
1. Lower Allithwaite (the S.E. part; v.) : Hailiuethait 1162-90 FC II. (orig.), 
Aliuthwait 1200-20 FC II., Alefthuayth 1225-45 LPD II. 192, Alithwit 1327 LS, 
Alyutwait 1332 LS. See further Lindkvist p. 106. Lindkvist explains the name 
as a compound of O.N. Eilifr pers. n. and thwaite. This is perhaps right, but the 
preponderance of A- in early forms is remarkable. Perhaps we have to assume 
a side-form *Alifr by the side of Eilifr', cf. Noreen, Altisl. Gram. 54, 3, a. 
Birkby Hall (fairly high on a hill slope) : Britby 1489 PatR, Bretby, Brykby 1522 
DL, Birtby 1537 LR, Birkeby 1589 DL. This name, like Birkby, Cumb. (Bretteby 
13 cent. RSB 285) and Yks. (Bretebi DB), means " the settlement of the Britons," 
and represents an O.N. Bretabyr. 

BlenketFarm : Blenkett 1609 Cartmel R. The name seems identical with Blenket 
Rigg, the name of a hill (810ft.) in W. Cumb. The elements may be the Brit, 
words corresponding to Welsh blaen " point, end, top," O.Bret, blaen " summit," 
and Welsh coed " wood," etc. Perhaps " the end of the wood." 
Boar Bank (on a hill slope N.W. of Allithwaite vil.) : Borebancke 1598 DL, 
-banke 1604 Cartmel R. Bank means " hill " ; the first el. is doubtful. 
Honeythwaite (in O.M.1846-51 more correctly Unithwaite) Wood (S.E. of Cartmel) : 
Unythawyte 1537 LR. The first el. seems to be O.N. unytr or O.E. unnyt " use- 
less, worthless." 

Humphrey Head (a conspicuous headland in the S.) : (terra de) Hunfrid'heved, 
Hunfridesheved 1199 ChR, Hunfrideshefed 1215 ib., Umfrayhede 1537 LR, 
Oumfray head 1577 Saxton, Houmfret-, Hunnifrethead 1592 DL. O.E. Hun/rid 
pers. n. (later associated with Humphrey), and O.E. heafod " head-land." 
Kent's Bank (on Kent Sand) : Kentsbanke 1491, Kentisbanke 1537 LR. " The 
bank of the river Kent." 

Kirkhead (a headland E. of Humphrey Head) : Kirkhead 1571, Kirkitt ende 
1608 Cartmel R. The name seems to indicate that there was once a church at 
the place. Cf. Kierkepol 1199, Kirkepol 1215 ChR, which seems to have been the 
name of a neighbouring pool. 

Outerthwaite : Oolterthwait 1612 Cartmel R, Vtterthwait 1600 RS XII. " The 
outer meadow or clearing." The place stands a good way from Cartmel, just 
where the moss begins. 


Rosthwaite (near the Eea) : Rostwhait 1609, Rostatt 1617 Cartmel R. O.N. 
hross " horse " and thwaite. 

Templand : Templond 1491, -lande 1537 LR. The suggestion by J. Stockdale, 
Annales Caermoeleuses 1872 (p. 592) that this is T'hempland " the hempland " 
seems very plausible. The definite article in Lane, dialects is t\ 
Wraysholme Tower : Wrasome 1431 FA, Wroxsom, Wresom 1598 DL, W rays- 
holme 1600 RS XII. The old peel is situated on a slight ridge in the old moss- 
land. This renders it likely that the name has as second el. holme " an island." 
Close by are places called Holme (The Holme 1606 Cartmel R ; on a slight 
elevation) and Rougholme (Rougholme 1589 DL). The first el. may then be 
O.E. wrdse " a lump, knot " or possibly the gen. of O.N. (v)rd " corner." But 
the early material is not conclusive. Wraysholme might also be e.g. the dat. pi. 
of O.E. wrdse. The name would then refer to the ridge mentioned and one or 
two small knolls close by. 
2. Lower Holker (the S.W. part). 

Holker (h.), Holker Hall : (pasture in) Holkerre 1276 LAR, Holker 1342, 1394 
LF, 1332 LS, Howker 1577 Saxton ; now [ho'ka]. The original Holker was no 
doubt near Holker Hall ; the name came to be extended to the districts now 
called Lower and Upper Holker, the old Walton. The elements of the name 
are O.E. holh or O.N. hoi adj. or sb. " hollow "and can " fen," etc. (O.N. kiarr). 
The ground is low close to Holker Hall with many hollows and depressions. 
Cark (v.) : Karke 1491 LR, 1587 RW 179, Carke 1537 LR, Nethercarke 1626 
RW 154. Cark is situated on the S. slope of a ridge, which at least a little way N. 
is rocky. The name is perhaps to be derived from the Brit, word appearing ae 
O.W. carrecc " a cliff, rock," Welsh carreg " stone, rock " ; cf. Ir. carric " a rock." 
The Celtic word is common in place-names. Another possibility is that Cark 
is an old name of the Eea. If so, the name may be compared with Welsh carrog 
" a brook, stream." Cark is on the Eea, and a good way N. there is, on one of 
the arms of the Eea, a hamlet High Cark (p. 199). 

Cowpren Point (the S.W. point of the Cartmel peninsula) : Gowborn head 1577 
Saxton. Etymology doubtful. The guess that this is an O.N. kauprann " market 
booth " may be permitted. 

Daughtarn : Dawthorne 1604 Cartmel R, Dowthorn 1623 RW 172. The place 
stands by a hill close to Cark railway station. The etymology of the name is 
doubtful. The second el. seems to be rather O.E. or O.N. porn than O.N. tiorn 
" tarn." 

Flookborough (v.) : Flokeburg 1246 LAR, Flokesburgh 1394 LF, Flokeberew 
1395 FC, Flokeburgh 1508 LF, Fluckburgh 1537 LR. The place, now a fishing- 
village, was formerly a borough. The first el. of the name is probably the O.N. 
pers. n. Floki (thus Wyld). Bjorkman, Namenkunde, seems to prefer derivation 
from O.E./oc a kind of fish. According to VHL VIII. 270 flukes are caught at 

Quarry Flat : Quarelflate 1537 LR. Quarel is an old form of the word quarry. 
On flat see p. 11. 

Winder : de Winderghe 1225-45 LPD II. 192, de Wynder 1279 LF, Chanon, 
Ravynse Wyndor 1491, Chanon Wynder, Ravenswynder 1537 LR. The places are 
situated on slight elevations in the old marsh (Winder Moor), which is about 


20ft. above sea-level. Winder is a compound of O.N. vindr or O.E. wind and 
ergh " a pasture " and " a hut on a pasture " ; cf. p. 10. The name probably 
means " a hut for shelter against the wind." The same name occurs twice in 
SLo, and also in Cumb. and Wml. The el. Ravens- represents the gen. of the 
pers. n. Raven (O.N. Hrafn). A portion given to the canons of Cartmel got 
the distinctive name Chanon Winder. 

3. Upper Holker (E. of the upper Eea). The E. half is hilly, while the W. part 
consists of low and flat country along the Leven. 

Walton Hall : Walletun DB, Waletona 1190 CO, de Walton 1342 LF. Walton 
formerly no doubt included the whole of Holker. The place is situated fairly 
high at some distance from the Eea and Cartmel. The name represents O.E. 
Walatun " the tun of the Britons." 

Backbarrow : Bakbarowe Mill 1537 LR, Bak(e}barayfell 1538 DL. The place 
stands near the Leven. Old Backbarrow is slightly further N. ; it is no doubt 
the original Backbarrow. I suppose the elements of the name are O.E. bcec 
or O.N. bak " back " and O.E. beorh or O.N. berg " hill." The name may mean 
" the hill with the backlike top " or the like. Such a name would well describe 
the ridge at the foot of which Old Backbarrow stands. The following passage 
from Leland (VII. 7), not referring to Backbarrow, may be worth quoting : 
" ther was a coppe in the hille as a bakke stonding up aboue the residue of the 

Bigland Hall : Biglande 1537 LR. " The barley-field " (O.N. bygg " barley "). 
Frith : the Frith, Frithhall 1537 LR. O.E.fyrhp, gefyrhpe " frith, wood." ' 
Howbarrow (at the foot of a hill of 557ft.) : Howbarray 1591 RW 48, Howebarrow 
1634 RW 11. Apparently O.N. haugr " mound " and O.N. berg or O.E. beorh 
" hill." 

Mungeon (E. of Bigland Hall) : Mungeon 1625 Cartmel R, Mungion 1640 RW 21 . 
Etymology obscure. 

Speel Bank (at Speel Bank, a hill of 600ft.) : Spilbanck 1593, Speelbanke 1606 
Cartmel R, Spillbanke 1593 RW 48. The first el. seems to be M.E. spile " play, 
sport." Cf. the common Gr. place-name Spielberg, earlier Spiliberch, etc. (Forste- 
mann). The second el. is bank " a hill." 

Waitham Moss (N.W. of Holker) : Waythom moors 1537 LR, Waithome, Watham 
1591 DL. Probably O.N. veidi-holmr " an island where hunting is carried on." 
Cf. Waytheholm' 1189-99 Holme Cultram Chartulary (MS) p. 158, and Wait- 
holme Moss in Yealand and Waitham in Angerton (pp. 189, 222). 

4. Broughton in Cartmel (N. of Cartmel) : Brocton 1276 LAR, Broghton 1314, 
1321, 1429 LF, 1332 LS. Field and Wood Broughton are situated on the two 
arms of the Eea, which gave the place its name, O.E. Broctun. The township 
comprises part of the broad Eea valley and a hilly district to the E. 
Aynesom (on the Eea) : Aynson 1491, Ayneson 1537 LR, Aynsam 1592 Cartmel 
R, Aynsome 1597 RW 107. No doubt O.E. dnhusum or O.N. einhusum " at the 
lonely houses." Cf. Ancoats, p. 35. 

Grange (town) : Grange 1491 LR. Self- explaining. 

Hampsfield (h.), Hampsfield Hall : de Hamesfell 1292-9 FC II., -fell' c 1300 FC, 
Hamesfell 1314 LF, Hampesfell 1537 LR, Hamfeldhall 1577 Saxton ; now 
[hamsfi'ld]. Hampsfield took its name from Hampsfell, now [hamsfel], a long 


ridge (727ft.) ; Hampsfield is on the slope, Hampsfield Hall at the foot of the 

ridge. The elements of the name are the O.N. pers. n. Hamr,. found also in 

Hampsthwaite, Yks. (Lindkvist, p. 110, Bjorkman, Namenkunde), and O.N. 

fiall " fell." The form -field is due to association with the word field. 

Head House : Headhouse 1579 Cartmel R. The place is on a yery conspicuous 

hill (560ft.) with a round cop. Head is O.E. heafod in the sense " hill." 

The High (on the high land N. of Grange) : Theigh 1596, The Highe 1604 RW 237, 

172, The Hee 1604 Cartmel R. Dial, high sb. means " a height, hill." 

Slack (in a long broad valley N. of Grange) : Slacke 1592 RW 139, 1601 DL ; 

now [80 slak]. O.N. slakki " valley." Near Slack is Eggerslack. 

5. Upper Allithwaite. The township is N. of Broughton township. The district 
must formerly have been held together with Allithwaite. The old name of the 
district was Newton. 

Newton, or High Newton (v.y, and Nether Newton (h.) : Neutun DB, Newton 1537, 

Over, Nether Newton 1491 LR. " The new tun." Newton is situated comparatively 

high and some way off from the main valley. 

Lindale (h.) : Lindale 1246 LAR, Lyndale 1497 LF, 1537 LR. L. is situated in 

the deep valley of Lindale Beck, called the Gill in O.M. 1846-51, far from any of the 

old villages. The name cannot mean " flax division " (O.E. lin and geddl). Its 

elements are O.E. lind " lime-tree " and dale " valley." There are numerous 

lime-trees in the upper part of the valley. 

Buckcrag : Buckcragg 1576 Cartmel R. The place stands at a rocky hill, stated 

to bear a certain resemblance to a buck. 

Castlehead : Castlhead 1592 Cartmel R, Castleheade 1638 RW 174. " Castle 

hill." Castlehead is on a little bluff close to the Winster. There was formerly 

a peel at the place, called Atterpile Castle (VHL VIII. 269). 

6. Staveley (S. of Lake Windermere ; v.) : de Stavelay 1282 FC, Staveley 1491, 
1537 LR. O.E. Staf-leah ; cf. p. 29. 

Ayside (h.) : Aysshed 1491, Ay sett 1537 LR, Ayshead 1573, 1592 Cartmel R, Aysyde 
1591 DL, Esyd 1599 RW 268. The hamlet stands at the foot of a high ridge and 
on a stream called Ayside Pool, one ci the head-streams of the Eea ; there are 
also hillocks close to the hamlet. The forms are too late to allow of a definite 
etymology. Wyld identifies the name with de Aykesheued 1279 LF, and that 
may be correct, but there is a place Oak Head near Ayside on a little hill, which 
may be meant ; cf. Ackehead a 1603 DL. The first el. of the name may be O.N. 
a " river " (cf. Eea) or O.N. eik " oak " ; the second, set " a shieling " or O.E. 
heafod " hill." 

High Cark : Ouer Carke 1606 Cartmel R, Over Carke 1623 RW 39. The place 
stands at one of the head-streams of the Eea, now called Muddy Pool, and close 
to a small, but rocky and prominent hill. Derivation of the name from the Brit, 
word found in O.W. carrecc " cliff, rock " is extremely plausible ; cf., however, 
Cark p. 197. 

Fiddler Hall : F idler Hawe 1589 DL, Fidlerhawe 1611 Cartmel R. Probably 
" the fiddler's hillock " (O.N. haugr " hill "). The place stands on a small hill. 
Seattle : Settyll 1491, 1537 LR, Seatle 1593 Cartmel R ; now [se'tl]. Seattle 
stands on a fairly broad and flat ridge sloping gently towards the S. The name 
would seem to be identical with Settle, Yks. (Setel DB), i.e., O.E. setl " abode, 


dwelling." But the Mod. form to some extent tells against this. Also the form 

Seitill 1508-9 quoted in VHL VIII. 281 is noteworthy. Earlier material is 


Sow How (N.E. of Staveley, at a hill of 800ft.) : Sowhowe 1598 DL, 1606 RW 233. 

First el. O.E. sugu or O.N. syr (ace. su) " sow." 

7. Cartmel Fell : Cartmelefell 1537 LR, Carpmanfell 1577 Saxton. The district, 

as the name indicates, is hilly. 

Birkett Houses : Birkett Houses 1665 RW 10. Birket is no doubt for Birkhead. 

The place is on a broad ridge. 

Burblethwaite Hall (near the Winster) : Burbelthwayt 1351 VHL VIII. 282. 

The name may be identical in origin with Burbladthwait 1204 FC II., Burblad- 

thwayt c 1343 ib. (Burton in Lonsdale). Burblad looks like a plant-name, 

perhaps of the same meaning as burblek (Wml.), i.e., Petasites vulgaris. But the 

first el. of Burblethwaite may be burblek. 

Hartbarrow : de Hertbergh 1332 LS, Hertbarrowe 1537 DL. O.E. heorot or O.N. 

hiprtr " hart " and O.E. beorh or O.N. berg " hill." 

Ludder Burn (on the slope of a hill and near a brook) : Litterburne 1537 LR, 

Ludderburn'3 1619 RW 191. Litter- may be miswritten for Luter- ; if so, I would 

identify the first el. with O.E. hluttor " clear, pure." A different etymology is 

suggested in Scandinavians p. 91. 

Rosthwaite : Rossethwayte 1537 LR. Cf. p. 197. 

Rulbuth or Rulbuts : Rulbuth 1508 VHL VIII. 283, Rullesburgh 1537 LR. 

Apparently an O.N. pers. n. such as Hrolfr and bud " booth." 

Thorfinsty Hall : Thorfinsty 1275 VHL VIII. 282, Thorpanstye 1537 LR, Thor- 

fensty 1577 DL. The place is at the foot of the fells not far from the Leven. 

The elements of the name are O.N. porfinnr pers. n. and O.N. stigr or O.E. stig 

11 path." Cf. Brancepeth, Durh. (" the path of Brand ") and similar names 

in Mawer. 


Early forms : Futhpernessa c 1150 Richard of Hexham (MS 13 cent.), ffuder- 
nesium 1127 Ch, Fudernesium 1127-33 Ch (1398 PatR), de Fodernesio, Fudernesio 
1127 FC II. ; ffurnesio 1153-60, 1157-63 Ch (orig.) ; furnesio 1155, 1189-94 
Ch (orig.) ; Fornesio 1158 Ch (oug.),furneis 1194-99 Ch (orig.), Furneis 1169ff. 
LPR, 1196 LF, 1212 LI, 1246 LAR, etc., Furneys 1295 ChR, Furnais 1246 LAR ; 
Fumes 1170ff. LPR, 1252 ChR, etc., Forness 1246 LAR ; Fourneys 1343 LF, 
Fournes 1336 FC ; Furneals 1201 LPR, Furneis 1205 ib., Fornell 1246 LAR. 
Other variants might be added. Now [fa'nas]. 

The second el. of the name is clearly ness " head-land," probably O.N. 
nes. The spellings in -neis, -nels, etc., are due to A.N. influence. The first el. 
is difficult. It is probable that the name was originally applied to some special 
point and later extended to the whole district, though it is true the southern part 
of the district may be described as a peninsula. The original Furness was 
probably the southernmost point, the present Rampside, for the first el. of the 
name Furness seems to be identical with that of Fouldray, the ancient name of 
Peel Island outside Rampside. Early forms of Fouldray are : Fotherey c 1327 


FC II., Fotheray c 1400 FC, Foderaye 1537 LR, (the pyle oi)foudray 1577 Saxton, 
the Fouldra 1577 Harr., Fouldrey 1586 Camden. 

Wyld suggests as first el. of Furness O.E./odor " fodder." This may seem to 
be to some extent borne out by the early forms of Fouldray, though O.N./ddr 
or O.E./odbr should be substituted for O.l&.fddor. This etymology may be correct. 
But the early occurrence of forms in u is remarkable ; I have found no spellings 
of u for earlier 6 in other Lane, names until much later. Further, O.N. fodr 
does not seem to have been used as a place-name element in Norway or Iceland. 
It seems probable to me that we have to start from a base with u. McClure's 
suggestion (p. 77f.) that Fuder- is identical with Gael. Fothur, a word considered 
to mean " wood," is perhaps not absolutely impossible, but at any rate not 
immediately convincing. 

Starting from the supposition that the original form was Futher-, I suggest 
the following etymology. There are in Norway traces of a name Fu(d) applied 
to small islands, as Fua a skerry, Fudeholmen an islet ; cf. Fuvig (NG IX. 66). 
It is suggested that the name maybe O.N./w#(Norw./w, Swed. dial./w,/o, Scotch 
fud) " podex." Fouldray may have been originally called Fud, and from it 
the neighbouring headland was called *Fudarnes. Later we must assume that 
the name of the island was extended to *Fudarey. 1 The isle has a rounded shape. 
Its surface is on the whole flat, but there is a long fairly deep depression running 
from S. to N. 

It is easy to understand why the headland was named from Peel Island, and not 
from the larger Foulney. While Foulney rises only to 22ft. above sea-level and was 
hardly more than a sandbank a thousand years ago, Peel Island is 42ft. above 
sea-level. The reason why the cons, d was lost in Furness, while it was retained 
in Fouldray, is probably that Futher-nes had the chief stress on the second ele- 

The Furness district falls into two parts. The southern part, called Low 
or Plain Furness (Lowfurnes 1546 DL, Playne Furneys 1582 ib.). is undulating, 
hills or ridges alternating with valleys, but no higher elevations than c 1,000ft. 
are reached. The northern part, Furness Fells or High Furness (Montanis de 
Furnesio 1196 LF, Fournes-fell' 1338 FC, Heigh Fumes 1584 DL), is a fell 
district, where elevations of over 2,500ft. are common. 


Dalton par. forms the S.W. part of the Furness peninsula. It is not divided 
into townships, but was formerly divided into four byrlaws or bierleys. It seems 
plausible that this is an old Scand. division, as the name bierley is a Scand. word 
(O.N. byjarlog " village law," possibly also " a law district "). 

1. Dalton (town) : Daltune DB, Daltonam 1189-94 Ch (orig.), Dalton 1246 LAR, 
Dalton in journals 1332 LS ; now [do'tn, doltn]. The town is in a broad valley 
among hills ; hence the name. 

2. Yarlside (the S.E. part, E. of Barrow-in-Furness) : Yerleshed Cott 1509, 
Yerlyssyde cote c 1525 Beck 304, 328, Yerlesyde (hamlet) 1537, Yerlessyde 

1 Cf. Nottero (Norway )< Njdtarey, a compound of Ni6t (g. -ar), an earlier name of the 
island, and ey (NG VI. 233). 


(close) 1539 FC II. The name is clearly identical with Yarlside in Wml. (Jerlesete 
1235 OWNS XIV. 394), the elements being O.N.jarl " earl " (or O.E. eorl) and 
set " a hill pasture." Yarlside is a fairly common hill-name in England ; cf. 
Scandinavians p. 32f. Yarlside seems to have been near Stank. The iron mines 
in the rather conspicuous hill E. of Park House S. of Furness Abbey are now 
called Yarlside Mines, and Yarlside Road is that between Dalton and Roose. 
Yarlside may have been on the hill mentioned. Cote in the earliest examples 
means " a sheepcote." In this division is Furness Abbey. 
Crivelton : Cliuerton DB, Criueltonam 1155, 1158 Ch (orig.), Crinelton 1246 
LAR, Cryvelton 1336 FC II., Creviltona 1400 FC. The name is now lost, and the 
situation of the place is unknown. No doubt it was near Newton. If the DB 
form is trustworthy, the base of the name may be an O.E. clifwara tun " the 
village of the cliff-dwellers " ; cf. Cleworth p. 101. Newton is in a remote valley 
among hills. If Crivel- is the more original form, I have no definite suggestion 
to make. 

Newton (S. of Dalton ; v.) : Newtona 1191-8 FC, Neuton 1190, 1336 FC. Newton 
and Crivelton were originally distinct places, as both are mentioned together in 
old sources. Later Crivelton was merged in Newton, and in FC I. 451 there is 
the express statement that Crevylton was the old name of Newton. 
Fordbottle : Fordebodele DB, fordebotle 1155 Ch (orig.), fortebothle 1189-94 Ch 
(orig.), Fordebotle 1246 LAR. The name is lost. The place no doubt stood at a 
ford over the stream that runs past Roose. The elements of the name are O.E. 
ford and botl " house, dwelling." 

Roose (N.E. of Barrow ; v.) : Rosse DB, Ros 1155, 1157-8, 1189-94 Ch (orig.), 
1246 LAR, Roos 1336 FC II., Ruse FC I. 451, Rwse 1537 LR ; now [nrz, 
nrs]. Roose is an old Brit, name, identical with Welsh rhos " moor, heath, 
plain," Bret, ros " tertre en general reconvert de bruyeres " (Loth), Ir. ros 
" promontory ; wood." The Brit, word is often used as a place-name. The 
long vowel in Roose is due to Brit, lengthening ; cf. Jones p. 72. Rhos in 
Pembrokeshire is stated in Owen's Pembrokeshire III. 268 to be called also Roose. 
The meaning of the word in the present case is probably " moor." The hill N.E. 
of Roose may well once have been a moor, i.e., a hill covered with furze and 
heather. Roosecote (Rusecote 1509 Beck 304) means " the sheepcote belonging 
to Roose." 

Billingcote (N.E. of Furness Abbey) : Byllingecote 1509 Beck 305, Billingcote 
1588 RW 122. Another name is byllynge c 1525 Beck 325 ; cf. Lytel-, Grete- 
byllyng 1539 FC II. The place stands on the slope of a hill (304ft.), called The 
Billings (Beacons-billing 1843 Jopling). I suppose Billing is an old hill-name, 
identical with Billinge in Blackburn, and probably derived from O.E. bill 
" sword." 

Holebeck : Holebecke 1597 RW 47. Old Holebeck stands E. of Roose on a 
small brook, which runs in a fairly deep valley. " The hollow brook," " the 
brook in the hollow." 

Newtown (in the S. on low ground) : Newtowne 1537 LR. 
Peaseholmes : Pesholme 1509 Beck 304. The place stands near the sea on a 
piece of ground rising over the surrounding land. O.E. pisu " pease " and holm 
" island." 


Rampside (h.) : Rameshede 1292 FC, Ramesheved 1336 FC II., Rameshevede 
1400 FC, Ramsyde 1539 FC II. ; now [ramsaid]. Rampside was originally the 
name of the southernmost point of the Furness peninsula. The first el. may be 
the pers. n. Ram found in Ramsbottom ; if so, head means " headland." But 
I think it more likely that it is O.E. ram " ram," and that the name was given 
owing to a resemblance between the headland and a ram's head. The name 
then means " the ram's head." 

Stank (h.) : Stanke 1509 Beck 304, 1537 LR. Probably M.E. stank " a pond or 
pool," found from the 14th cent. (O.Fr. estanc). There are disused iron mines 
in the hamlet ; the name may refer to an old mine-pit. 

Waltoncote : Walton Cote 1509, W altoncot c 1525 Beck 305, 327. No doubt named 
from an old village or homestead called Walton. 

3. Hawcoat (the S.W. part ; h.) : Hawcote c 1535 Beck 326, 1537 LR, 
Haycot 1538 FC II., Hay cote 1577 Saxton ; now [ho'ko't]. Haw- is probably 
O.E. haga or O.N. hagi " enclosure " ; coat means " sheepcote." Hawcoat is 
on fairly high ground (W. of Furness Abbey) ; this would to some extent support 
the theory that Hietun DB (O.E. Heatun " the high tun ") is an old name of 

Sowerby Hall : Sourebi DB, Soureby 1338 FC ; now [sauarbi]. The place stands 
on low ground near Duddon Sands. O.N. Saurbyr ; cf. Sowerby (Am.) p. 161. 
Beacons GUI (in O.M. 1846-51 ; S. of Furness Abbey, E. of Newbarns) : Bechanes- 
gile 1190-1220 FC II., Bekanesgill FC I. 21. The valley in which Furness Abbey 
stands was formerly called Bekansgill. The elements of the name are O.N. 
Bekan (from Ir. Beccdn) pers. n. and gil " a ravine." The name was applied to 
the whole valley. " Bekingill between Ramsyde and Sowthende " (1539 FC II. 
594) was a fishery ; Beck, p. Ixv, quotes from a document of 1537 " Oyster- 
garth athedd and Bekyngyll." 

Bouth Wood (N.W. of Furness Abbey) : Bouth 1509 Beck 304, Bowthe Parke, 
Bowthowse 1539 FC II. O.N. bud " booth." 

Breast Mill Beck (near Furnesss Abbey) : Byrstmewekhowse (for Byrstmelbek-) 
c 1535 Beck 327, Bristmylbeck 1526 West 98, Byrsomelbek 1535 ib. 102, Burmel- 
beck, Byrfemelbeckhowse 1539 FC II. The place is near Poaka Beck, which in 
O.M. 1846-51 is here called Breast Mill Beck. Breast-mill in Yks. dial, means 
"a water-mill of which the water goes in at the side or breast to turn the 
wheel " (EDD). Close by is Millwood : Milnewood 1338 FC. 
Cocken : de Cokayn 14 cent. FC, Cokayn 1336 FC II., Kokayn 1336, 1400 FC ; 
now [kokin, kokn]. Lindkvist, p. 193, derives the name from M.E. Cokaygne, 
name of an imaginary country, the abode of luxury and idleness, a French name. 
If it is true, as suggested by W. B. Kendall in the report of the Barrow Naturalists' 
Field Club, vol. XII., p. 401, that the clearing of the Cocken land was accom- 
plished by the monks of Furness Abbey, this derivation has much probability. 
The name is no doubt jocular. 

Dane Ghyll (E. of Hawcoat in the valley of a stream) : Danegyll c 1535 Beck 327, 
Danglefiat, Dangylle 1539 FC II. The second el. is O.N. gil " a ravine." The 
first is doubtful ; O.N. Danr pers. n. or Danir " Danes " ? 
Hindpool : Hyndpull 1539 FC II. The place stands at a little bay called Hind 
Pool. O.E. hind the animal and pol, pull " pool." 


Rakes Moor (N.E. of Hawcoat, on high land) : Rakesmore 1539 FC II. Rake 

(O.N. rdk) means " a path ; pasture-ground." 

Robsawter (O.M. 1846-51) : Robsawter 1539 FC II. The place was N. of Hawcoat. 

Sawter may be identical with Salter, p. 181. On loss of I see p. 22. 

Salthouse : Salthus 1247 FC, Salthous 1336 FC II. "A house in which salt was 

made or stored." 

Sinkfall : Synkefall 1539 FC II. I take the elements of the name to be a M.E. 

*senk " hollow " (a Scand. word : cf. Norw. dial. s0kk, senk f., Swed. dial, sdkk f., 

sdnka " hollow, little valley "), perhaps the source of E. sink " a basin where 

waters collect and form a bog," and fall " a clearing " ; cf. p. 10. Sinkfall 

stands close to a depression in the ground. 

Sandscale : Landschale (!) 1292 FC, Sandescale 1336 FC II. Sandscale stands 

on low ground near the Duddon Sands. The first el. of the name is obviously 

O.N. sandr (or pi. sandar) or Engl. sand " sandy beach." The second is O.N. 

skdli " hut." 

To Hawcoat bierley belong the islands S. of the Furness peninsula. 
Barrow : Barrai 1190, 1191-8 FC, Barmy 1292 FC, 1336 FC II., Insula de 
Oldebarrey, Barrahed, Barrahaw 1537 LR, Old barro Insula, Barrohead 1577 
Saxton ; now [bara]. Barrow was originally the name of a small island, later 
called Old Barrow, and recently joined with the mainland. The island gave name 
to the town of Barro w-in-Furness, which is chiefly on the mainland. Barrahed 
1537 is no doubt the point opposite Barrow island. Barrahaw may have as its 
second el. O.E. haga " enclosure." 

Barrow probably represents a Scand. Barrey, whose second el. is O.N. ey 
" island." This name is evidenced elsewhere. Barra (Barru 11 cent. Johnston, 
Pl.N. of Scotland) is one of the southernmost of the Hebrides, and Barra Head 
is a promontory at the S. extremity of the Barra islands. From Barra may be 
derived the O.N. epithets Barreyjarskdld and (Alfdis hin) barreyska (Landnama), 
usually referred to Barrey in the Shetlands (Finnur Jonsson, Aarb. 1907, pp. 
177, 246). Barrey jarfj or dr, mentioned in a Saga, proves the existence of a Barrey 
in the Shetland group (Jakobsen, Aarb. 1901, p. 170) ; it may be the present 
Fair Isle. It is difficult to believe that the first el. of the name can be either 
O.N. barr " corn," in historical time an exclusively poetical word and not with 
certainty found in Norw. place-names, or O.N. barr " pine-needles." I am in- 
clined to believe that it is the Celtic barr " top, summit " (Welsh bar, Ir. barr). 
The meaning " summit " is not suitable in the case of Barrow, but the Celtic 
word may also have had such a sense as " extreme point, headland " ; cf. the 
meaning " source of a stream," found in Ir. place-names (Joyce, Irish Names of 
Places III. 130). Or the name may have been transferred to Barrow from one 
of the other Barreys. 

Foulney : Fowley 1537 Beck Ixv, the Fola 1577 Harr., Foulney 1577 Saxton, 
Fouley, Fowley 1667 CWNS X. 278 ; now [fo'lni]. The island formerly " bred 
innumerable fowl of divers kinds " ; cf. the graphic description in a document 
of 1537 quoted in VHL VIII. 310. The name means " bird island " (O.N. fugl 
or O.ft.fugol " bird," and O.N. ey or O.E. eg " island "). Fugley is a well-known 
Scand. name. The change of Fouley to Foulney seems due to influence from 


Peel Island was named from the peel castle on the island. On the old name 
Fouldray, etc., see p. 200. 

Roa : the Roa 1577 Harr. ; now [ro'a]. Earlier forms are wanted. But very 
likely Roa is O.N. Raudey " the red island " ; cf. Roe in the Shetlands (Jakobsen, 
Aarb. 1901, p. 171f.). 

Walney : Wagneia(m) 1127, 1127-33 Ch, 1190 FC, Wageneia 1155, 1189-94 Ch 
(orig.), Wagneya 1200 ChR, Wannegia 1246 LAR, Waghenay 1336 FC II., Wawenay 
1404 CR, Waynow 1537 LR, Wanowe, Wayno 1539 FC II., the Wauay 1577 Harr., 
Walney 1577 Saxton. I derive the name from an O.N. Vogney, the first el. being 
O.N. vogn " grampus. Orca Gladiator." The grampus, according to VHL I. 
210, is still a visitor, even if a rare one, to Morecambe Bay. The name may have 
been given because grampuses used to be seen near the island. But it is also 
possible that the name was given in allusion to the shape of the island ; like the 
grampus, it is long and narrow. 

Several minor places on Walney are mentioned in early sources. 
Biggar : Bigger 1292 FC, Bygger 1537 LR, 1539 FC II. The first el. of the name 
seems to be O.N. bygg " barley." The second might be ergh " a pasture ; a hut " 
(cf. p. 10). The combination does not seem quite convincing, but it is possible 
some cultivation of barley may have been carried on at a place chiefly used for 
pasture. Or O.N. geiri or O.E. gdra " a triangular piece of land " may possibly 
be thought of. 

Idlecote : Idell cote 1509 Beck 305, Idelcote 1539 FC II. W. B. Kendall, Report 
of the Barrow Naturalists' Field Club XIII. 47f., states that the sheepcote was 
erected on two common fields that had been left to lie idle. I cannot judge 
whether this is a trustworthy statement. 
North Scale : Northscale 1247 FC, 1292 FC. 
4. Above Town (N. of Dalton town). 

The bierley is also called Sanct Elen birlay 1537 FC II. It was then named 
from St. Helen's chapel, N.W. of Dalton. Cf. Sanct Elen doube 1537 FC II. 
(doube=dub " a pool "), Sayntellyngarth 1539 ib. The bierley had two divisions : 

Ireleth division (the W. part). 

Ireleth (h.) : Irlid 1190 FC, (grangiam de) Ireleyth c 1200 FC, Irelith 1292 FC, 
Irlyfhe 1336 FC II., Yerlethcote 1539 FC II. ; now [aiale}>]. The pers. n. Ire 
(prob. Scand. ; cf. Bjorkman, Namenkunde) or the gen. of O.N. Irar or O.E. 
Iras " Irishmen " and O.N, hlidoi O.E. hlid" slope." Ireleth stands on a hill-slope. 
Killerwick : Chiluestreuic DB, Kilverdiswic 1190 FC, -wik 1191-8 FC, Killerwyk 
1336 FC II, Killerwith 1509 Beck 305. The name is lost. The place seems to 
have been merged in Elliscales, near which it was presumably situated. The 
first eL of the name is the pers. n. Kilvert, which is apparently of Scand. origin 
(Bjorkman, Personennamen and Namenkunde), but of obscure history. The 
second el. must be O.E. wic, perhaps in the sense " cattle-farm." 
Askam (near the Duddon estuary) : ? Askeham 1535 DL. Perhaps, like Askham 
in Wml. (Askum 1232, Sedgefield), O.E. cescum or O.N. askum " at the ashes." 
But a base Ask-holm is equally possible. There seems no reason to believe that 
the form Ascum 1 quoted by Wyld from LC (1326) belongs here. 1 

1 Ascum is here used as a surname. Sir John de Ascum was proctor of the rector of St. 
Michael's (Am.). 


Dunnerholme : Dunreholm c 1220 FC, Dunerholme, Donnerholme 1252 FC I.316f. 
The place stands at a rocky eminence rising 60ft. above sea-level, on the low 
shore of the Duddon estuary. An el. Dunner- is found also in the name 
Dunnerdale, which very likely has as its first el. a form of the river-name Duddon ; 
see p. 223. As Dunnerholme is on the Duddon, the same etymology seems 
plausible for the first el. of Dunnerholme. But there is in early sources a third 
name with a first el. Dunner-, viz., Dunermersk c 1245, Dunner "mersk c 1270 
FC II. (orig.). The place seems to have been in Martin ; if so, this Dunner- 
cannot be from Duddon. I have no definite suggestion to offer as regards this 
element. Possibly we may compare certain etymologically obscure Norw. 
names, e.g., the now lost Dunnarstabir (NG 3, p. 271). The O.E. pers. n. Dunnere, 
found once in The Battle of Maldon, does not seem to me a probable source. 
Elliscales (N.W. of Dalton) : Aylinescal 1211-22 LPD II. 170, Alinscalis, Alin- 
scales c 1230 FC, Alescales 1539 FC II. See further Lindkvist p. 192. The first 
el., clearly a pers. n., is identified by Lindkvist with M.E. Ayline<Aylwine, 
by Wyld with O.E. Mlwine. But the early loss of w is somewhat remarkable, 
and I am inclined to believe that it is rather O.F. Alein 1 (with reduction of ei 
to i in the unstressed syllable) or the corresponding Ir. Ailene. The second el. 
is O.N. skdli " hut." 

Goldmire (W. of Dalton, on a stream) : Goldmyers 1517 DL, Goldemyre 1539 
FC II., (water-course of) Goldmyre 1538 FC II. Gold- may be O.E. golde the name 
of a yellow plant, perhaps also used of the marsh-marigold ; cf . Golborne, 
p. 99 ; -mire is O.N. myrr " marsh." 

Greenscoe : Greneschow 1338 FC, Grenescogh 1400 FC. O.N. grcenn " green," 
and skogr " wood." 

Haume, High and Low (or, Green) : Howehom 1336, 1400 FC, Greneham, Heyham 
c 1535 Beck 325, The Hygham, the Greneham 1539 FC II., Greenehawme 1596 
RW 178 ; now [a*m]. High Haume is high up on the slope of High Haume hill 
(510ft.) ; Low H. is on its lower slope. I suppose this is O.N. haugum " at the 
hills." Possibly Hougun DB, identified by Dr. Farrer with Millom, Cumb., 
refers to this place. There are several smaller hills near Haume. Another 
possibility is that the name is a compound of O.N. haugr " hill " and O.E. hamm 
" enclosure." But it is doubtful if the O.E. word was still in use in the district 
in the Scand. time. 

Hagg : Hogg 1338, Hagge 1400 FC, Hagspryng 1537 Beck Ixvi. E. dial, hag 
11 an allotment of timber for felling, a certain portion of wood marked off to be 
cut " (EDD), from O.N. hogg " felling of trees." 

Mousell (on Butts Beck) : Moushil 1271 FC, Mousell 1509 Beck 305, Mowsell 
1539 FC II., Moyselsprynge 1537 Beck Ixvi ; now [mo'zal]. The place is 
at a hill. The elements of the name seem to be O.E. mus " mouse " and hyll 
" hill." The modern pronunciation is remarkable. Sprynge 1537 is spring 
" a copse, grove . . . ; a plantation of young trees," etc. (NED). 
Roanhead : Ronheved 1338 FC, Ronhevede 1400 FC, Ronehede 1539 FC II. ; now 
[roned]. The place is situated near Sandscale Haws, a spit of sand projecting 
into the Duddon estuary ; this may originally have been called Roanhead. If 

1 The form Alaynschdes quoted by Wyld from AD I. refers to a place in Durham. The 
date should be 1393-4 instead of 1206. 

DALTON PAR. ^ 207 

so, the second el. means " headland." But more likely the place was perhaps 

named from the slight hill near which it stands ; in this case head means " hill." 

The first el. is possibly M.E. rone " a brake or thicket " (NED). 

Stewnor : Stonenernbech c 1190 FC II., p. 791, Stonerbek 1412 FC, Stevenor, 

Stevener 1603 RW 122, 168 ; now [stjirne]. Stewnor Bank and S. Park are 

high up among the hills in the N. part of the division. Stewnor Beck may be the 

present Poaka Beck. I take Stonenern- to be miswritten for Stoueneru- (in 

LPD II. 166 it is actually spelt Stonenerubech) and to be identical with Steveney, 

Cumb. : Stouenergam 12 cent. RSB. The first el. is O.N. stofn, stufn (or O.E. 

stofn} " a stump, stem," the second being ergh " a hill pasture." 

Thwaite Flat : Watefiatt c 1535 Beck 325, Watflat 1539 FC II. Cf. pp. 11, 19. 

Lindal with Martin division (the E. part). 

Martin (N. of Dalton, near Poaka Beck ; v.) : Meretun DB, 1185-1200 LPD II. 
174, Mertona 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Merton 1190 FC, Meretona c 1200 FC II., Parva 
Mertona 1249 FC II. (orig.) ; now [ma'tn]. O.E. Meretun " lake town." There 
are, or were, two or more tarns near Martin. In FC II. p. 753 we read (in an 
original document of c 1225) of " unam acram circa Sephet'ne et unam rodam in 
capite Tame " and of " lacum qui Tame vocatur," and the same document 
mentions Potfurlang " the furlong at the pot or pool." Sepheterne clearly means 
" rush tarn," the elements being O.N. se/(Engl. dial, seave) " rush " and O.N. tiorn 
" tarn." There is a place Tarn Flat mile S. of Martin ( : ? Terneflat 1332 FC). 
Orgrave (old manor) : Ouregraue DB, Oregraua 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Orgraf 1190- 
1200 FC II., Oregrave, Houegrave 1235, Oregrave 1246 LF, (molendinum de) 
Orgrave 1247 FC II. (orig.). Orgrave has been merged in Lindal, but the name is 
preserved in Orgrave Mill Cottages on Poaka Beck near Tytup Hall. Early 
documents frequently mention iron mines in Orgrave and the neighbourhood, 
and Lindal is still a mining centre. This tells us that the name Orgrave is a com- 
pound of O.E. ora " ore " and grcef " grave " and means " ore-pit." I find that 
the correct explanation was given by Collingwood as early as 1902 (The Lake 
Counties, p. 66). The name gives the important information that iron mining 
must have been carried on in the district since before the Conquest. The original 
Orgrave may have been at Eure Pits S.W. of Lindal ; Eure is the form of ore 
to be expected in N. dialects ; cf. [fliuo(r)] " floor " N.Lanc. (E. D. Gr. p. 444). 
Lindal (v.) : (grangia de) Lindale c 1220, (grangia de) Lindal c 1225 FC II., 
Lindale 1292 FC, Lyndale 1336 FC II. ; now [lindl]. The name, like Lindale in 
Cartmel, probably means " lime-tree valley." The village stands in a valley 
or hollow, but the name may also refer to the deep valley W. of the church. In 
FC I. 241 the name is explained as " the division or portion of the Common-land 
divided off for the purpose of growing lin, line, or flax." This etymology is 
founded on a passage in which mention is made of portions of Orgrave common 
field, among others " dim. rodam versus Lindale ad Raulith." But versus may 
mean " in the direction of," and the passage does not prove that Lindale was in 
Orgrave common field. The place is often called a grange, which shows that it 
did not belong to the common field. 

Tytup Hall : Tytope 1537 FC II. ; now [taitap]. Earlier material is wanted. The 
second el. may very well be O.E. hop in the sense " a valley." The place is in the 
valley of Poaka Beck. The first el. might be an O.E. pers. n. *Tyta; cf. Tytel. 



The S.E. part of the Furness peninsula, on Morecambe Bay. Like Dalton, 
Aldingham is not divided into townships, but three subdivisions are recognized : 
Aldingham. Gleaston, and Leece with Dendron. 

Aldingham was the principal seat of the lordship of Muchland, which embraced 
Aldingham and parts of Urswick par. (VHL VIII. 3005.). The name Muchland 
appears late ; the first quotation in VHL (Michel-land) dates from 1498 ; cf. 
Micheland 1514 Ind, Michellande 1533 FC, Michell's Land 1536 DL. The name 
is generally, and already in 1774 by West (p. 25), explained as Michael's land, 
the first lord of Muchland having been Michael le Fleming, who held it in 1127. 
This seems correct, only the late appearance of the name is curious. 
1. Aldingham (on the sea ; h.) : Aldingham DB, 1212 LI, 1269 LAR, 1327 LS, 
Aldingeham 1292 PW, Aldyngham 1332 LS, 1336, 1389 LF, Aldinghame 1341 
FC, Audingham 1587 RW 174. O.E. Aldinga ham " the ham of the Aldingas 
or descendants of Alda." 

Hart Carrs (near Leece) : Hert DB, Hertcarr 1418 CR, Hert Park 1536 DL. If 
the old name was Hert, we may compare Heorot the name of HroSgar's hall in 
Beowulf, Hart the name of a parish in Durham (Hert 1130-5 YCh 671), Swine in- 
Yks. (Swine DB, Swyna 1163-72 YCh 1362). But Hart in Durh. is perhaps not 
a safe analogy, as there are in the neighbourhood of the place Harton (Heortedun 
Sim. Durh.), and Hartlepool (Heruteu " Insula Cervi " in Bede). The name 
would seem to be O.E. heorot " hart." Names of animals used as place-names 
are occasionally found in Norway : Hjorten " the Hart " NG XIII. 353, Ron 
(<Hundr " dog ") NG I. 43. The reason why places got names such as these 
is as a rule by no means apparent. 

Baycliff (h.) : Bellecliue 1212 LI, Belediue, -dyue 1269 LAR, Beeldyff, -hagges 
1418, Beadiff 1585 RW 105. The place stands on a slope c 100ft. above sea-level 
near Morecambe Bay. The second el. is clearly O.E. dif " a slope." The first 
is rather doubtful. The earliest quotation points to O.E. Bella, a known name. 
But if the form Beeklyffis trustworthy, it might be O.E. bcel " fire, blaze." 
Newbigging (at two slight elevations in very low surroundings) : Neubygging, 
Newebigginge 1269 LAR. Bigging " building ; hut " is a derivative of big 
vb. from O.N. byggia " to build ; dwell." 

Roosebeck (h.) : Rosbech 1227 FC II., Rosebec, -beke 1269 LAR, Rosebek 1418 
CR. The hamlet stands in the S. part of the parish, close to a brook, which 
forms the boundary against Dalton. This brook, which rises not far from 
Roose (in Dalton par.), must formerly have been called Roose Beck. 
Scales (on a hill ; h.) : Scales 1269 LAR, 1418 CR, del Scales 1332 LS. O.N. 
skdli " a hut." 

Seamill (on the sea) : Semilne, Semilln 1269 LAR, Sey Mill 1536 DL. 
Sea Wood (near the sea) : Marina Silva 1282 CWNS XII. 234, Le Sewod 1418 
CR, Seywood Park 1528 DL. Seawood Scar (in the sands outside Sea Wood) 
seems to be le Whytescarre in Marina Silva 1282 CWNS XII. 235. Scar is O.N. 
sker " skerry." 

Sunbrick : Swinebroc, Swynebrok (no doubt for -brek) 1269 LAR, Swynbreke 
1282 CWNS XII. 235, Sonbrek 1418 CR, Swinebreake 1584, Sunbreke 1583 RW 


212, 216 ; now [sunbrik]. The place is in the N. part of the parish on the slope 
of a prominent ridge of 400ft. called Birkrig (Byrkeryg 1282 OWNS XII. 234). 
O.N. svin-brekka " slope where swine are kept." 

Windhill (on a hill N. of Aldingham) : ? W indul 1180-90 FC II. (orig.), Whynhill 
1418 OR, Windle 1605 Aldingham R. " Windy hill " ; cf. Windle in De. The 
form of 1418, however, may point to " whin hill." 

2. Gleaston (W. of Aldingham) : Glassertun DB, de Glestona 13 cent. RSB, 
Cleston, de Cleyston, de Clesdon 1246 LAR, Magna, Parua Gleston, Gleseton 
1269 LAR, Gleston 1389, 1450 LF, c 1540 Leland, Glayston 1577 Saxton, Glaiston 
1577 Harr. ; now [glrstn]. Gleaston hamlet stands on a brook at the foot of 
Beacon Hill (286ft.). Gleaston castle is a little way to the N. 

It seems we have to assume as the first el. of the name a form Gles- or (in 
view of the DB orm and the mod. pronunciation rather) Gles- from O.E. Glees-. 
The latter base would have to be derived from the root glis- in O.E. (jlisian, 
glisnian, etc., O.N. glis " gleam," etc. The base Gles- (or Gles-) would belong to 
Germ, glas-, glees- with much the same meaning ; cf . the Norw. place-names, 
Glesnes, Glceserud, O.N. glcesiligr " shining " etc. (NG XI. 262). The el. Gles- 
might be an old name of the brook, which has clear water. Or a beacon fire 
might have been called glees or the like ; cf . Beacon Hill. Or Gles- may refer to 
the situation of the place. The hamlet is in a sheltered position with hills to the 
W., N., and E., but with a free southern aspect " The light, sunny place " 
would be a suitable name. Glesnes in Norway is thought to have possibly got 
its name in allusion to its high free situation with a southern view. Or a mean- 
ing " glade, clearing " may be thought of. Glesefeld (in Line.) 1291 TE may 
have the same first el. as Gleaston. 

3. Leece with Dendron (S.W. of Aldingham). 

Leece (v.) : Lies DB, Les, Lees 1269 LAR, Lees 1327, 1332 LS, Leghis 1341 FC, 
Lece 1577 Saxton ; now [li's]. Apparently the plur. of O.E. leak " lea, pasture," 
etc. With the DB spelling Lies may be compared the DB Hieton. 
Dendron (h.) : ? Dene DB, Denrun, Denrum (printed Deu-) 1269 LAR, Denrum 
1412 FC, Deuron 1418 CR, Dendron 1584 RW 58 ; now [dendorn]. If Dene DB 
belongs here, the original name may have been O.E. denu " valley," or in this 
case rather " hollow, level ground among hills." The second el. of Dendron 
seems to be O.E. or O.N. rum " room," here perhaps " clearing " ; cf. p. 16. 
The same change of -m to -n is found in Dertren, p. 186. 


A district N. and W. of Aldingham, E. of Dalton par. There is no division 
into townships. 

Urswick (E. of Dalton town) : Ursewica c 1150 FC, Hursewic 1189 Ch, 1212 LI. 
Wrsewik 1190 FC, Ursewic 1194 Ind, c 1205 FC II. (orig.), 1212 LI, Vrs(e)wich, 
vrs(e)wic 1198-1208 Ch (orig.), Urswyk 1246 LAR, 1413 LF, Ursewik 1269 LAR, 
Vrsewyk 1327, -wik 1332 LS ; Magna Urswic 1180-90 FC II (orig.), Great Urswyk 
1277 LAR ; Parva Urswik 1257 LAR, Little Ursewyk 1299 LI. There are two 
villages and old manors : Great (or Much) and Little Urswick. Great Urswick, 
which is no doubt the earlier settlement, stands round the upper end of a large 



tarn. The earliest forms of the name point to early M.E. Urse- (rather than 
Ures-) as the first element. I believe this is the old name of the tarn, O.E. 
*Ursce " the bison's lake " ; cf. Swed. Ursjon (Hellqvist, Svenska Sjonamn, 
p. 679f.). The second el. is O.E. wic " village, homestead," etc. 
Quernbarow Fields (still found in West's map 1774) : Querneberg 1227 LF, 
Wharneborow (-barowe) Feld 1539 FC II. The elements are O.E. cweorn or 
O.N. kvern " mill," etc., and O.E. beorh or O.N. berg " hill " ; cf. Quarlton, 
p. 46. 

Bardsea (N. of Aldingham ; old manor, v.) : Berretseige DB, Berdeseia(m) 1155, 
1158, 1189-94 Ch (orig.), Bardeseia 1202 LF, Berdesey 1246 LAR, Berdeseye 
1269 LAR, 1348 LF, Berdese 1269 LAR ; now [ba'dza, ba'dzi]. The village is 
Dn the slope of a hill. Below it is a flat triangular piece of ground on the sea- 
shore, which may formerly have been partly under water. At the E. end is a 
slight hill, called Wadhead Scar. The second el. of the name, O.E. eg " island," 
etc., no doubt refers to this piece of land. The first el. is clearly a pers. n. If 
the DB form is to be trusted, it may be assumed to have been a dissyllabic name, 
perhaps O.E. Beornred. If it was monosyllabic, we may compare the O.E. 
Beard which seems to enter into Beardshaw, Bl. 

Bolton (S. of Little Urswick ; old manor) : Bodeltun DB, Botheltun 1180-90 
FC II. (orig.), Bowolton 1235 LF, Boulton 1299 LI, 1304 LF, Bolton c 1300 FC, 
1432 LF. O.E. Bopltun ; cf. p. 8. The name is now preserved in Bolton 
Chapel (ruined) and Bolton Heads (a hill). There is no vil. or hamlet of the name ; 
Hawksfield farm is on or near its site. 

Stainton (S.E. of Dalton town ; old manor, v.) : Steintun DB, de Steynton 1246 
LAR, Steynton, Staynton 1269 LAR, Stayntonam 1276 FC ; now [stentn]. The 
name means " stone village," " the village with the stones." On the village 
green are numerous stones of various sizes, some huge blocks of remarkable 
shape. They are obviously erratic blocks, and some have deep cavities or 
channels formed by the action of running water. An inhabitant told me they are 
thought to have been washed up by the flood. The correct etymology was given 
by West 1774. The first el. of the name is O.N. steinn or O.E. stdn, later Scan- 

Adgarley (h. ; now in Stainton, which it adjoins) : Eadgarlith 1180-90 FC II. 
(orig.), Adgareslith 1212 LI, Adgerlith, -lyth c 1300 FC ; now [adga'li]. O.E. 
Eadgar pers. n., and O.E. hlid or O.N. hlid " slope." The place stands on a 


A district W. of Ulverston, N. of Urswick. The surface gradually rises till 
altitudes of 700 to 1,000ft. are reached in the N. 

Pennington (v.) : Pennigetun DB, Penig-, Penytona 1157-63 Ch (orig.), Peninton 
1187f. LPR, Penigtvn 1198-1208 Ch (orig.), Peniton 1202 LF, Pennitona 1201-6 
LPD II. 161, Penyngton 1327, 1332 LS ; now [penitn]. The name seems identical 
with Pennington in Hants : ? Pannigtun 973 BCS 1297, Penitone DB. Its first 
el. is no doubt O.E. peni(n)g " penny." There were presumably fiscal reasons 
for such a name. Analogous examples are given by Johnston, Pl.N. of Scotland 
s.v. Peninnghame. 


Cowran : Goran 1623 Pennington R, Coren 1666 RW 71 ; now [kauran]. 

Perhaps " cow-house," from O.N. kyr (g. pi. kua) or O.E. cu and O.N. rann 

" house." 

EUabarrow : Ellerburghe 1332 FC, Ellerbarrowe 1542 DL. O.E. ellern " elder " 

or O.N. elri " alders " and M.E. bergh " hill." 

Ewe Dale (in the far N.) : Ulvedale, -bech 1189-1209 LPD II. 166, Ulvedale 

(vacherie) 1352 FC, Uldale 1408 FC II. O.N. Ulfadalr " valley of the wolves." 

The identification of the early forms with Ewe Dale is not absolutely certain, 

but Ulvedale is stated to have been in the far N. of Pennington. 

Holebiggerah : Holbigwra 1332 FC, Hole Bigway 1538 FC II. ; now [(h)o'l 

bigre-]. Near this was Bigwra 1332 FC. Bigwra is O.N. bygg " barley " and 

(v)rd " corner," etc. The place is in a deep valley. 

Kirkstead (near Lindale) : Kirkested 1332 FC. " The site of the church." There 

must have been a church at the place. 

Loppergarth (close to Pennington church) : Lopgarth 1595 RW 107, Loppergarth 

1642, Laupergarth 1643 Pennington R. First el. possibly dial, louper " jumper ; 

vagabond," etc., from O.N. hlaupari, 

Rathmoss : Rathmosse 1656 Pennington R. Near by is Rath vale. Rath is no 

doubt O.N. raudr " red " or a derivative of it. The places are near the upper 

Levy Beck, formerly apparently Rawthey ; cf. p. 191. 

Walthwaite (on a hillside) : de Walthwayt 1260-80 FC II., Walthwaiteforthe, 

Walthwaitforde 1332 FC ; now [wo-tyat]. Wai- is probably O.N. vollr " pasture, 

meadow " ; Norw. void, Swed. vail are often used of a meadow at a shieling or 

of a shieling. The place is near a brook. 

Whinfield (h.) : Quinfel' 1329 FC, Whinfell 1587 RW 229. The place stands at 

a hill (308ft.). The elements of the name are M.E. whin " gorse " and O.N. fiall 

" fell." 


This large parish forms a long, comparatively narrow strip of land, which 
reaches to the N. boundary of the county. It is bounded on the E. by the Leven 
estuary, the Crake. Coniston Water, and Yewdale Beck. The western boundary 
follows a chain of hills, which separate Ulverston from Kirkby Ireleth par. In 
the S. is some comparatively low land, but the ground rises quickly. In the N. 
are hills such as Coniston Old Man, Wetherlam, and others. The villages and 
homesteads are mostly in the E. part. 

1. Ulverston (town) : Vlurestun DB, Oluestonam 1127ff. Ch, Olueston 1155, 
1189-94 Ch (orig.), Ulveston 1191-8 FC, 1246, 1273 LAR, Olueston 1196 LF ; 
Ulverston, Uluereston, Uluerestune pul 1180-4 Ch,' Ulverston 1246 LAR, 1309 LF, 
etc., Uluereston 1271 LAR, Ulueriston 1277 LAR, Vluereston 1332 LS ; Ulreston 
1246, 1336 LF, Vllerston 1327 LS ; U'ston 1867 Morris. The early forms without 
r are no doubt chiefly due to omission of an abbreviation-mark for er. Partly 
Norman influence may be assumed. The first el. of the name is either the com- 
mon O.E. pers. n. Wulfhere, with loss of W owing to Scand. influence, or O.N. 
Ulfarr, as suggested by Bjorkman, Personennamen. I am inclined to prefer 
the first alternative. 
Conishead Priory (S.E. of Ulverston, on Leven Sands) : Cuningesheued 1180-4 


Ch, Conigeshevede, Conyngeshevede 1180-4 Ch (orig.j, Chunghishewid 1194-9 Ch 
(orig.), Cunning eshevet, -heved 1208 FC, Cuningesheued 1235 LF, Coningisheued 
1246 IPM, Cuningesheued 1246 LAR, Kunisheved 1245 LPD II. 192 ; now 
[kunized]. The present (modern) mansion stands at the foot of a short ridge 
or hill with fairly steep sides, on the N. slope of which is Big Head Wood. The 
second el. of the name, head (O.E. heafod), means " hill " and refers to this hill. 
The first el. is O.N. *kunungr, konungr " king," which has very likely replaced 
O.E. cyning ; cf. Coniscliff, Durh. : Ciningesclif Chr. (E.), Cunesclive 1203 

Dragley Beck (h.) : Dracklebecke 1596 RW 241 ; now [dragla bek]. Dragley 
appears as Drakelow c 1270 FC II. The hamlet stands on Levy Beck. Drakelow 
is no doubt identical with Drakelow in Derby : cet Dracan hlawen 942 (Johnston). 
It probably means " the hill or mound of the dragon." There may have been a 
legend about a dragon attached to the place. 

Gascow : [Gars]chownab 1180-4 Ch, Garthscoh, -lac 1220-46 Ch, Gartschou 1272-8 
LPD II. 193 ; now [gaska]. The elements of the name are O.N. gardr " fence ; 
enclosure " and skogr " wood." There is a small pointed hill behind the farm ; 
this is the nab referred to in the earliest example (O.N. nabbr, nabbi " peak or 
knoll "). 

Hasty Gill (a long valley N.W. of Ulverston, at the head of which a height of 
700ft. is reached) : Hastigale 1368 FC, Hastagale 1412 FC (Index). The second 
el. seems to be O.N. geil " narrow glen." The first el. is doubtful, especially as 
the early forms vary. If, as seems probable, Hastigale is the more correct form, 
we may think of O.N. hdstigi " stallion " or *hdstigr " high path." But better 
material is wanted. 

Roshead or Rosside (N.W. of Ulverston, in Hasty Gill) : (villa de) Reuesath, 
Ruesath c 1270 FC II., de Ressat 1332 FC, Rosset a 1412 FC, Rossett 1537 LF, 
Russett 1552 LF. I believe the elements of this name are O.N. Refr pers. n. 
and set, sat " shieling " ; cf. p. 16. The change of e to o is abnormal. 
Swarthmoor Hall : Swartemore 1537 LR, Swarthmore 1537 FC II., Swartmore 
1595 RW 216, Swartmoor 1867 Morris ; now [swa*]?mu8r]. Probably O.E. sweart 
" black " and mor. The place was named from Swarth Moor, now drained, 
which gave name also to Swarthmoor village in Pennington. 
Trinkeld (S.W. of Ulverston) : Hindekeld 1180-4 Ch, Trandekeld 1319 LPR 
357 1 , (cursum fontis quae vocatur) Trankelde FC I. 424, Trynkell 1539 FC II., 
Trenkelt 1598 RW 216, Trinkelt 1615 RW 107 ; now [triqkald, trig keld]. O.N. 
prdndr (or rather prdndi ; cf. Bjorkman, Namenkunde) pers. n. and kelda 
" spring " (thus in the main Wyld). A copious well rises at the place, and from 
it a rivulet runs eastward. The sound-development of the name is remarkable. 
The change of a to i is probably due to the fact that a was long. This was 
palatalized to [e*] and shortened early enough to take part in the change of [e] 
to [i] before nk. The regular Tr- instead of Thr- is due to the change of pr > tr 
found in parts of Lane, and Wml. (Wright, E.D.Gr. 313). 
2. Mansriggs (N. of Ulverston ; h.) : Manslarig c 1520 VHL VIII. 356, Mans- 
larigges 1539 FC II., Mansriggs 1577 Ind II. The district occupies some ridges 
and hills. The first el. of the name cannot be determined with the material 


3. Osmotherley (N. of Ulverston) : Asemunderlawe 1246 LAR, de Asmundrelau 
1341 IN, de Osmoundrelawe 1332 LS, Osmunderley 1539 FC II., Easmotherlei 
1588 RW 50 ; now [ozmuoali]. See Lindkvist p. 4 and Wyld. Jsmundar, the 
gen. of O.N. Asmun&r (later anglicized to Osmund-), and O.E. hlaw " hill." The 
name is remarkable in so far as it contains a Scand. gen. form and an Engl. 
second el. We must assume that O.E. hldw had been adopted by Scand. settlers. 
The loss of n and change of d to d is found also in Osmotherley, Yks. 
Broughton Beck (h.) : Broctunebec c 1246, Brockton-, Broghtunbec c 1272 FC, the 
name of the brook on which the hamlet stands. The old name of the place was 
Broughton : de Broghton 1332 LS, de Broghtona 1333, Broghtonam a 1412 FC. 
O.E. Broctun. 

4. Egton with Newland (N.E. of Ulverston, on Leven Sands and the Crake). 
Newland (the S. part) : Neulande 1276 FC, Neweland 1418 CR. The place may 
originally have been a piece of newly cultivated land belonging to the townfield 
of Ulverston or Plumpton. 

Egton (the N. part) : Egetona 1248 LPD II. 171, Egeton 1262 ib. 175, Egton 
1272 FC, Eggeton FC I. 413 ; now [ektn]. There is no hamlet called Egton. 
The place was very likely near the present hamlet of Penny Bridge, which was 
named from a family resident there. An early name of the ford that preceded 
the bridge was Tunewat(h) FC I. 348, 378, i.e., " the village ford," probably 
" Egton village ford." Egton may be O.E. Ecgan tun, as the earliest forms seem 
to suggest, or ecg-tun, i.e., " the tun at the edge or hill-side." The hills slope 
sharply towards the Crake. 

Greenodd (at the confluence of the Crake and the Leven ; v.) : Green Odd 1774 
West (map). The name means " the green promontory." It need not be old, 
as odd (O.N. oddi) is still used in Lane, dialects in the sense " a small point of 
land " (EDD). 

Nettleslack (h.) : de Nettlisclak 1264 FC II. (orig.), Netylslake 1544 DL. The 
place stands in a slight hollow or valley. The elements of the name are O.N. 
netla or O.E. netele " nettle " and O.N. slakki " valley." 

Plumpton (E. of Ulverston, on the flat shore of the Leven) : (landam de) Plumb- 
tun, Plumton 1180-4 Ch, (Haya de) Plumtun 1276 FC, Plunton Ho' 1867 Morris. 
O.E. plume " plum- tree " and tun. 

Scathwaite, High and Low (hamlets ; in the higher W. part; : Scafthwait 1246, 
1272 FC, Scafthauith 1248 FC II., Skathwayt 1336 FC II., Scait(w)hait 1597 RW 
168 ; now [ska]?at]. Cf. also Lindkvist p. 121. Lindkvist suggests as first el. 
O.N. skaf " peeled bark used as fodder." More probable is perhaps the O.N. 
pers. n. Skapti, or Norw. skapt in the sense " lower spur jutting out from a hill." 
Toppin Rays (on a hill) : Toppinraise 1590, 1599 RW 184. Engl. dial. toppin(g) 
means " a hill." Rays is O.N. hreysi " cairn." 

5. Lowick (N. of Egton with Newland and Osmotherley) : Lofwic 1202 LF, 
Lowyk 1246 LAR, Laufwik, -wic, -wyk, Louwyk, Lofwyk FC I. 435fi., Lewike 1577 
Harr. ; now [lo'ik]. Lindkvist, p. 147, suggests as the elements of the name 
O.N. lauf" leaf, foliage " or a beck-name Laufa and O.N. vik " bend of a river." 
The existence of a beck-name Laufa may to some extent be corroborated by 
Harrison's statement that the brook which rises at Lowick chapel was called 
the Lew. But probably the name Lew is a back-formation from Lewike, and the 


first alternative, Laufvik " leafy bend," seems to me preferable. Laufvik is a 

common name in Norway ; cf. e.g. NG XI. 62. Lowick Bridge and Lowick 

Green are on the Crake, which makes several bends. 

Groffa Crag : Crophacrage 1636 RW 76, Bropha-cragg 1662 RW 77 ; now 

[grofo krag]. The farm is on the slope of a rocky hill, called Groffa Scars. I 

imagine the name represents an O.N. Grof-haugr (cf. Norw. Grovhaugen NG V. 

113), the first el. being O.N. grof " hole, hollow ; brook." A quarry may have 

been at the place, or a natural hollow may be meant. 

Hawkswell : Hawkeswell 1561, 1563 DL. O.N. Haukr pers. n. and O.E. wella 

" well, brook." A small brook runs past the farm. 

Knapperthaw: Knapthall 1591f. RW 283, Knapathow 1674 ib. 32 ; now [napa)>o-]. 

The farm stands at a ridge with a round knoll at one end. The first el. is an O.E. 

cnceppede " provided with a cncepp" O.E. cncepp means " top of a hill," dial. 

knap also " bump, knob." The second el. is no doubt O.N. haugr " hill." The 

name accurately describes the hill. 

6. Subberthwaite (a hilly district in the W. part of the par.) : de Sulbythwayt 
1284 LAR, Sulbithwayt 1346 VHL VIII. 357, Soelbythwayt 1489 PatR, Sober- 
thwayt 1538 FC II., Sowberthwat 1577 Saxton, Soberthat 1592 RW 32 ; now 
[suba]?at]. The earliest forms point decisively to the first el. being a place-name 
in -by, no doubt identical with Soulby in Cumb. and WmL, and probably having 
as first el. the pers. n. Suli found in O.Dan, or possibly O.N. sul " pillar." We 
must assume that there was once a place called Sulby somewhere near Subber- 
thwaite. The later forms seem to be due to association with M.E. bergh " hill." 
A plausible explanation is that a neighbouring hill had the name Solberg, identical 
with Sulber Hill in Yks. (Solberge DB, Solberhe FC) from O.N. Solbiarg " sunny 
hill." This may have been the name of Lin Crag, at the foot of which Subber- 
thwaite stands. Solbiarg, now Solberg, is a common name in Norway, and is 
held to mean sometimes " sunny hill," sometimes " a hill situated in the west " 
(NG IX. 110, XL 12). 

Gawthwaite or Goathwaite : Golderswatt 1552 LF ; cf. VHL VIII. 354. Second 
el. O.N. pveit ; the first is doubtful. 

Stennerley (High and Low) : de Stainnerlid 1200-35 FC II., de Stainerlith 1251 
LPD II. 175, Staynerlyth 1285 LAR, de Staynerlyth 1316 LI. Cf. Lindkvist p. 81. 
O.N. Steinarr pers. n. and hlib " slope, hill-side." The hamlets are on the slope 
of a hill reaching 788ft. 

Tottlebank : Totlbank 1612 RW 283. The place stands at the foot of a hill of 
700ft., close to Blawith Knott (812ft.). I believe Tottle- is M.E. tote-hill " look- 
out hill." Bank means " hill." 

7. Blawith (at the S. end of Coniston Water ; h.) : (foresta de) Blawit 1276, 
Blawith 1341 FC, Blathe 1600 RW 185; now [bla'5, bla^j. O.N. Bld-vidr 
" the black wood " ; cf. Bldskogr in Iceland and Myrkvidr in Norway with the 
same meaning. Blawith is an old forest district. 

Birkrow : Byrkerowe 1564 DL, Birkraye 1640 RW 176. Second el. apparently 
O.N. (v)rd " corner," etc. Bouldrey or Bouthrey Bridge perhaps has the same 
second el. 

Cockenshell : de Cockanscales 1284 LAR, de Cokainscalis 14 cent. FC, Cokenscale 
1632 Torver R. Cocken- cannot be anything else than the place-name Cocken 


(Dalton) ; cf. p. 203. The name would seem to show that the fells in High 

Furness were common land belonging to the townships in the south. The second 

el. is O.N. skdli " hut." 

Houkler Hall : Hoglerhowe 1609 RW 284, Houghler Hall 1637 ib. ; now [haukte 

ho-1]. The farm stands at Spout Crag (over 300ft.) W. of Blawith chapel. The 

name no doubt originally denoted the hill, the second el. being O.N. haugr 

" hill." The first el. is doubtful ; it is very likely a compound containing ergh 

" a shieling." 

Picthall : Pickthowe 1609 RW 175, Pickthawe 1644 RW 289 ; now [pik)>o-l]. 

No doubt identical with Pikedhowe FC I. 203 (W. Yks.). " Pointed hill " ; cf. 

Pike Law in Bl. The place stands at a small pointed hill, characterized also by 

pointed rocks on its sides. 

Stable Harvey (in a valley near Coniston Water) : de Stableheruy 1332 LS. This 

must be " the stable of Harvey." Harvey is a French name. 

Water Yeat (on a small brook) : Wateryate myll 1539 FC II., Wotteryait 1597 

RW 3 ; now [wo-tajet]. Yeat is O.E. geat " gate." 

8. Torver (W. of Coniston Water) : Thoruergh 1190-9 Ch, Thorwerghe 1202 LF, 
Thorfergh 1246 LF, Torver(e)gh, Thoruergh 1246 LAR, Torweg 1252 LAR, 
Toruerg 1272-80, 1299-1320 LPD II. 193, Torver 1537 LR. The second el. is 
ergh " a shieling." The first is doubtful. If it began in T-, either O.N. torf 
" turf, peat " or the O.N. pers. n. Torfi or Torfa would yield a satisfactory 
etymology. If the name began in Th-, a Scand. name in por- must be the first 
el., e.g., purwif (a woman's name ; cf. Bjorkman) or porolfr, but neither seems 
to go well with the early forms. 

Grassguards : Gresgards 1599 Torver R. O.N. gresgardr " grass enclosure." 
Hoathwaite : Holtwayt 1272-80 LPD II. 193. The place is on a brook in a deep 
valley. Lindkvist's suggestion that the first el. is O.E. or O.N. hoi " hollow " 
seems thus very plausible. 

9. Church Coniston (at the N. end of Coniston Water ; v.) : 'Coningeston 1157-63 
Ch (orig.), Koningeston 1196 LF, Coningeston 1257 LAR, Kunyngston 1336 
FC II.; now [kunistn]. O.N. *Kunungstun "the king's tun." The name might 
be an O.N. adaptation of O.E. Cyningestun, but is more probably Scandinavian 
and possibly preserves the memory of a small Scandinavian mountain kingdom. 
A Norwegian " kingdom " was not a large district. A sea-king might command 
quite a small fleet. There is no intrinsic improbability in the suggestion that 
Coniston with adjoining districts formed a Viking kingdom. Its extent may be 
indicated by the names Thurston Water for Coniston Water and part of the 
Crake, and Cunsey on Lake Windermere. Thurston Water was named from one 
Thurstan, an early owner. The southern boundary of his possessions was possibly 
the point where Thurston Water changed its name to Crake (cf . p. 192). Thurstan 
may have been the founder or one of the early kings of the kingdom. Cunsey is 
very likely O.N. Kunungs-d and may have been named from the same king as 
Coniston. If so, his kingdom must have comprised at least part of the land 
between Coniston Water and Lake Windermere. But, of course, Coniston may 
have belonged to some larger Scandinavian kingdom. 

Little Arrow : Little Array 1610, Little Harrow 1671 RW 112. Probably ergh 
" a shieling." 


Haws Bank : Howhousebancke 1645 Coniston R. Howhouse has as first el. O.N. 
haugr " hill." Bank means " hill." 

Tilberthwaite : Tildesburgthwait 1196 LF, c 1200 FC, Tilburthwait a 1412 FC ; 
now [tilb8]?8t]. Tilberthwaite farms stand 2| miles N. of Coniston in a valley. 
The first el. is a lost place-name tillesburc 1157-63 Ch (orig.), which contains a 
pers. n., O.E. Tilli, as in Tilbury (Lindkvist), or perhaps rather one identical 
with that in Tildesley, De. The el. burg suggests that there was once a fort at 
the place. There are possibly traces of one at Low Tilberthwaite. 


The district between the Crake and the S. part of Coniston Water on the W. 
and the Leven and the S. part of Windermere on the E. It is mostly hilly 
except in the southernmost part and along Colton Beck and Rusland Pool. 
It consists to a great extent of fell country and forest land. Colton till 1676 
belonged to Hawkshead. There is no division into townships, but the customary 
division into hamlets may be in the main followed. 

(a) Colton (the S.W. part ; h.) : Coleton 1202 LF, de Colton 1332 LS, Colton 
1336 FC II., Coltona 1400 FC ; now [koltn, ko'ltn]. Colton h., with the church, 
stands on Colton Beck. The earliest form points to a first el. with I, not II, 
and probably dissyllabic. I suppose it is O.E. Cola pers. n. Cola is not found 
very early (929 Wilts, etc.), and is looked upon by Bjorkman as probably Scan- 
dinavian, while Redin thinks it is at any rate not genuinely English. As Koli 
is rare at least in O.N. and O.Dan, (while Kolr is common), and Collingbourne 
is a place-name in Wilts, where we do not expect to find Scand. names in very 
early times, I think Scand. origin improbable, and see no reason why O.E. Cola, 
like O.H.G. Colo, should not be a native name. Derivation from a brook-name 
is in itself possible ; Kola is a common Norw. name of streams, meaning " the 
coal-black one." But such a sense at least does not suit Colton Beck. A third 
possibility is that the first el. is O.N. kola " charcoal burning." On Scand. names 
apparently containing this word see Lid en, NoB IV. 117ff. 
Bandrake Head : banryghed c 1535 Beck 329, Banryghed 1539 FC II. The place 
stands at the S. end of a ridge now called the Rigg. Banrig, obviously the 
original name of this ridge, no doubt stands for Bandrig, band being band " a 
ridge of a hill ; a long ridge-like hill," a word common in the Lake District and 
probably from O.N. band " band, tie," in Norw. place-names also used of " a 
long narrow mountain." Cf. Scandinavians, p. 17f. 

Haybridge (on Rusland Pool) : Haybryge c 1535 Beck 329, Haybryg 1537 LR. 
Hay- may be O.E. haga or O.N. hagi " enclosure." 

Bouth (h.) : Bouthe 1336 FC II, 1400 FC, 1577 Saxton, Bowth 1577 Harr. ; now 
[bau5]. O.N. bud " booth, hut." Bouth was no doubt originally a dairy-farm 
belonging to Colton. 

Hulleter : Hullater 1538 FC II, 1648 RW 226. The place is on the slope of a 
hill called Hulleter Scar. Cf. Latterbarrow, p. 194. 

Kirkthwaite : Kyrkwythe c 1535 Beck 329, Kyrkthwayte 1537 LR. The place 
stands a good way from Colton church. There must be some special reason why 
the thwaite was named from the church. 


Legbarrow Point (at the confluence of the Crake and the Leven) : Legbarro 1577 

Saxton. The second el. is M.E. bergh " hill." The wood-clad point is not very 

high, but rather prominent. The name may be identical with the first el. of 

Legburthwaite, Cumb., which is of doubtful origin. 

Ravensty : the Ravenstie 1509 Beck 303, the Ravenstye 1537 FC II. Apparently 

O.N. Hrafns stigr " Hrafn's path." The name is lost. Manor courts were held 

at the Ravensty, which seems to have formed a boundary within Furness Fells ; 

cf. West p. 154, Beck p. 303. 

Sales : Saylys c 1535 Beck 329, Sayles 1537 LR, 1539 FC II. ; now [se-lz]. 

Perhaps the plur. of O.N. seyla (Norw. seyla " mire, pool, puddle ") ; cf. Seyla, 

the name of a place in Iceland. But the place is in a high situation ; Sales Bank 

reaches 559ft. 

Tottlebank : totyle banke c 1535 Beck 329, Totilbanke 1537 FC II. Cf. the same 

name p. 214. There is a prominent hill at the place. 

Whitestock Hall : Whitstockhowe 1597 RW 52. Presumably " the hill with 

white stock or tree-trunk." 

(6) Haverthwaite (between Rusland Pool and the Leven) : Haverthwayt 1336 

FC II., 1539 ib. ; now [hava)>9t]. O.N. hafri " oats " and thwaite. The village 

is on a slight hill close to the Leven. 

Abbot's Reading : Abbot Ridding 1661 RW 238. On ridding " clearing," see 

p. 16. 

(c) Finsthwaite (at the S. end of Lake Windermere ; v.) : Fynnesthwayt 1336, 
Lower, Outer Fynswyth 1539 FC II. " Finn's thwaite." Finnr is a well-known 
O.N. name. 

Newby Bridge (on the Leven) : New bridge 1577 Saxton, Newbridge 1577 Harr., 

Newbybridge 1659 Hawkshead R. The original name would seem to have been 

New Bridge. If the name Newby Bridge is original, Newby is probably a family 


Stot Park : Stot parke c 1535 Beck 329, Stotparke 1537 LR. M.E. slot means 

" a bullock " and " a horse." The usual meaning of the word in Northern 

dialects is " young bull or ox." Park means " paddock, enclosure." 

(d) Rusland (on Rusland Pool ; v.) : Rolesland 1336 FC II., -e 1400 FC, Rwse- 
lande 1537 LR ; now [ruzlan(d)]. The first el. is apparently a pers. n. represent- 
ing e.g. O.N. Hroaldr or Hrolfr. Rusland Pool is a stream with a very slow 
course. Cf. on pool " a stream," p. 15. 

(e) Nibthwaite (E. of the Crake ; High and Low Nib thwaite villages are near the 
river) : [Thornebuthwait 1202 LF, Tornbetheweit 1207, Thornubythuieitht, -thueith 
1208 LF], Neubethayt 1246 LAR, Neburthwait 1336 FC, Neburthwayt 1336 FC II., 
Neburthwaite 1400 FC, Nybthwayt 1537 LR, Nybthwayte, Nybthwaytgrange 1539 
FC II. ; now [nib]?9t]. The variation in the early forms renders a definite 
etymology difficult. The bracketed forms are usually held to refer to Nibthwaite. 
The place called Thornebuthwait must have been situated in the neighbourhood 
of Nibthwaite, and the identification is plausible. If so, Thor is no doubt a 
distinctive addition, there being two Nibthwaites, either the pers. n. Thor or 
thorn " thornbush." But, as pointed out in VHL VIII. 363, there is mentioned 
in a deed of 1522 a place Furnebuthetwayt in Blawith. This may be a later form 
of Thornebuthwait. Nibthwaite may have as first el. a compound of the adj. 


new (O.N. nyr) and O.N. byr or bud. A base Newbuththwait is perhaps the most 
plausible. The forms in Nebur- seem to be due to association with the word 
neighbour. The change of New- to Ne- may be due to the following labial ; cf. 
safe from sauf, etc., and [nibikan] for Newbigging, Cumb. 

Arklid (on a slope near the Crake) : Arkeredyn 1573 DL. The second el. may 
be ridding " clearing " with change of r to I owing to dissimilation. 
Hill Park: Hellparke c 1535 Beck 329, Hellpark 1539 FC II., Helparke 1537 FC II. 
The regular e in the early forms shows that the first el. cannot be O.E. hyll. 
O.N. hella " stone, flat hill," etc., or hellir " cave, hole," or hialli " a ledge, a 
terrace " may be thought of. 

(/) Bethecar Moor (a hilly district reaching over 1,000ft., E. of Coniston Water) : 
Bothaker 1509 Beck 304, bethokar c 1535 ib. 329, Betaker 1537 LR, Betacre, 
Bettaker 1539 FC II. ; now [be}>aka]. High and Low Bethecar are high up on 
the hill side. Neither O.E. cecer " field " nor O.N. kiarr " carr " seems probable 
as second el. The places are no doubt old shielings, and I suppose the second el. is 
ergh " a shieling," the first being the Gael. pers. n. Beathag, earlier Bethoc (McBain, 
p. 412). Cf. Bedrule (Jedburgh) : Rulebethok 1280 Johnston, Pl.N. of Scotland. 
Ickenthwaite : Yccornewayt c 1535 Beck 329, Ykhornthwayt 1537 LR, Eccorn- 
thwayt, Yckorntwayte 1538f. FC II. O.N. ikorni " squirrel " and pveit. 
Parkamoor : Parkamore c 1535 Beck 329, 1539 FC II. The place is in a high 
situation. The name apparently means " the enclosure on the moor." 


A district W. of Lake Windermere. Most of it is fell country, but there are 
stretches of level ground on Esthwaite Water in the centre, and on Lake Winder- 
mere and Coniston Water. Hawkshead, till 1578, was a chapelry under Dalton. 
1. Hawkshead and Monk Coniston with Skelwith (the N. part). 
Hawkshead (town): Hovkesete 1198-1208 Ch (orig.), Haukesset c 1220 FC, 
Haukeset, Hoxeta 13 cent. FC, Haukesheved 1336 FC II. ; now [ho'ksed, ho'ksad]. 
O.N. Haukr pers. n. and set, sat " shieling." Hawkshead was originally no doubt 
a dairy-farm under Coniston. Hawkshed Field : Hawkershedfeylde c 1535 Beck. 
Hawkshead Hill (h.) : Hyll c 1535 Beck 329. 

Birkwray (in a valley) : Byrkwray 1600 RS XII. ; now [ba'k re']. O.N. birki 
" birches " and (v)rd " corner," etc. 

Esthwaite : Estwyth 1539 FC II., Easthwaite 1670 RW 243 ; now [estwat]. 
The first el. may be the adj. east or O.N. eski " ash-trees." Earlier forms are 
wanted ; the form Estwayt of 1326 given by Wyld refers to a place in Notts. 
Esthwaite Water is called Estwater 1537 Beck Ixv, the Mere of Hawkshed 
Estwater 1539 FC II. This may seem to point to the adj. east as the first el. of 
Esthwaite, but Estwater might be a contraction of Esthwaite Water. 
Fieldhead (N. of Hawkshead town) : ffeyldehed c 1535 Beck 329, Feldhed 1539 
FC II. Probably " the upper end of Hawkshead townfield." Cf. Waterhead 
(Waterhed 1537 LR) at the N. end of Coniston Water. 

Hannakin : Anykinsyke 1659, 1683, Han(n)ikin sicke 1678f. Hawkshead R. 
Perhaps the pers. n. Hankin (or a diminutive of Ann) mistaken (in combinations 
like those above) for a place-name. 


Monk Coniston (a district N.E. of Coniston Water, adjoining Church Coniston) : 
Monke Coneston 1568 DL. The district belonged to the monks of Furness. 
Brantwood : ? Brentwode 1356 FC. The place is on a steep slope. The first el. 
may be M.E. brant, brent " steep." But brent " burnt " is possible. 
Skelwith : Schelwath 1246 LAR, de Skelwath 1332 LS, SMwyth 1537 LR ; now 
[skelij?]. The original Skelwith was no doubt where the present Skelwith Bridge 
over the Brathay is, an excellent place for a ford. The second el. of the name 
is O.N. vad " ford." The first might be O.N. skiol " hut." But I believe it is 
an old name of Skelwith Force, a waterfall just above the bridge. O.N. skiallr 
means " loud, resounding." From it Norw. river-names seem to have been 
formed. Magnus Olsen, NG XI. 557, thinks the name Skjeldalen contains a 
river-name Skipll " the loud one." A waterfall might well have been called 
Skiallr. I believe Skel- goes back to such a name. The roar of the waterfall 
is heard from a considerable distance ; it must have been a valuable help to 
wayfarers in locating the ford. 

Arnside : Ernesyde 1537 FC II., Arnesyd c 1535 Beck 329, Arneside 1577 Saxton. 
High Arnside is on the slope of a hill (1,056ft.). The elements of the name are 
no doubt an O.N. pers. n. (e.g., Ami) and set, sat " shieling." 

2. Claife (on Lake Windermere) : de Clayf 1272-80 LPD II. 193, de Clayfe 
1316 LI, Clayf 1336 FC II., 1400 FC ; now [kle'f]. O.N. kleif " steep hill-side 
up which there is a path." The name no doubt refers to Claife Heights, which 
reach over 800ft. 

Colthouse (h.) : Colthowse c 1535 Beck 329, Coutehouse 1596 RW 243 ; now 

[kolthaus]. Self -explaining. 

Lonethwaite (h.) : Lonethwayt 1537 LR, -e 1539 FC II., Lounthwaite 1613 RW 45 ;' 

now [lo - n]?8t]. Perhaps identical with Lownthwaite in Cumb., whose first el. 

may be dial, loun from O.N. logn " calm " (Lindkvist 117). Or the first el. may 

be lone, a sideform of lane. 

Satterhow : Satterhow 1588 RW 44, -e 1597 Hawkshead R. Really the name of 

a hill. First el. very likely O.N. scetr " shieling " (Collingwood, Saga Book of the 

Viking Club II. 146). Second el. O.N. haugr " hill." 

Sawrey, Far and Near (villages) : Sourer 1336 FC II., 1400 FC, Sawrayes c 1535 

Beck 329, Soray Extra, Infra 1539 FC ll.,ffarr Sawrey 1657, Nan Sawrey 1656 

Hawkshead R ; now [SOTO]. O.N. saurar, the plur. of saurr " mud, dirt " 

(Lindkvist, p. 162). Near Sawrey is near Esthwaite Water, while Far Sawrey 

is on a brook. 

Tock How (on the slope of Latterbarrow) : Tockhowe 1597 RW 45. The first el. 

may be O.N. Toki or O.E. Tocca pers. n. 

Wray, High Wray : Wraye c 1535 Beck 329, 1537 LR ; the Heywray 1619 RW 

23 ; now [re', hai re']. Cf. Lowrey 1656 Hawkshead R. O.N. (v)rd " corner," 

etc. The places are in a remote situation near the brook that empties Blelham 


3. Satterthwaite (the S. part ; h.) : Saterthwayt 1336 FC II., Saterthwayte, 
-whayte 1539 FC II. ; now [sata}>ot]. First el. as in Satterhow. 

Cunsey, High and Low : Concey myll 1537 Beck Ixv, Consay 1593, Consey nabb 
1649 Hawkshead R. The places are on low ground near Lake Windermere, 
Low Cunsey on Cunsey beck. The most probable etymology is O.N. Kunungsd, 


the name being originally that of the beck. But the second el. may be O.N. 
ey " island," here " water-meadow " or the like. Cf. Coniston, p. 215. 
Force Forge, Force Mill (on Rusland Pool) : Forse Forge 1668 RW 103, Force 
Myln 1537 DL. Dial, force " waterfall " from O.N. fors. The part of Rusland 
Pool where the places are is called Force Beck, and Fosse is the name of Rusland 
Pool in Saxton's map of 1577 and in Harr. 1577. 

Graythwaite : Graythwayt 1336 FC II., 1537 LR. Lindkvist p. 109 suggests as 
first el. O.N. grdr or O.E. grceg " gray." But it is remarkable that Grathwait 
is found in Bolton-le-Sands. " The grey thwaite " does not seem a very plausible 
name. Perhaps the first el. is rather a pers. n., derived from the adj. 
grdr. O.Swed. and O.Dan. Grd seem to occur, and O.N. grdi is well evidenced as 
a by-name ; cf. Finnur Jonsson, Aarb. 1907, p. 259. Or we might think of O.N. 
greidr " ready, free " as the first el. of Graythwaite. This adj. is used as an 
epithet to leid " road." 

Grizedale (on Grizedale Beck ; h.) : Grysdale 1336 FC II., 1537 LR. The first 
el. is O.N. griss " pig," less probably Griss pers. n. 


This large parish occupies the N.W. part of the Furness district, being bounded 
on the W. and N. by the Duddon, on the E. by a chain of high hills. Most of it 
is fell country, but there is some level land in the S. part on the rivers Duddon, 
Lickle, and Steers Pool. 

I. Kirkby Ireleth (the S.E. part) : Kirkebi 1191-8 FC, Kirchabi 1175-1200 LPD 

II. 178, Kirkebi/ 1227 LF, 1292 FC, Kirkebi Irlid 1180-99 Ch (orig.), Kirkeby 
Irelith 1278 LAR, Kirkeby Irlith 1332 LS ; now [ka'bi]. O.N. Kirkiubyr " church 
village." The church is at Beckside, which seems to be the original Kirkby. 
The old name was, of course, Kirkby, Ireleth, the name of the adjoining part of 
Dalton, being added for distinction from Kirkby Lonsdale and others. 

Gerleuuorde DB has been identified with Kirkby Ireleth. This is purely 
conjectural. Gerle- is identical or cognate with the first el. of Yarlside, and 
represents a form of O.E. eorl or O.N. jarl. The second el. is O.E. worp " enclo- 

There are five customary divisions, from S. to N. : Low and Middle Quarters, 
Heathwaite, Woodland, besides Kirkby Moor in the east. 

Ashlack Hall (Heathwaite) : de Eskeslac 1270-80 FC II. (orig.), 1284 LAR, de 
Esselac 1325 FC II. (orig.). O.N. eski " ash-trees " and slakki " valley." The 
place is in a valley. 

Beanthwaite (Middle Quarter) : Benetwhat 1582, Beanethat 1605 RW 274 ; now 
[bi*n)>8t]. " The clearing where beans are grown." 

Dove Bank, Dove Ford (Middle Quarter) : Donefoard 1636 RW 112 ; now [duv 
bank, duf fo'd]. Dove Ford is not far from Grizebeck, while Dove Bank is on 
the slope of a hill. Dove may be dove the name of the bird, but it may also be an 
old name of the brook that gave name to Grizebeck, identical with Dove in 
Derby and Staffs, (an dufan 951 BCS 890), and Yks., and probably of Brit, 
origin (Prim. Celt. *dubo- " black "). The brook has clear water, but a dark 


Grizebeck (Middle Quarter ; on a brook ; h.) : (piscariam de) Grisebek 13 cent. 
FC ; now [graizbek]. First el. O.N. griss " pig," less likely Griss pers. n. 
Haverigg Holme (Woodland) : Haverrigge 13 cent. FC. The place stands near 
Steers Pool below a ridge. The elements of the name are O.N. hafri " oats " 
and hryggr " ridge." Holme seems to mean " water-meadow " or the like. 
Heathwaite : Heittheuuot 1273 PatR (Lindkvist, p. 110). Better material is 
wanted. The early form seems to point to O.N. hey or O.E. heg " hay " as the 
first el. 

High Mere Beck (Low Quarter) : Merbecke 1615 RW 172. The place stands 
on a brook which forms the boundary between Kirkby Ireleth and Dalton, and 
is called Merebek 1252 FC, Merebeck 1422 FC II. The name means " boundary 
brook " (O.E. gemcere " boundary "). 

Raisthwaite (Woodland) : Reisthuathec (!) 1319 Dugdale VI. 556, Raisthwayt 
1538 FC II. ; now [re'stat]. First el. O.N. hreysi " cairn." 
Row Ridding (Woodland) : Row Ridding 1649 RW 176 ; now [rau ridn]. 
" Rough clearing." 

Soutergate (Low Quarter ; h.) : de Soutergate 1332 LS, Sowtergate c 1535 Beck 
328 ; now [sautage't]. O.E. sutere or O.N. sutari " bootmaker " and O.N. gata 
" road." 

Troughton Hall (Woodland) : de Troughtona 1422 FC I. 685, Troughton Hall 1599 
RW 195. O.E. trog " trough," later also " valley," and tun. Troughton Hall 
is in the valley of Steers Pool. If Troughton is a name of old standing in the 
district, it is of considerable interest, names in -tun being rare in this part of 
Furness. Bartholomew gives no other Troughton. 
Woodland : Kirkeby wodelands 1544 DL, Wodland chap. 1577 Saxton. 
2. Angerton Moss (between Kirkby or Steers Pool and the Duddon ; extra- 
parochial) : Angertuna c 1300, (pastura de) Angertona 1293, (Mussa) Angertona, 
(mariscum de) Angertuna c 1300 FC, (marsh of) Angerton 1299 LI, Angertonmosse 
1336 FC II. ; now [anstn]. The township occupies a small area of flat mossland, 
only partially reclaimed. 

The name Angerton is curious. Names in -tun usually denote old villages 
or homesteads, but the Angerton district must in early times have been prac- 
tically uninhabitable and used only to some small extent for pasture. One 
explanation may be that Angerton once belonged to and took its name from some 
place in the neighbourhood called Angerton. No such place is known to have 
existed ; also Angerton is used alone of the district. The present Angerton farm 
in Broughton, situated at a slight elevation reaching over 50ft. above sea-level 
just outside the boundary of Angerton Moss, is hardly an old settlement. I am 
inclined to believe that there was once a village or homestead in the district, 
which disappeared at an early period, being destroyed by the inroad of the sea 
or, more probably, by a flood of Steers Pool or the Duddon. Such a catastrophe 
is not without parallels in the history of Lancashire. Cf. Cheetham's Lancashire 
p. 8f., Hird's Lancashire Stories II. 360ff. 

Angerton Moss is situated on the estuary of the Duddon, that is, on a deep 
bay. It is therefore possible that Anger- is O.N. angr " bay." The O.N. word is 
common in place-names, but is not in living use in historic time. However, the 
name Angry Head in the Shetland Islands (Jakobsen, Aarboger 1901, p. 74) 


seems to show that it was still used in the Viking Age. Another possibility is 
that Anger- is the el. anger found in Angram, Bl., etc., and which seems to be a 
lost O.E. anger " pasture," etc., identical with G. anger " meadow," etc. As the 
name seems to be very old, the second alternative is perhaps preferable. 
Waitham Hill (on a slight hill). Now [we'Sam]. Cf. Waitham, p. 198. 
Whelpshead Crag (a rock S. of Angerton farm) : (rupem de) Quelpesatecrag c 1300 
FC. Whelpshead appears as Welpesat 1235 LF. The place must have been a 
shieling in the moss. The second el. of the name is set, sat " a shieling, a pasture." 
The first is identical with that of Whelpside (on the Mint, Wml.), and of Whelpe- 
satte- in Quelpesatehoues 1280, Whelpesattehowe 1285 IPM (Yks.), which have no 
doubt the same second el. as Whelpshead. Cf. also Whelpo in Cumb. (Quesphow 
1285, Whelphou 1336 ; Sedgefield). W help- seems to be O.N. Hvelpr (also 
Hvelpi NG IV. 190) pers. n., originally a nickname (hvelpr " a whelp "). It is 
remarkable that Whelp is so common in England and particularly that it occurs 
thrice combined with set. Possibly some names contain the name of the animal. 
Also O.E. hwelp, like the corresponding G. word, may have been used as a pers. 

3. Broughton 1 (between Steers Pool and the Duddon, N. of Angerton Moss ; 
town) : Brocton 1196, 1235 LF, Broghtona c 1300 FC, Broghton 1378 LF ; now 
[bro'tn]. O.E. Broctun. A small brook runs through the town. The township 
occupies several ridges and some level land in the river valleys. 

Appletree worth. No early forms found. If this is an old name in -worth, it is 
rather remarkable, as names in -worth are very rare in Furness. 
Aulthurstside : Oulehurst 1618 RW 206, Aulhirst 1638 RW 167. This is one of 
the two names in -hurst found in the Furness district. The first el. is doubtful. 
Baskell (on the slope of a ridge) : Bascall 1592 DL, Baskell 1609 RW 9. The 
second el. is no doubt O.N. skdli " a hut." The first is doubtful. 
Bleansley, Lower and Upper (on the slope of a ridge W. of the Lickle) : Blengeslit 
1292 VHL VIII. 404, Bleansle 1570, 1593 RW 102 ; now [blrnzli]. First el. 
apparently O.N. Blceingr pers. n., second O.N. hlifi or O.E. hlifi " slope." 
Borderiggs : de Borderigges 1330 LI, Bordriggs 1587 RW 10, Bordridge 1597 
RW 12 ; now [bordarig, bo'drigz]. The place stands E. of Broughton between 
two ridges. The first el. of the name seems to be O.E. bord " board ; shield," 
perhaps referring to the flat upper surface of the ridges. 

Bracelet (near the top of a ridge) : Bracelet 1614 RW 7, Breuslot 1660, Braslet 
1663 Torver R ; now [bre'stet]. The second el. is probably dial, sleet " a flat 
meadow, a level moor " (<O.N. sletta). The first might be O.N. breidr " broad." 
Hawthwaite (on the top of a ridge reaching 300ft.) : Hauthwayt 1509-47 DL ; 
now [o-)>ot]. First el. O.N. haugr " hill." 
Rosthwaite (h.) : Rosthwait, -bank 13 cent. FC. Cf. the same name p. 197. 

4. Dunnerdale with Seathwaite (a district E. and S. of the Duddon, chiefly fell 

1 Borch in DB is held by the editor of VHL to be a corrupt form of Broughton. This may 
be correct. But probably Borch represents O.E. Burh or O.N. Borg. This might, of course, 
have been an earlier name of Broughton. But in my opinion Borch refers to the same place 
as Borgerha 1196 LF. This latter is to be sought a good way N. of Broughton. Mr. Colling - 
wood is no doubt right in locating Borgerha at Castle How on the W. bank of the Duddon. 
Borgerha may be O.N. Borgar-d or a combination of O.N. borg and ergh " a shieling." 


Dunnerdale (the S. part) : de Dunerdale 1293 LI, Dunerdale, Donerdale 1300 LF, 
Donesdale a 1412 FC, Dunerdall c 1550 RW 221. Dunnerdale does not now 
denote the Duddon valley but the district E. of the river. I believe the name 
meant originally " the Duddon valley," and has as first el. a Scand. gen. form 
of the name Duddon. This name occurs in an early source as Duthen, which I 
take to be a Scandinavianized form. The Scand. form may have been *Dudn, 
gen. Dudnar. This latter became Dunner- in the same way as Wathenpol (1291) 
became Wampole (1362), now Wampool in Cumb. Cf. also Tanshelf (thus 1257) 
from O.E. Taddenesscylfe (Goodall). In favour of this suggestion it may be 
pointed out that names in dale very often have a river name as first el. ; cf. 
Lonsdale, Roeburndale, Wyresdale in Lancashire. The form Dunnersdale 
1522 DL is too late to be adduced against the suggestion offered. 
Scrithwaite : Skraithwaite 1615 RW 221, Scrythwaite 1786 Yates ; now [skratyat]. 
The first el. is no doubt O.N. skrida " a landslip on a hillside, a black streak on a 
mountain-side from old slips," the source of dial. Engl. scree " the debris or shale 
which collects on a steep mountain-side," etc. (EDD). Scrithwaite stands on 
a slope. 

Sella : Sellaye 1584 RW 223, Sellowe 1624 RW 59. The place stands at a round 
hill on the bank of the Duddon. The elements may be O.N. sel " hut on a shiel- 
ing," and haugr " hill." 

Stonestar : Stonescarre 1584 RW 221, Stonester 1786 Yates ; now [sto*n ste'r]. 
The place stands on the Duddon at the foot of a steep, rocky hill. The second el. 
of the name is O.N. sker, whence Engl. dial, scar " a precipice ; a cliff ; a steep, 
bare bank." 

Seathwaite (the N. part) : Seathwhot 1592 RW 47, Seathwhat 1598 RW 88, 
Seathut Waugh. " The clearing by the lake " (O.N. seer and pveit). The place 
was named from Seathwaite Tarn, which is high up among the fells (1,210ft. 
above sea-level). There is not now any farm at the tarn. 
Troutal (on the Duddon) : Trutehil 1157-63 Ch (orig.). In the early example 
the name designates a pool in the Duddon : " de sicut aqua descendit de Wraines- 
hals in Trutehil et inde per Dudenam vsque mare." The second el. is O.N. 
hylr " a pool," the first apparently being O.E. truht " a trout." But, of course, 
the first el. might be the pers. n. Trute (apparently of Goidelic origin) found in 
Troutbeck, Cumb. ; cf. Sedgefield. 


IN this chapter an attempt will be made to draw some conclusions from place- 
names as regards early Lancashire, especially its history. 


There is one direct testimony to the survival of a British population in 
Lancashire after the Anglian immigration. According to Hist. St. Cuthbert 
(Sim. Durh., Surtees Soc. LI 141) Ecgfrith, King of Northumbria (670-685), 
gave Cartmel " et omnes Britannos cum eo " to St. Cuthbert. There is no 
definite reason to doubt the substantial correctness of this statement. If it is 
correct, it tells us that in the Cartmel district a British population lived on, in 
a subject position, after the Anglian invasion. 

In the same direction point place-names containing an English or a Scan- 
dinavian word for " Briton." Here belongs first of all the name Walton from 
O.E. Wala-tun, no doubt " the tun of the Britons." There are four Waltons in 
Lancashire : Walton-on-the Hill (De), Walton-le-Dale (Bl), Ulnes Walton (Le), 
and Walton near Cartmel. To these may be added Waltoncote, near Dalton-in- 
Furness. These names, of course, do not prove that a British element was 
recognized long after the invasion. 

Of greater importance are names containing Scand. Bretar. These names are 
few. A certain case is Birkby, near Cartmel. Here probably belong Brettargh 
(Woolton, De) and Bretteroum (Bolton-le-Sands). At least the first two cannot 
well be older than the tenth century. 1 

It is interesting to note that Birkby and Walton, near Cartmel, are situated 
fairly high and at some distance from the broad Eea valley. The names seem to 
tell us that the Britons had to give up the best land and settle in more remote 

The Britons who gave name to the Waltons and Birkby may be supposed 
to have been landholders and freemen. Their status may have been that of 
the Wealas mentioned in Ine's laws, whose wergeld was half that of the freeborn 

It should be added that names such as Walton, Birkby do not testify to a 
considerable British element. They rather suggest that British villages and 
homesteads were exceptions. 

Better information than by direct testimonies is offered by place-names. 
The British element in Lancashire place-names, though not very considerable, 
is by no means negligible. 

River-names in Lancashire, as in other parts of England, are, to a great extent, 
British. No safe conclusions can be drawn from such as to the survival for any 

1 An interesting name is Brettestret, found in WhC p. 318, as the name of the Roman road 
that runs past Downham ; cf. Brettestreet 13 cent. VHL vi. 365 (in Clitheroe), referring to 
the same road. The identical name is found in Westmorland : Brestrett, Brethstrette, -strede 
1220-47 (15 cent, copy) CWNS x. 436ff., the name of a road near Martindale. A Roman 
road, now called High Street, runs close to Martindale Common. Apparently Roman roads 
were in some places held to be of British origin. In fact, Geoffrey of Monmouth says the 
British roads were first made by King Belinus (Windisch, Das keltische Britannien, p. 163). 
The first element of these names is O.E. Brettas " Britons." 


length of time of a British element. The same remark applies to names of 
places which had acquired some importance already in pre-English time, 
as Manchester or to that of a prominent hill such as Pendle. Of most value 
are such names as seem to have denoted ordinary British settlements, hamlets 
or homesteads. Yet also names of insignificant streams may be used as 

The British (or probably British) names 1 are not evenly distributed. To 
some extent groups of such names may be pointed out. 

In the south-east, in the hilly district east and north-east of Manchester, we 
find Alt, Chadderton, Hanging Chadder, Glodwick, Werneth, also the stream- 
names Beal, Irk, Tame. These names seem to suggest a British population 
driven up among the hills. 

Another cluster of British names is found north-west of Manchester, 
in the Eccles and Manchester districts : Cheetham (Cheetwood), Eccles, 
Pendleton (Pendlebury), perhaps Worsley. Further north are Croichlow, 

In Blackburn hundred British names are few and scattered. Certain examples 
are Colne (an old stream-name), Eccleshill, Ightenhill, Mellor (an old hill-name). 
Rossendale very likely contains an old British stream-name. Alkincoats, 
Dinckley, Winkley are etymologically obscure. 

In West Derby hundred a comparatively large group of British names is 
found in the old Newton hundred, south of Wigan. The old name of the district, 
Makerfield, seems to contain a British word. Here belong : Culcheth, Haydock, 
Kenyon, possibly Brynn (Winwick par.), Ince, Pemberton, Wigan (Wigan par.). 
To these may be added the now lost Roskit 1199-1222 CC 695, Rosket 1531 VHL 
iv. 119 (Aspull, Wigan). In the CC passage Roskit is used of a brook, but it was 
no doubt originally the name of a locality, as it is in the example of 1531. The 
name may be identified with le Rongoet in Brittany (Rosquoet nemus 1270 
Loth 229), a compound of ros " hill overgrown with heather, etc.," and koat 
" wood " (cf. Cheetham p. 33). Near this district, though in Leigh par., is 
Chaddock, and Eccleston and Penketh (Prescot par.) are not far off. Glaze- 
brook and Sankey are streams in this district. 

The rather considerable number of British names in the eastern part of West 
Derby hundred seems to tell us that in this district a British population was left 
in undisturbed possession for a comparatively long time. As the district is not 
separated by natural boundaries from the surrounding ones, the inference is 
plausible that it was in the old days chiefly an inaccessible forest district. At the 
time of the Domesday survey Newton hundred was still largely forest (VHL i. 

In the rest of West Derby hundred there are only two or three British names : 
Ince Blundell (Sefton), Haskayne and ? Maghull (both in Halsall). 

Only a few examples occur in Leyland hundred : Charnock, Eccleston, 
Heskin, Penwortham. It is worthy of notice that Charnock, Heskin, and Pen- 

1 As British names are reckoned also such as contain British elements. I do not here take 
into consideration elements of possibly British origin found in living use in M.E. and Mn.E. 
dialects, such as crag (cf. p. 9) or cumb, or British pers. names in common use in O.E. time, 
as Ccedmon, Ceadwealla. 


wortham are near each other, and that Cokerdene and Wymott Brook are 
streams not far west of Eccleston. 

Amounderness hundred yields a better harvest. Here we find the interesting 
name Treales. Near this place are Eccleston, Preese, Preesall, also Inskip and 
Tulketh ; Savick Brook runs near Tulketh. These names seem to imply that a 
British population lived on in the interior of the Fylde and was merged gradually 
in the Anglian population. 

No certainly British names have been found in Lonsdale proper. Also streams 
have English or Scandinavian names ; British are only names of rivers, as Lune, 
Cocker, Conder, Keer, Kent. 

In Lonsdale North of the Sands, especially the Cartmel part, we might expect 
to find a considerable number of British names. In Cartmel, however, the only 
examples are the two Carks and Blenket. In Furness we only find (besides 
river-names such as Crake, Leven, Roose) the stream-name Dulas, 1 perhaps 
Croglinhurst, and the now lost Glanscalan (Glensalari) 1170-84 Ch, the name of a 
valley. Glan may be identical with Welsh glyn " valley " (for a instead of y 
cf. Canon for Welsh Cynon in Survey of Denbigh 1334). The second element 
may be compared with that of Welsh Bodscallan : Bodscathlan Rec. Cam. ; 
it may be Welsh ysgallen " thistle." But the name may also be Goidelic. Cf. 
Mir. glend " valley " and scdldn " a hut " (Marstrander, p. 34f.). 

It is quite possible some names of Furness hills or hill-tops found only in 
modern sources may date back to British times, such as Dow Crags (cf. Welsh 
du " black "), or Carrs (cf. Collingwood, Book of Coniston, p. 23), which might 
be O.E. carr " rock," derived by Forster, p. 126, from a British source. But so 
long as no early forms are on record no conclusions can be based on such names. 

However, a Welsh immigration into Lancashire 2 is known to have taken 
place in early post-Conquest times, and the possibility must be discussed whether 
any of the British names in Lancashire may have been introduced as a consequence 
of it. To Robert Banastre, who had received, about 1165, a grant of lands in 
Blackburn (Walton, Mellor, Eccleshill, Darwen, etc.), was granted by Henry II. 
Prestatyn in Flintshire. From this he was driven out by Owen Gwynedd in 
1167, and he then brought his people into Lancashire, where he obtained a grant 
of land in Makerfield. The Welsh are called Banastre's Welshmen or le Westroys 
(as late as 1278, VHL i. 369). In Lancashire documents from about 1200 Welsh 

1 Duleshope (-hoppe) ? 930 YCh 1, the name of a stream in or on the boundary of Amounder- 
ness, may contain the same stream-name. But the stream fell into the Hodder, and must 
have risen not very far from the source of the Cocker. Perhaps it is the present Langden 
Brook, which runs a little S. of the boundary between Lancashire and Yorkshire, and falls 
into the Hodder not far from Dunsop Bridge. Possibly Dunsop is identical with Duleshope. 
If so, Dules- may be miswritten for Dunes-. Cf. also YCh I, p. 4. 

2 It may not be out of place to point out here that there seems to have been a not incon- 
siderable emigration from Lancashire into Wales in the Middle Ages. In the Survey of 
Denbigh 1334 the number of people with surnames taken from Lancashire places is quite 
remarkable. From the Index I enumerate e.g. Billyng\ Blakeburne, Cliderowe, Dedesbury, 
Dukworth, Grenolf, Hodeahale, Lathum, Plesynton', Rachedale, Radeclive, Reved, Ribchestre, 
Rommesbothem, Romworth, Rossindale, Scheresworth' , Stalemynne, Symounduston' ', Twyselton', 
Whalley. Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, one of the chief tenants in Lancashire, was granted 
in 1282 or 1283 the lordship of Denbigh (Introd. to Survey, p. xi.). This accounts for the 
emigration in question. 


personal names 1 are frequently found, obviously borne by these Welsh. Later 
they disappear. The Welsh names are chiefly found in documents referring to 
south Lancashire, but they are not restricted to Newton hundred. 

In my opinion it is extremely doubtful if any of the British names dealt with 
can have been introduced by Banastre's Welshmen. These names mostly 
denote old manors, and it is improbable that such (e.g., Wigan, Kenyon) should 
have been renamed owing to late Welsh influence, for these Welsh cannot after 
all have been so very numerous. Some names, e.g., Ince Blundell, Eccles, 
Haydock, have been found too early, while others are shown by their forms 
(e.g., Chaddock, Culcheth, Penketh, Eccleston) to be early loans. It is quite 
conceivable that these Welsh may have left behind some place-names, but I 
cannot point out any plausible example. 


1. Mercians or Northumbrians in Lancashire 

While it seems to be generally held by scholars that Lancashire north of the 
Ribble was annexed early to Northumbria and received a Northumbrian popu- 
lation, there is not the same consensus of opinion as regards the nationality of the 
Anglians in the land between the Ribble and the Mersey. Some scholars 2 hold 
that the Ribble of old has formed the boundary between Northumbrians and 
Mercians. On the other hand Professor Tait, VHL ii. pp. 2, 175ff., is inclined 
to think that this district was Northumbrian down to 923, when it was annexed 
to Mercia by ^Ethelstan, and had till then a Northumbrian population and 
dialect. 3 The place-name material throws some light on this question. 

1 Some of the Welsh names found in early Lancashire sources may be worth pointing out. 
Most of those here given were no doubt introduced by Banastre's Welshmen. Some of the 
names are very corrupt and difficult to explain. 

Algareth (son of Yorwerth de Hulton) 1246 LAR 68 (Cf. O.W. Elguoret, -guaret LL, 
O.Bret. Aluuoret. But cf. next name). Angaret 1246 LAR 74 ( ? cf. Welsh Anaraud Cartae 
Glam. 364, O.Bret. Anauuoret). Arkem 1199 LPR 106 (cf. O.W. Arcon, Arcom LL).Blethin 
(de Aughton) 1235 LF I. 63 (O.W. Bledgint, Welsh Bleddyn ; cf. Forster p. 179). Cadigan 
(de Heton, Salf.) 1246 LAR 98 (M.W. Cadwgan, O.W. Catgu(o)caun).Cuuin (son of Maddok, 
Makerfield) 1246 LAR 81 (cf. M.Bret. Cuuan Loth 201, Welsh cu " dear "<cwm). Edeneuec 
1246 LAR 67 (for -neuet ; cf. Eidniuet LL; Edenaveth 1268 Cartae Glam. 693). Einion (de 
Aughton) VHL iii. 296 (Welsh Einion). Orifin (de Rudyng, De) 1246 LAR 117 (early 
Welsh Griffin). Ythayn 1246 LAR 116 (cf. Judon, Idon LL, I than, Ithon Rec. Cam.). Idthel 
1199 LPR 106, Ythel (de Hulton) 1246 LAR 116, (domum) Ythel 1259-68 CC 505 (O.W. 
Judhail, Welsh Ithel).Jago (gen. Jagornie) 1199 LPR 106 (O.W. Jaco, Welsh Jago. Jago 
the Priest had sons Josured, Idthel, Osbertus, Arkem, Maddoc, Morgan, Philippus). Kenwrek 
(Simonstone, Bl) 1246 LAR 26, Kenewreg (Rainford, De) ib. 18 (Welsh Kenewrec Cartae 
Glam. 230). Lewel (Maddock son of) 1246 LAR 16 (probably for Lewelin<O.W. Liuelin, 
now Llewelyn). Maddok (de Blakeburn) 1246 LAR 91, Maddok le Walays (Makerfield) ib. 81 
(Welsh Madog).Meurik le Seriaunt 1262 LAR 301 (Welsh Meurig, O.W. Mouric). Morgan 
1199 LPR 106 (Welsh Morgan). Wervill, Warvill (Bl) 1246 LAR 91f. (Welsh Weruill, Gwer- 
vill, etc. Rec. Cam.). Wyun (his son) ib. 92 (Wian 1205 Cartae Glam. 297). Wrenou 
(Makerfield) 1246 LAR 119 (O.W. Guronui, Welsh Gronwy). Yorwerth : Jorveth de Hulton 
1199 ChR ( Yarwet 1246 LAR 68, Yarferth 1212 LI 65), Yarwerth de Litherland 1246 LAR 78 
(Welsh lorwerth). 

2 Cf. Oman, England Before the Norman Conquest, p. 253f., Brandl, Zur Geographic der 
altenglischen Dialekte, p. 27. 8 Cf., however, p. 232 infra. 


The place-names reveal some important dialectal differences between 
South and North Lancashire, which reach far back. As usual in the case of 
dialectal differences, a perfectly neat boundary line cannot always be drawn, 
as there is some overlapping in the border districts. Some dialect characteristics 
of South Lancashire are occasionally met with in Amounderness. 1 On the part 
of Blackburn north of the Kibble see p. 232. Some dialect characteristics, as 
the change a>6, or a>o before I, are too late to be taken into consideration. 

(a) The i- mutation of a before I + a consonant is usually a south of the Ribble 
(p. 21). This is the regular West Midland development. The Northumbrian 
development is e, and this is usually found north of the Ribble. For a few 
isolated exceptions, cf. p. 21. This distinction must have developed in O.E. 
(and probably not late O.E.) time. 

(b) O.E. c before OB (ea) is regularly palatalized in the West Midlands, but 
remains as k in southern Northumbria (Yks., etc.). In Lancashire south of the 
Ribble palatalization has taken place : Manchester, Chadderton, Chadwick, 
Chatburn, Chat Moss, etc. The same development is found in Blackburn north 
of the Ribble ; Ribchester, Chaigley, Chadswell. In the rest of Lancashire 
north of the Ribble we find k : Lancaster, perhaps Cadley ; cf . Cadiave-hustude 
(Tarnacre) 1200-17 CO 248, Cadmanwell 1451 CG,fontem Cademair (!) c 1200 CO 
(Bolton-le-Sands). The development south of the Ribble is typically Mercian. 

Here we may also mention the peculiar palatalized form of O.E. CBcer found 
in Cliviger and in Goldacher (Garston) WhC 572. This form has been found 
outside Lancashire only in Alsager, Ches. The similar palatalized form of 
acorn (atchern, etc.) has been evidenced in Lane., Ches., Shrops., and Staffs. 
dialects, while in M.E. times it seems to occur also in a Norfolk source (Anglia- 
Beiblatt xxxii. 156ff.). 

(c) O.E. a before nasals frequently appears as o, which, however, as a rule 
becomes a later on, except in the West Midland dialects, where o is often found 
to this day (Morsbach, Me. Gr., p. 120ff., Luick, Hist. Gr. 367). This is not 
quite a safe criterion, because in O.E. o was common in all dialects, also in 
Northumbrian. The common northern lone for lane seems due to this change. 
However, as in M.E. and Mn.E. time o is chiefly found in the West Midlands, 
its frequent occurrence in early forms of South Lancashire place-names points 
to the South Lancashire dialects having been West Midland ones. Examples 
of o are found in early forms of Ramsbottom Sa, Cronkshaw, Ramsgreave Bl, 
Cranshaw De ; cf. Cronkeford (Brettargh) WhC 806. For the dialects north 
of the Ribble the material is scanty. It is significant, however, that the following 
names never show any o-forms : Hambleton (Am.), Cant, Cantsfield, Rampside 
(Lo). Cronemosse (Lancaster) LI II. 172, however, forms an exception. Crones- 
keshaibroc 1211-40 CC 227 (Dilworth) is in Blackburn north of the Ribble. 

The conclusion seems warranted that the dialects of South Lancashire bear 
a West Midland stamp, and that some dialect characteristics go back to O.E. 

It is difficult, in the present state of English place-name study, to establish 

1 This may very well be due to this district having been partly repopulated, after the 
Conquest, from South Lancashire. At the time of the Domesday survey only 16 of its 62 
vills were inhabited ; the rest were waste. Cf. Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, p. 179. 


any name-types that may be said to be distinctly West Midland or distinctly 
Northumbrian. No safe conclusions can be drawn from names such as Adlington, 
Anderton, found in Cheshire and South Lancashire. More important is the fact 
that the South Lancashire Lostock (found thrice) has a counterpart only in 
Cheshire, or that O.E. fcelging, besides in S. Lancashire, has been exemplified, 
so far as I know, only in Staffs, and Worcs. (cf. p. 10). These may perhaps be 
looked upon as Mercian names. Another distinctive name-element is possibly 
waver in Wavertree and Wharton. This element does not seem to occur in the 
North, while it is well evidenced in the Midlands ; cf. p. 112. To the examples 
adduced there we may add Waverton, Ches. ( W avretone DB). Waverton, Cumb., 
is on the Waver, whose name is found as Wafyr 11 cent. RSB 527 (Gospatric's 
Ch.) ; we may compare the O.E. river-name Wcefer 957 BCS 1001 (Som.). But 
the etymology of the element is obscure. 

Of most importance for our purpose are names containing O.E. bold : New- 
bold Sa, Bold De, Parbold Le. The form bold has been found only very rarely 
in northern counties (Newbald, E. Rid. Yks., Bold, Scotland) ; it does not 
occur in N. Lancashire. In the West Midlands it is the regular form : Bold, 
Shr. ; Newbold, Ches., Derby, Notts., Staffs., Leics. (3), Northants., Worcs., 
Warw. (5) ; Wychbold, Worcs. The common occurrence of the form in South 
Lancashire seems to indicate a Mercian colonization. 

When once the Old English personal names have been carefully studied, 1 
it will probably be possible to make a distinction to some extent between Mercian 
and Northumbrian names. At present safe conclusions can hardly be drawn 
from them. There are, however, certain personal names occurring in place-names 
which may to some extent corroborate the conclusions arrived at. 

O.E. Ceadda (in Chadwick, Chadsworth Sa, perhaps Chadswell, Chaigley Bl 
N. of the Ribble) is common in the West Midlands 2 (e.g., Chaddesley, Wore., 
Chadsmoor, Staffs., Chaddesden, Derby, Chadkirk, Ches.) ; cf. also Chadshunt, 
Warw., Chadwick, Warw., Worcs., with O.E. Ceadela ( ? or to some extent 
Ceadwalla) as first element. The only place-name possibly containing this name 
found in old Northumbrian districts is Cadley, Am. The fairly common occurr- 
ence of Ceadda in S. Lancashire is noteworthy. 

O.E. Plesa (in Pleasington, Pleseley) is rare. Ploesa is the name of a Mercian 
dux (O.E.T. p. 457). The name may be the first element of Pleasley (Notts.), 
for which I have no early references, and enters into the lost name Plesinchou 
(Ess.) DB (cf. also Round, Commune of London 12), possibly also into Plestuna 
DB (Norf.). 

Tola occurs in two Lancashire names : Todmorden, Tottington Sa. Tottle- 

1 An excellent beginning has been made by Redin. However, he does not deal with the 
names found in place-names, the material most important for our purpose. 

2 The popularity of the name Chad in the West Midlands is due to the fame of St. Chad 
(f672), bishop of Lichfield. St. Chad seems to have been probably a Northumbrian by 
birth (Bede iii. 23). If so, the name must have been used in Northumbria, but it does not 
seem to have been nearly as popular there as it was in Mercia. 

Place-names with Ceadda (Ceadela) as first el. are found also in other Midland and in 
Southern counties. Cf. Gevenich, Die englische palatalisierung p. 63ff., Forster, Keltisches 
Wortgut, p. 180fi. But some examples probably contain the name Cedd (as Chedworth, 


worth seems to contain a derivative of it, and Tetta in Tetlow may be a related 
name. Tot(t)a, Tetta are at least extremely rare in place-names in the North ; 
Todburn, Nhb. and Totele DB (Yks.) are at most doubtful examples. They 
are fairly common in the Midlands and the South : Tottington, Nrf., Toynton, 
Line. (Totintune DB), Totton, Hants., Tostock, Suff. (Totestoc DB), Totnor, 
Heref., Totternho, Beds., Totley, Derby (Totingelei DB), Totham, Ess. (Toteham 
DB), Tottenham, Midds., etc. ; Tettenhall, Staffs., Tetworth, Hunts. Totta 
is the name of a Mercian in BCS 32, Tota that of a South Saxon O.E.T. p. 168. 
But Totta is found once in the Liber Vitae (O.E.T. p. 163). 

The following names, which I have not found in the North, may also be 
mentioned. They are all rare. Bcedd (in Bastwell), found in Warw., Worcs. 
(cf. p. 74), also in Badsay, Heref. (Bannister). Bcell (in Borsden), found in 
Cambr. and Som. (cf. p. 43). Due (in Duxbury), found in Cambr. (cf. p. 129), 
perhaps also in Duckington, Ches. Goldgifu (in Goldshaw Booth), found in 
Worcs. (cf. p. 80). Gydda (in Gidlow), found in Devon and Berks., also no 
doubt in Gidding, Hunts., Gedding, Suff. 

But there are, south of the Ribble, certain names which point rather to 
colonization from the North (Yorkshire). 

(a) There is one certain name in -ing (Melling), and Billinge may be another. 
Names in -ing (O.E. -ingas) do not occur in the majority of West Midland 
counties : Derby, Cheshire, Hereford, Stafford, Shropshire ; Dinting, in Derby, 
is probably not a case in point. There are isolated examples only in Notts. 
(Gedling, Hickling, Meering) and Leicester (Peatling). The occurrence of Melling 
(and Billinge) in South Lancashire is, therefore, in the highest degree remarkable. 
These names cannot have been given by Mercians. But there are several names 
in -ing in Yorkshire, and in N. Lancashire we find at least Melling and Staining. 
The S. Lancashire -ings are thus easily explained if we may assume a North- 
umbrian colonization. The fact that Melling is found both south and north of 
the Ribble is of special significance. 

(b) O.E. bopl often appears in the North of England as botl : Boo tie, Cumb., 
-bottle Nhb. and Durh. (common ; cf. Mawer), Fordbottle in Furness. The 
form botl does not occur in -the West Midlands, but there are three in- 
stances of Newbottle in Northants. In S. Lancashire we find Bootle, near 

Bolton (a compound of bopl and tun) is an extremely common name in Yks., 
and occurs in Scotland, Nhb., Cumb. (3), Wml., as well as in N. Lancashire 
(two different). In the Midlands and South the name is absent. It is, therefore, 
remarkable that there are two Boltons in Salford hundred. These typically 
northern names seem inexplicable if South Lancashire was colonized only by 

The conclusion is that the place-nomenclature of South Lancashire shows 
Mercian as well as Northumbrian characteristics. The Mercian ones are especially 
certain dialectal peculiarities that must date far back, while the Northumbrian 
ones consist of certain unmistakable name- types. We must assume that both 
Mercians and Northumbrians took part in the colonization of the district south 
of the Ribble. 


The land between the Kibble and the Mersey, according to the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle (A), belonged in 923 to Northumbria, from which it was in that year 
wrested by King Edward. The statement of the Chronicle is corroborated by 
one in Chr. E., which tells us that Whalley, in 798, was in Northumberland. 
It would, therefore, seem easy to explain the Northumbrian names in the district. 
The dialect and place-names, till the Conquest in 923, might have been North- 
umbrian, the Mercian characteristics being due to later Mercian influence. 
I cannot accept this conclusion. We must assume that by 923 the greater part 
of Lancashire was inhabited by an English population, and it is very difficult 
to believe that after 923 a very considerable immigration of Mercians and a 
recolonization of the district south of the Kibble took place. This would be a 
necessary assumption, if we are to explain the Mercian character of the early 
dialect, unless the district was already inhabited by a Mercian population at 
the time of the Conquest. Such forms as Chatburn, Ribchester (found in the 
northernmost part of the district), cannot be due simply to influence exercised 
on the dialects of the newly-conquered district by those of Mercia. My own 
opinion is that the land between the Ribble and the Mersey had a Mercian 
population before 923. The history of the district, I think, is about as 
follows : 

It is known that in 613 or 616 (cf. Plummer's Bede ii. p. 77) ^Ethelfrith, 
King of Northumbria (593-617), made a raid to Chester and defeated the Britons 

It is very probable that Lancashire was conquered at this time, or had 
already been added to Northumbria before. This is the opinion of Oman. 1 
According to him the land between the Ribble and the Mersey afterwards (either 
at ^Ethelfrith's death in 617 or at least in 633) returned into British possession 
and was later colonized from the Trent valley. 2 I am not sure this is correct. 
I believe the district was to some extent colonized by Northumbrians, and to 
this colonization are due such names as Bootle, Bolton, Melling. The last- 
mentioned name points to early colonization. 3 I do not think it can be much 
later than 600. Had the district returned to the Britons such names would 
probably have disappeared. 

At some time a Mercian colonization must have taken place, and to a great 
extent superseded the earlier Northumbrian. It seems plausible that this Mer- 
cian recolonization of South Lancashire was contemporaneous with that of 
parts of the West Riding carried out by Penda (626-655). The Mercians invaded 
Northumbria in 633, and seem to have recolonized parts of the West Riding 
(cf. Brandl, op. cit. p. 14f.). Brandl draws attention to the important fact that 

1 Op. cit. p. 252ff. Cf. Rhys, Celtic Britain, p. 139f., Tait, VHL ii. p. 2. 

2 There is no definite reason to suppose that the land between the Ribble and the Mersey 
again became British either after ^Etheh'rith's death or as a result of the victory gained by 
Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda over Edwin at Hatfield in 633. After the battle Cad- 
wallon marched on York and later further north ; he was defeated and killed by the North- 
umbrians in the very next year (Oman, p. 277f.). It does not seem probable, anyhow, that 
Cadwallon himself ever marched into South Lancashire. 

3 A study of Engl. place-names in -ing has brought me to the conviction that names in 
-ing (<O.E. -ingas) belong to a very early stratum. I hope soon to be able to publish my 


the dialect of the Leeds district 1 in the tenth century seems to have been Mercian. 
In the early Tribal Hidage, Elmet (in the West Riding) seems to be included 
among Mercian districts 2 (EHR xxvii, 626, 634). 

We do not know if the land between the Ribble and the Mersey was invaded 
at the same time as the West Riding, but such a hypothesis is in itself plausible, 
and it would give a very satisfactory explanation of the relation between the 
Northumbrian and Mercian elements in the Lancashire place-nomenclature. 3 
When, in or after 655, the Northumbrians recaptured the West Riding, the land 
between the Ribble and the Mersey may have again become a Northumbrian 
dependency, but, if so, its population was then preponderatingly Mercian. Of 
course, it is not necessary that the district became Northumbrian so soon, but 
at least in 798 it must have been so. 

Brandl, op. cit. p. 27, lays stress upon the fact that the land between the 
Ribble and the Mersey was placed in the diocese of Lichfield, a Mercian 
diocese, and takes it to prove that the Ribble of old formed the boundary between 
Mercians and Northumbrians. 

The districts north of the Ribble, at least Lonsdale proper and Amounderness, 
were probably conquered by Northumbrians before the land south of the Ribble, 
i.e., in the sixth century. The statement concerning Cartmel quoted p. 224, if 
trustworthy, shows that the Cartmel district was in Northumbrian possession as 
early as the time of Ecgfrith (670-685). There is every reason to believe that the 
Lune valley and parts of Amounderness became English some time before. In 
this connection I want to draw attention to a circumstance which seems to 
render it extremely probable that at least parts of the present Lancashire were 
firmly in Northumbrian possession early in the seventh century. ^Ethelfrith's 
successor, Eadwine, is known to have conquered Man and Anglesey (Bede, 
H. E. ii. 9). Such conquests seem to imply that the opposite coast of England 
was in Northumbrian hands. 

Certain place-names suggest very early colonization of the districts in 
question. On names in -ing see p. 231 . Some names in Lonsdale contain elements 
hardly or extremely rarely found as living words in historic times, and not, to 
my knowledge, evidenced in other Northern English place-names. Cf . Heysham, 
Hest, Slyne. 

That the old dialect of this district was Northumbrian in character has 
already been pointed out, and also that certain name-types are obviously 
Northumbrian. I will here only draw attention to the names Elston and Elswick 
(Am.), which contain the typically Northumbrian form Efiel- for Mftel-. 

A few words must be added on the history of Blackburn hundred north of 
the Ribble. This district is in Domesday reckoned to Amounderness, but was 

1 The interlinear gloss to St. Matthew (MS Rushworth), written by Farman, priest of 
Harewood N.E. of Leeds in the West Riding, is in a Mercian dialect (cf. Luick, Hist. Or. 24). 
For traces of Mercian dialect in the place-names of the West Riding see my Contributions to 
the History of O.E. dialects, p. 63. 

2 Pointed out to me by Prof. Tait. 

3 Cf. also Professor Tait, VHL II. 179 27 , who thinks it just possible that some Mercian 
characteristics of South Lancashire may be older than the annexation in the 10th century. 
" It is conceivable that the land between Ribble and Mersey was Mercian for a time in the 
seventh century." 


annexed, early in the twelfth century, to Blackburn (VHL vi. 230). The resulting 
closer relations with Blackburn cannot explain the agreement of the dialect of 
the annexed district with that of Blackburn, as revealed in place-names. 1 Such 
forms as Chaigley, Chadswell, cannot have developed in the twelfth century. 
There must have been intimate relations between the district in question and 
Blackburn before the Norman Conquest. This is very plausible in view of the 
contiguity of the districts. I do not think there is any reason to suppose that 
Blackburn north of the Ribble is old Mercian territory. 

Blackburn north of the Ribble to this day is a remote and secluded district. 
The local dialect, for instance, seems very well preserved in it. The district is 
separated on the north and north-west from Amounderness by the crescent- 
shaped ridge of Longridge. It is intersected by a number of streams and deep 
valleys, which must have made communication in an easterly- westerly direction 
difficult. 2 The Ribble runs in wide curves, and its valley would not form a satis- 
factory channel of communication. No Roman road is known to have run 
north of the Ribble east of Ribchester. That which ran from near Preston into 
Yorkshire crossed the Ribble at Ribchester and followed the southern bank of 
the river. But communication across the Ribble with its numerous fords was 
easy. There is every reason to suppose that the inhabitants of this district would 
come into closer contact with their neighbours in Blackburn than with their 
kinsmen in the Fylde. This would account for the Mercian character of their 

The name Ribchester is interesting. We really expect the form -caster, and 
Ribelcastre DB may, but need not, contain this form. Ribchester would be the 
form of the name south of the Ribble. It is easy to understand that this form was 
victorious, as the place came to belong to Blackburn. 

2. Early Place-Names and the Distribution of the Anglian Population 

A study of place-names may throw some light on the spread of the population 
in early times. For this purpose, of course, only such names are of value as may 
be supposed to be old ones. In the case of Lancashire names, extremely few of 
which have been found in O.E. sources, it is difficult to establish what names 
belong to the earlier strata of names. However, we may take it for granted that 
on the whole the early mediaeval townships belong to the earliest settlements, 
and that the names found attached to such represent the earliest name-types 
of the district. Unfortunately, Domesday gives very unsatisfactory information 
as regards some hundreds, while it is very full as regards others. However, as 
a rule, the Domesday manors correspond nearly to the townships of the Subsidy 
Rolls of 1327 and 1332, 3 and where Domesday fails us we may base our investiga- 
tions on these. No doubt we must reckon with the possibility that some early 
fourteenth-century townships have sprung up after the Conquest. 

1 It may be added here that the element rod " clearing," which I have otherwise not found 
N. of the Ribble, occurs in this district : Braderode, Flaxerode (Thornley) 1202 LF. 

2 During a few days' stay in Ribchester in the summer of 1921, in which I made excursions 
on foot east and west, I had the experience that this is to some extent true to this day. 

3 Occasional slight variations between LS 1327 and 1332 are usually not taken notice of. 



Domesday mentions very few Salford names. We must, therefore, consult 
the Subsidy Rolls. These give 42 names of townships, to which should be added 
Newton, the rectory manor of Manchester. Of these 43 names four are Scan- 
dinavian or contain Scandinavian elements (Flix-, Tur-, Unnston, Oldham), and 
Castleton is clearly late, having a French first element. Of the remaining 38 
names exactly half (19) have as second element tun : Ashton ; Chorl-, Hea-, 
New-, Withington (Manchester) ; Bar-, Clif-, Pendleton (Eccles) ; Hea-, Hul-, 
Westhoughton (Dean) ; Bol-, Rivington (Bolton) ; Chadder-, Cromp-,-Pilking-, 
Royton (Prestwich) ; Middleton; Tottington (Bury). Clearly the chief type of 
names of townships is in this district the name in -tun. 

Of the other names a considerable percentage have as second element, or 
consist of, a designation for a village or homestead or the like, or (in a few cases) 
a word meaning a " clearing " or the like. We find burh in Bury, Pendlebury, 
coaster in Manchester, ham in Cheetham, stoc in Lostock, wlc in Prestwich, 
worp in Edgeworth (Bolton), Butterworth, Hundersfield (Rochdale), Rumworth 
(Dean) ; further land in Spotland, rod in Blackrod. Only a few contain a word 
denoting a topographical feature : leak (Worsley), clif (RadclifTe), ford (Sal-, 
Stretford), wcella (Halliwell), wudu (Harwood) ; there is also Reddish (O.E. 
die) . No doubt some of these are comparatively late. The old manor of Rochdale 
(in the earliest sources Recedham, etc.) has been replaced by Castleton, Butter- 
worth, Hundersfield, Spotland, which are no doubt later settlements than 

A look at the map shows that the places which gave names to townships 
are as a rule situated in the comparatively level country on the N. bank of the 
Mersey, or in or near the valleys of its chief tributaries, especially the Irwell. 
Exceptions are (at least partly) to be explained by special circumstances. The 
fertile and easily accessible river valleys would no doubt be first taken possession 
of. But the Roman roads were an extremely important means of communication, 
and the invaders would to some extent follow them. It is significant that we 
find Pendleton, Hulton, Westhoughton on the line of the Roman road from 
Manchester to Wigan. Chadderton, Crompton, and Royton, which are in a 
somewhat higher situation than the old Salford townships generally, are near the 
Roman road which led from Manchester through Oldham into Yorkshire. Edge- 
worth is in a similar situation, but stands on the Roman road running from 
Manchester over (or near) Broughton, Prestwich, Radcliffe, Blackburn, to 
Ribchester. Tottington is nearer this road than the Irwell. Rivington is in a 
very remote situation, but it is on the upper Yarrow, and was very likely con- 
nected originally with the Leyland settlements. It is near Adlington in Leyland. 
It should also be noticed that on the border of Rivington (in Heath Charnock) 
is a place called Street, which renders it likely that there was once a Roman road 
in the district. 

As the tuns form such a large percentage of old township names it is a 
reasonable supposition that other names in tun are also comparatively old names. 
The places with names in tun are all in the southern level district or in the river 


valleys. Most of these have later risen to townships. Most are in Manchester 
or Eccles parishes. They are : Taunton (Ashton) ; Brough-, Chorl-, Clay-, 
Den-, Gor-, Haugh-, Moston (Manchester) ; Bol-, Dumpling-, Little Hough-, 
Mon-, Swin-, Winton (Eccles) ; Wharton (Dean) ; Alkring-, Foxden-, Heaton 
(Prestwich) ; Chatter-, Elton, Edenfield (Bury) ; Balderstone (Rochdale). 
The number of tuns in this district is really remarkable. 

The elements burh, ham, wlc likewise occur in some other than old township 
names : Didsbury (near Manchester) ; Irlam, Thornham ; Ard-, Bes-, Gothers-, 
Whittleswick (all four near Manchester), Chad wick (near Rochdale). All are 
in the level southern district or in or near river valleys. Some at least of these 
are probably old settlements. 

The element worp we found in four names of early townships. But, as pointed 
out, it seems doubtful if all really belong to a very early stratum (cf . also p. 20f .). 
Very likely the worths are fairly old settlements, but hardly as a rule so old as the 
tuns and hams, etc. 

I am inclined to believe that the tuns, hams, burhs, and wlcs mark fairly accur- 
ately the earliest district colonized by the Anglians, which, of course, does not 
mean that all these names date from the seventh century. If so, the northern 
boundary of the district would be indicated by such names as Tottington, 
Chatterton, Edenfield (N. of Bury), Rochdale (earlier Recedham). In the district 
south of this line names of old types are fairly evenly distributed, except in 
parts rendered uninviting by forest, hills, or moss-lands. 


Blackburn and Whalley parishes are best dealt with separately. For the 
district north of the Ribble see under Amounderness. 

Of the 24 townships into which Blackburn par. is now divided, 19 were 
recognized in 1327 and 1332 ; Eccleshill and Dinckley formed townships with 
Mellor and Wilpshire respectively. Of the 21 names eight end in tun, two in 
burh, one in sclr (Wilpshire) ; three (Over and Nether Darwen, Blackburn) are 
old river names ; Mellor is an old British name. There remain : Dinckley 
(O.E. leah), Cuerdale (prob. O.E. halh), Livesey (prob. O.E. eg "island"), 
Eccleshill, Great and Little Harwood. Again, names in tun are numerous. The 
places with names in tun and burh are in or near the broad Ribble valley (Walton, 
Samlesbury, Balderston, Osbaldeston, Clayton-le-Dale, Salesbury, Billington), 
or the valley of some other important river (Witton and Pleasington in the 
Darwen valley, Rishton near the broad Calder valley). The earliest settlements, 
as might have been expected, seem to have been along the Ribble and its tribu- 
taries. It may be added that Darwen, Eccleshill, Blackburn are on the Roman 
road from Manchester to Ribchester. There are no names in tun, burh, etc., 
except those mentioned. 

Whalley par. now consists of 47 townships, many of which are of recent 
origin and correspond to old vaccaries. In 1327 and 1332 only 27 were recog- 
nized. As Henthorn and Coldcoats formed a township with Mitton, Extwistle 
one with Brierclifie, there are 30 names to be dealt with. Of these only six end 


in tun, two in ham, 1 two in cot (Coldcoats, Huncoat), one in cecer (Cliviger). There 
are, further, Church and Colne (an old river-name). The rest have as second 
element, or consist of, a topographical term : leak (Burn-, Mear-, Whalley), 
burna (Chatburn), clif (Briercliffe), denu (Hasling-, Marsden), dun (Downham), 
heafod (Read), hrycg (Foulridge), stdn (Simonstone), twisla (Ex-, Oswaldtwistle), 
porn (Hen-, Worsthorn), walla (Wiswell). Clitheroe may have a Scandi- 
navian second element. 

The difference between Whalley and Blackburn or especially Salford town- 
ship names is striking. The usual element tun is here comparatively rare, while 
names in leak, burna, denu, etc., preponderate. The difference may very well 
be due to later colonization 2 of parts of Whalley than of Salford or Blackburn. 
Further examination shows that Mitton, Pendleton, Twiston, Worston are 
near the Ribble (and a Roman road), while Clayton-le-Moors, Hapton, Altham, 
Padiham, are near the lower Calder. Huncoat and Church are in the western part 
near a tributary of the lower Calder. No tuns or hams are found on the upper 
Calder or its tributaries. Names of townships in these remoter parts are such as 
Cliviger, Worsthorn, Foulridge, etc. There are three tuns, besides old township 
names : Accrington, Clifton, Moreton. Accrington is near Church, Clifton and 
Moreton on the Calder. The now lost Hoghton was in Altham. 

The conclusion must be that the colonization of Whalley parish began in 
the Ribble and lower Calder valleys, and from there spread further up the Calder 
and its tributaries. The place-nomenclature of the latter districts seems to be 
of a fairly late type. 


The surface of this hundred shows comparatively little variety. There are 
no fell districts, but there were formerly mossy or low-lying parts, which were 
uninhabitable or uninviting. The division into townships has not changed 
considerably from 1327 (1332) to modern times. We had better follow the 
older division into three hundreds. 

In Warrington hundred the division into townships recognized in 1332 is 
still kept up with the exception that Poulton was not reckoned as a township, 
while Glazebrook and Rixton were separate townships and Penketh formed a 
joint township with Sankey. To the present Widnes corresponded Appleton. 
Prescot, the rectory manor, is omitted in LS. 

Of 26 names 11 end in tun (Warrington, Rixton, Woolston, Burton[wood] ; 
Atherton, Pennington ; Appleton, Cron-, Eccles-, Dit-, Sutton), one in cot 
(Prescot), one in bold (Bold). Of the remaining 13 two are old river-names 
(Glazebrook, Sankey), one is Celtic (Penketh). There are four names in leah 
(West Leigh, Ast-, Tyldesley ; Cuerdley), two in ford (Bed-, Rainford), two in 
hytt (Rainhill, Windle), one in stdn (Whiston), while Parr is obscure. The com- 
mon occurrence of leah in Leigh is remarkable. The names may indicate that 

1 Yet Altham may contain O.E. hamm. 

2 This does not imply that names in -burn, -ford, -ley, -wood, etc., are necessarily late. 
On the contrary, many such names are very old. But the common occurrence of names 
containing topographical terms like these rather suggests late colonization. Cf. Round, 
Commune of London, p. 2f. 


Leigh was formerly a forest district. Further names in tun are Poulton (Warring- 
ton), ? Etherston (Leigh), Den-, Upton, Eltonhead (Prescot). The tiins are 
chiefly in the southern part. 

The townships of Newton hundred recognized in 1327 and 1332 are on 
the whole the same as the present ones. Yet Kenyon is given with Lowton, 
and Winstanley is coupled with Billinge. To Houghton, Middleton, and Arbury 
corresponds, in 1327, Middleton-cum-Houghton ; in 1332, Middleton-cum- 
Arbury. Of the present Wigan townships Dalton and Upholland are in Domes- 
day reckoned to West Derby proper. 

Of the 24 names of townships five seem to be pre-English, while one is 
Scandinavian (Hulme). Of the remaining 18 there are six ending in tun (Ash-, 
Hough-, Low-, Middle-, Newton ; Pemberton), one in burh (Arbury 1 ), one in 
ham (Abram), one in wic (Win wick), one in worp (Southworth). There are, 
further, Croft, Haigh, and the old river-name Golborne. Billinge may be a 
hill-name or an O.E. name in -ingas. We further find leak in Hind-, Winstanley, 
hyll in Aspul, Orrell. 

All the tiins are old township names. The only Wigan tun (Pemberton) is 
near the Douglas. It may be added that in Wigan par. are two old township 
names in hyll and two in leak, while in Win wick are five tuns and no hylls or leans. 
But the material is too scanty for any definite conclusions to be drawn. 

West Derby hundred proper is more difficult to judge of, because here 
Scandinavian names begin to crop up. Even several names of old townships 
are Scandinavian. The names discussed infra are those found in the Subsidy 
Rolls of 1327 and 1332 and in Domesday. The differences between DB manors 
and LS townships are not very considerable. In DB are missing Garston, 
Hale ; Everton ; Aintree ; Ormskirk, Bickerstaffe, Burscough, Scarisbrick ; 
Crossens. On the other hand, DB includes the following names not in LS : 
Wibaldeslei ; Smithdown, Toxteth ; Uplitherland ; Barton ; Martin ; Argar- 
meles. It will be seen that many of these (especially those not in DB) are 

The 30 English (or probably English) names are of the usual types. There 
are 11 names in tun : Dalton (Wigan), Allerton, Woolton (Child wall) ; Huyton ; 
Walton ; ? Everton, Thornton (Sefton), Barton (Halsall), Aughton ; Harleton, 
Martin (Ormskirk). Interesting names of old types are Bootle, Melling. There 
is one name in acre (Linacre), 2 two in land (Down-, Upholland), one in geat 
(Lydiate). Ince is British, and Speke is somewhat obscure. The rest have as 
second element, or consist of, a topographical term : halh (Halsall, Maghull ; 
Hale), leak (Wibaldeslei ; Knowsley), broc (Tarbock), dun (Smithdown), pol 
(Liverpool), stdn (Garston), treo (Wavertree), wcella (Childwall). There are no 
names in burh, 3 ham, wic. The only common name-type is -tun. Further tuns 
are the now lost Alton (Ormskirk), Netherton (Sefton). 

English names are most common in the two southern parishes (Childwall 
and Huyton) and in Halsall, where English names preponderate, while Scandi- 
navian names are at least equally common in Walton and Sefton, and pre- 

1 But Arbury was very probably named from a pre-English fort. 

2 But this may quite well be Scandinavian. Cf. Linacradal in Iceland (Landndmabtk). 

3 Burscough may have as first el. an O.E. place-name Burh. 


ponderate in Ormskirk, Formby, North Meols. It is particularly remarkable 
that Halsall, which is a long narrow strip between Ormskirk and Formby 
Altcar Sefton, is almost purely English in its early place-nomenclature. In 
explanation it is to be pointed out that the north-western part of West Derby 
hundred is low-lying, partly mossy, and was probably to a great extent unin- 
habitable at the time of the Anglian immigration. But Halsall is on higher land, 
partly on a ridge, partly on the western slope of the rising country west of 
Ormskirk. This district must have been taken possession of by Anglians early, 1 
while the districts to the west were not on the whole colonized until after the 
Scandinavian invasion. But it is not so obvious why the Ormskirk district is 
chiefly Scandinavian. Part of it was no doubt mossland, while part may have 
been forest. Also, some old English names may have been supplanted by Scan- 
dinavian ones. 

Of minor names not very many are English, except in Childwall and Huyton. 
We may mention : Fazakerley, Newsham, Simonswood, Spellow (Walton) ; 
Renacres, Shurlacres, Waddicar (Halsall) ; Orrell, Ford (Sefton) ; Aspinwall, 
Blythe, Gorsuch, Tawdbridge, Westhead, Wirples Moss, Wolmoor (Ormskirk). 
Of course, many late names are purely English. 


Few Leyland names are in Domesday. The townships now recognized were 
so in 1332, with the exception that in some cases two modern townships formed a 
joint township (Standish-cum-Langtree, etc.). Of early names of townships 
two may be pre-English (cf. p. 225), while five are, or may be, Scandinavian 
(cf. p. 251). Of the 33 probably English names 14 have names in tun : Adling-, 
Ander-, Sheving-, Worthington (Standish), Clay-, Eux-, Hogh-, Wheelton 
(Leyland), Faring-, Hut-, Longton (Penwortham), Eccles-, Wrightington 
(Eccleston), Ulnes Walton (Croston). There are two names in ham (Bispham, 
Penwortham), one in burh (Duxbury), one in bold (Parbold), one in wic (Ho wick) ; 
one in land (Leyland), one in worp (Roddlesworth) ; further, Hoole. There are 
five names in hyll (Coppull, Welch Whittle, Whittle-le- Woods, Withnell ; Brindle), 
one in leak (Chorley ; also Mawdesley with a French first element) ; further, 
Standish, Heapey, Rufford, Langtree. 

All the places alluded to, with the exception of Rufford, are situated east 
(most a good distance east) of the Douglas. The country west of the Douglas, 
and a large district east of it, are very low-lying and partly mossy. These parts 
were probably not to any considerable extent colonized until after the Scandi- 
navian invasion. Rufford stands in a low situation (mostly c 20ft. above sea-level). 
It is probably a late settlement ; the name does not tell against this. Near the 
Douglas on its eastern side is Mawdesley ; the name is obviously late. Hoole 
(close to the lower Douglas and mostly on low ground, yet over the 25-feet level) 
would seem to be fairly late, at least to judge by its name. 

The old Anglian settlements are those on the slowly rising ground east of the 
lower Douglas and near the Ribble. In the easternmost part there is hilly 

1 It is noteworthy that two possibly Brit, names in West Derby proper are in Halsall. 


country ; here names in tun are rare (Hoghton, Wheelton). The early English 
settlements may be said to comprise the present Standish, Chorley, Leyland, 
Eccleston, and Penwortham parishes, while the old Croston parish (inclusive of 
Rufford, Tarleton, Hesketh, and probably Hoole parishes) represents later 
colonization. On Croston cf., however, also p. 251. In Leyland par. are found 
two more tuns : Ollerton, Burton (Brook). 

(Inclusive of Blackburn north of the Ribble) 

The Domesday manors in Blackburn north of the Ribble are : Aighton, 
Ribchester, Chipping, Dilworth, Wheatley. LS 1332 further mentions Dutton, 
Thornley. The tuns are near the Ribble. Names in leak and hurst are common 
in this district. See material. 

In Amounderness proper the place-nomenclature is to a great extent Scandi- 
navian, but names of townships and early manors are preponderatingly English. 
Not in DB, but in LS 1332, are Als-, Els-, Ribble-, Thistleton, Bilsborrow, 
Hothersall, Wesham, Brockholes, and some Scandinavian names. Instead of 
Hardhorn and Newton, DB has the old name Staining. In DB are given Burn, 
Mythop, Rossall, which are not in LS. 

Among 46 (certainly or probably) English names of old manors or townships 
those in tun predominate. They are 25 : Alston (Ribchester), Ash-, Bar-, 
Brough-, Els-, Haigh-, Pres-, Ribbleton (Preston), Clif-, Eccles-, Freckle-, 
Hamble-, New-, Plump-, Single-, Thistle-, War-, Weeton (Kirkham), Layton 
(Bispham), Mar-, New-, Poul-, Thornton (Poulton), Plumpton (St. Michael's), 
Forton (Cockerham). Other elements are : ham in Whittingham, Kirkham, 
Bispham ; -ing in Staining (Poulton) ; burh in Bilsborrow (Garstang) ; wlc in 
Fishwick (Preston), Salwick (Kirkham), Elswick (St. Michael's) ; hus in Newsham 
(Preston), Wesham (Kirkham) ; wrn in Hardhorn (Poulton). The rest are 
Crimbles (Cockerham) ; Lea (Preston) ; Catterall (Garstang) ; Hothersall (Rib- 
chester) ; Brockholes (Preston); Greenhalgh (O.E. holh), Mythop (Kirkham); 
Lytham ; Burn (Poulton). Rossall is obscure. The normal type of old township 
names is clearly -tun. The number of names containing other O.E. words for 
" village " or " homestead " is noteworthy, as is the rare occurrence of leah and 
the absence of worp. 

The English names are not evenly distributed. The vast majority are in the 
Fylde, the flat country in the west, and on the Ribble. In the eastern portion 
of Kirkham par., for instance, is only Whittingham, and it is not in a high 
situation. Near this place is Middleton (not in DB). But even in the western 
portion there are tracts in which old English names are absent or rare. The 
south-western part, Lytham par., was formerly to a great extent marsh, and the 
majority of settlements are here fairly late. North of the lower Wyre the only 
English names of an old type are Hambleton and Ashton (St. Michael's). The 
district is low-lying and was apparently only to a small extent inhabitable at 
the time of the Anglian invasion. Most names of townships in the last-mentioned 
district are Scandinavian. That is also the case with the townships to the east, 


where the ground rises. The old English settlements in Amounderness hundred 
seem to have been made only or chiefly in the southern half. Scandinavian 
names are common all over the district. Minor names of English origin are not 
very numerous except in Preston parish. We may mention Cottam, Ingol 
(Preston) ; Cadley, Fulwood, Hyde (Lancaster) ; Ashley, Beesley, Longley, 
Comberhalgh ; Bradkirk, Compton, Cowburn, Corner Row (Kirkham), Heigham, 
Rowall, Winmarleigh (Garstang), Cleveley (Cockerham). 


The full Domesday list of manors forms a sufficient basis for an examination 
of the early name-material. 

The most common second element is tun, found in 15 English names : Ash-, 
Hea-, Hut-, Middle-, New-, Over-, Poulton (Lancaster), Halton ; New-, Whit- 
tington ; Wennington ; Bolton ; Hut-, Warton ; Dalton. There are four names 
in ham : Cocker-, Gressing-, Heys-, Tatham ; further, Melling ; Borwick ; 
Lancaster ; Burrow ; Tunstall ; Neuhuse ; Yealand ; Cantsfield. Others are : 
Ellel (O.E. halh) ; Aid-, Oxcliffe ; Cam-, Scotforth ; Stapleton Terne, Thurnham ; 
Bare ; Hillham ; Slyne. The number of tuns is striking. Possibly Caton and 
Farleton should be added. Names in tun not in DB are : Aughton (Halton), 
Hilderston, Leighton (Warton), Addington (Bolton), Hutton (Melling). 

The places enumerated are nearly all in the open country near the sea or 
in the river valleys, especially the Lune valley. Places in the more remote 
hilly districts to a very great extent have Scandinavian names. An exception is 
formed by the Over Wyresdale district, where a good many English names occur. 

To judge by place-names the old English settlements in this district would 
seem to have been extensive and populous. 


Cartmel parish. Domesday mentions two places with English names, 
Newton and Walton. LS 1332 adds Broughton. All three places are in or near 
the broad Eea valley, to which the early Anglian settlements were probably 
restricted. The southernmost part of Cartmel was formerly uninhabitable 
marshland, as was probably the low country on the shore of the Leven. To the 
west and east of the Eea valley are hilly districts, where extensive settlements 
were impossible. 

English names of an old stamp are exceedingly rare in this district. We may 
mention Humphrey Head, Staveley (near Lake Windermere), Seattle ; also 
Ludder Burn (if Ludder- is O.E. hluttor " clear," which seems to have gone out 
of use early). 

The Fur ness district is well represented in Domesday. 

A good many probably English names are found. Several tuns are among 
DB manors : Crivel-, Dalton, Martin (Dalton), Gleaston (Aldingham) ; Bolton, 
perhaps Stainton (Urswick) ; Pennington ; ? Ulverston ; also the now lost 


Heaton, Suntun. There are, further, Aldingham ; Fordbottle, the lost Gerle- 
worde, Orgrave (Dalton) ; Leece, Dendron, Hart (Aldingham), Bardsea (Urs- 
wick), also Warte (lost ; perhaps O.E. waroft " shore "). Names in tun not 
found in DB are Newton, Waltoncote (Dalton), Broughton, Egton, Plumpton 
(Ulverston) ; ? Colton ; Broughton, ? Angerton (Kirkby Ireleth). There must 
have been a Plumpton in Dalton (Plunton c 1535 Beck, Plimton 1535 West 101). 
I suspect Suntun in DB is a mistake for Pluntun. More doubtful are Hutton 
and Troughton in Broughton. Urswick is in LS 1327, 1332. 

The material tells us there were Anglian settlements, partly at least villages, 
especially along the east coast and the Crake (Egton is on the Crake, a good way 
north), along the river that runs past Dalton (here are several old manors), and 
on the lower Duddon. If Hutton and Troughton may be trusted, Anglian 
settlements would seem to have been made rather far north. 

But the places dealt with so far on the whole belong to Low Furness. Ex- 
tremely few old English names can be pointed out in High Furness. The only 
really safe case is Tilberthwaite, north of Coniston, which contains an O.E. 
name in burh. Names such as Brantwood, Fieldhead, are not conclusive. But 
Tilberthwaite cannot well have been the only Anglian settlement in northern 
Furness in pre-Scandinavian days. I suppose there was some Anglian coloniza- 
tion of which there is no record. 

In Low Furness are a few other English names that may be supposed to be 
old, e.g., Adgarley, Baycliff, Dragley, Mousell, Rampside. 

It is a curious fact that so many old Furness manors have disappeared after 
the time of Domesday. The explanation is perhaps to be sought in the fact that 
the greater part of the district was handed over to the monks of Furness Abbey. 
The monks seem to have let out the land to small holders ; this must have led 
to the disappearance of some old manors. Further, the monks are known to have 
devoted much energy to reclaiming waste land ; as a result old manors would 
in some cases be supplanted by new, more valuable settlements. The mining 
industry may also account for important changes in the original distribution 
of land. 


Place-names wholly or partly Scandinavian abound in Lancashire. Before 
proceeding to draw conclusions from these names a few introductory remarks 
are necessary. 

We must distinguish between Scandinavian names in a stricter sense, i.e., 
names given by people speaking a Scandinavian tongue, and names containing 
Scandinavian elements. The former point to Scandinavian immigration. 
Names containing or consisting of elements that are well evidenced in M.E. or 
Mn.E. dialects, especially hybrids, need not do so. Such elements may have 
been introduced from neighbouring Scandinavian districts. Many names of 
this kind are probably quite late. Of course, if names containing elements of 
this description are numerous in a district there is a strong presumption in favour 
of direct Scandinavian influence. It is not always easy to distinguish between 
the two types of names. As a rule those consisting of two Scandinavian elements, 



especially such as are not known to have been used in M.E. or Mn.E. dialects, 
may be looked upon as probably Scandinavian in the stricter sense. 

The chief interest attaches to really Scandinavian names. As regards these 
the following circumstance, which, I believe, is sometimes overlooked, should 
be borne in mind. In old days place-names were not as a rule given deliberately 
by the owners of places ; they arose spontaneously, so to speak. They were no 
doubt as a rule given by neighbours, not by owners. 1 It follows that if a Scandi- 
navian name in the stricter sense is found in a district, we may as a rule conclude 
that the population of the neighbourhood was to a considerable extent Scandi- 
navian. A homestead founded by a single settler or family in an English district 
would as a rule get an English name, though it might contain the owner's 
Scandinavian name ; the name would be given by English people. I do not 
think, therefore, that an isolated Scandinavian place-name points, as a rule, 
to the immigration of an individual or an individual family. It indicates a 
Scandinavian neighbourhood, which may, of course, have been quite small. 

It follows from what has been said that we must be cautious in drawing 
conclusions from personal names found in place-names. A single immigrant 
may quite well have had his name attached to a place-name. Further, fashion 
has always played an important part in the field of personal names. Scandi- 
navian names were no doubt to some extent adopted by English people, and need 
not always prove Scandinavian immigration. 

It is not always possible to distinguish neatly between English and Scandi- 
navian place-names. Some name-elements may just as well be English as 
Scandinavian, and do not allow of safe conclusions (e.g., beorh berg, haga hagi). 
But we must also reckon with the possibility that English names have been 

1 1 do not deny that deliberate naming of places took place occasionally in the Viking 
age. There are a few cases in the Landnamabok which point in this direction. Thus it is 
said (p. 11) that Orlygr, in accordance with a vow, called a bay in Iceland Patreksfiprdr after 
bishop Patrick. One Asbiorn hallowed his land-nam to Thor and called it flora mprk (ib. 
p. 105). Eirikr the Red gave the island found by him the name Greenland, because he 
thought people would be more anxious to go there if it had an attractive name (ib. 35). There 
are a few other similar cases. But it is by no means certain that all such stories should be 
taken to be literally true. The Landnamabok was composed at least two centuries after 
the events. 

Occasional statements such as the one on p. 40, that Steinolfr let "boe gera ok kalladi 
Saurbce ; Jmi at J>ar var myrlent miok " and the like should not always be taken literally. 
In some such cases the two versions of Landnama do not agree. Thus Hauksbok says 
(p. 60) : " Ingimundr fann a vatni einu beru ok ij hvna med henni ; }?at kalladi harm Huna- 
vatn." The corresponding passage in Sturlubok is : " Ingimundr fann beru ok huna tvo 
hvita aa Hunavatni." On p. 4 Hauksbok says : " Gardar lofadi miok landit ok kalladi 
Gardars holm," while Sturlubok simply remarks : " Epttir pad var landit kallat Gardars 
holmr " (p. 130). 

The names found in Landnama are just such as we should expect to have arisen spon- 
taneously. They are such as Kalmanstunga (named after one Kalman), Kylansholum (from 
Kylan), Svinadalr (so called because lost pigs were found there), etc. If names had been given 
to a great extent deliberately, we should expect to find that emigrants often used the names 
of their old homes in Norway. I have not noticed a single case of this kind in Landnama. 

Even in present-day England names arise spontaneously. Many farms are now called 
not by their officially recognized names, but by that of their tenants, " (Mr.) Johnson's," 
etc. I have come across cases where the old name of a farm seemed to be unknown to people 
in the neighbourhood. 


remodelled by Scandinavians, and that Scandinavian names have been Anglicized. 
Exchange of an English for a Scandinavian name is a well-known phenomenon, 
exemplified, e.g., in the case of Derby (earlier Nor6wor5ig), Whitby (earlier 
Streoneshalh). Certain cases of this kind are not found in Lancashire ; probable 
examples are, however, the Kirkbys. But substitution of a Scand. element for 
an English one has in all probability taken place in Bradkirk, Kirkham, Mythop, 
Staining, very likely in Stainton, Stainall. Early -heim for -ham belongs here. 
Anglicizing of Scandinavian names no doubt took place, especially after the 
Scandinavian language had ceased to be spoken in Lancashire. Fairthwaite 
(Lo) is Fagher- in the earliest instances ; EngL fair has replaced the Scand. 
fagr. So it is quite plausible that Fairsnape originally contained Scand. fagr. 
Hawkshead (Bolton-le-Sands) in the earliest forms has as second element O.N. 
hpfud, later exchanged for head. Very probable cases in point are Medlar, 
Sholver. On -water for a probable earlier O.N. -vatn, see p. 192. I have no doubt 
some other names which look like hybrids were originally purely Scandinavian 

1. Danish or Norse Names 

The Scandinavian element in Lancashire is generally held to be chiefly West 
Scandinavian (Norwegian) ; cf. Scandinavians, p. 8, with references. Yet also 
a Danish immigration is sometimes assumed to have taken place. The place- 
names throw some light on this question. 

In Scandinavians, p. 8ff., I discuss briefly name-elements that may be used 
as criteria. As Norse test- words I mention bud " booth," gil " gill," skdli " hut " ; 
as Danish ones, both " booth," and to some extent porp. As regards buth, how- 
ever, it should be remembered that Northern English o at a fairly early date 
developed to a sound often written u t ou. In early Lancashire place-names 6 
and u seem to be kept well apart, and early spellings such as Buth, Bouth point 
to O.N. bud. Similar spellings in late sources are not trustworthy. 

Gil does not seem to occur in early Danish or in Danish dialects, while it is 
common in Norwegian. But Steenstrup, Stednavne, p. 96, says gil " a ravine " 
occurs in the common Danish names Gilbjerg, Gilbakke, Gilhoj ; cf. also Kok, 
Danske Folkesprog i Sonderjylland 1867, who mentions Gilbjerg (or Gildberg), 
Gilbro. If this is correct, it is doubtful if gil is a safe criterion. However, no 
early forms of the Danish names have been adduced, and I do not consider it 
certain that Gil- is really gil " a ravine." * In Sweden gil is somewhat better 
evidenced, but apparently only in the northern and middle parts. On the whole, 
it seems to me at least that gil points rather to Norse than to Danish origin, 
especially as the word has not been evidenced in Danish or Swedish dialects in 
early or late times. 

Skdli seems to be exclusively West Scandinavian. Kok's suggestion (op. cit.) 

1 The fact that gil seems evidenced only as a first element rather indicates that it is not 
gil " a ravine." The earliest forms I have found (Gildberg 1499 De seldste danske Archiv- 
registraturer ii, Giilldbierg 1529 Erslev and Mollerup, Fredrik I.'s Danske Registranter) do 
not point to gil. Forms such as Gilbierre 1580, Gilbierg 1583 Kronens Skoder i. are too late 
to be trustworthy. Gilbierg is also spelt Gildbierg. Trap, Kongeriget Danmark 1 II. 885, 
gives the form Giilhcpi (with long i). Gil- (Gild-) may be gild adj. " excellent," gilde " guild " 
or a pers. n. Gil, Gildi (Nielsen). 


that the corresponding Danish word is found in Skalby, Skalberg is surely not 

To the elements pointing to Norse origin the following may be added : 

Breck (Warbreck, etc.) goes back to O.N. brekka < *brinka. The assimilation 
(nk > kk) in the dissyllable brekka is considered to be a West Scandinavian 
phenomenon (cf. e.g., Noreen, Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen 131). The 
O.Swed. form is brinka, brcekka being found only in dialects nearly related to 
Norwegian. Assimilation is found, it is true, in some Swed. dialects, also in the 
originally Danish ones of Halland and Scania. But the assimilated form has not, 
to my knowledge, been found in Denmark, either in dialects or in place-names. 
As regards Scania it should be noticed that, so far as I can find out, brcekka 
occurs only in the north-western parts, 1 those adjoining Halland. I believe the 
form has spread from Vestrogothia, which adjoins Halland, and whose dialects 
are related to Norwegian. 

M.E. slakke valley < O.N. slakki seems distinctly West Scandinavian. The 
corresponding Danish word is slank " hollow." It may be added that Engl. 
bank, corresponding to O.N. bakki, Dan. banke, is not a criterion of Danish 
origin ; the assimilation nk > kk took place so late that early loans from Old 
Norse would still have nk. 

The common element ergh " a shieling " (O.N. er<7<cO.Ir. airge] may perhaps 
be looked upon as a criterion of Norse colonization, as most of the Scandinavian 
settlers in Ireland and Scotland were probably Norwegians. 

An additional Danish test- word is hulm " holm," while holm may be Norse 
or Danish. The O.N. form is holmr (holmi). Hulmber (hulmi) is well evidenced 
in Sweden, e.g., in the place-name orbohulm 1287 (cf. Soderwall), and in personal 
names, as Hulmo 1298, Hulmgerus 1251, etc. (Lundgren-Brate). The form is 
found in Danish in the personal names Hulmfrith (Blandinger udgivne av 
Universitets-Jubilaeets danske Samfund I. 72) and Hulmgycer in Hulmgycerthorp 
(Nielsen). It is common in Danish place-names in Normandy, as Torhulmum 
1030, Turhulm 1068, Chetelhulmus 1042 (Fabricius, Danske Minder i Normandiet, 
p. 303fi\). The form hulm occurs occasionally in English place-names, as Hulme. 
Norf. (cf. infra) ; also in Anglo-Lat. hulmus in Prompt. Parvulorum c 1440. It 
might be objected that hulmr may have been an old Norse side-form of holmr, 
which disappeared just as did the it-forms in Sweden and Denmark. But 
o-mutation of u to o was carried out much more regularly in West than in East 
Scandinavian (Noreen, op. cit. 31). In a great many words we find E.Scand. 
u as against W.Scand. o. And the early sources of West Scandinavian languages 
are much fuller than those of East Scandinavian. The absence of W.Scand. 
hulmr, hulmi must prove that the forms were lost early in W.Scand. dialects. 

Conclusions may sometimes be drawn from personal names. On the whole, 
East and West Scandinavian personal names agree very closely, but there are 
some exceptions. Examples will be pointed out infra. 

In this place I will only deal briefly with names containing the element 
por, pur. O.N. names always show the form por, with the exception oipuridr, 

1 Cf. Rietz (who gives brikka from a Scanian dial.), Billing, Sv. Landsmalen x. 2, p. 116 
(who gives brcekka " hill " from a N.W. Scanian dial.), and Falkman (who gives a place-name 
Bracke, earlier Brakke, Brcekce, Brecke, N.W. Scania). 


whose u may be due to the following i. In Danish and Swedish pur is com- 
mon, as in Thure, etc. ; pur consequently would seem to be a criterion of E.Scand. 
origin. In Lancashire we find pur in Turton, Thurston Water, etc. I do not 
think this is a safe criterion. The history of the element por, pur is a vexed 
question (cf. e.g., Noreen, op. cit. 31, Kock, Svensk Ljudhistoria 817,Lindroth, 
NoB iv. 161fL, Finnur Jonsson, Norsk-islandske kultur- og sprogforhold, 
p. SOlff.) ; piir and por go back to earlier punr- (and ponr- ?), with loss of n and 
lengthening of the vowel. Whatever may be the relations between POT and pur, 
both were possible developments in East and West Scandinavian, and the prac- 
tically regular W. Scand. por is due to generalization. In early West Scandi- 
navian Pur must have been used to some extent. Tur- actually occurs in O.N. 
names found in Irish sources (Marstrander, p. 65). Another explanation is also 
possible. Probably por developed out oipunr-. The n was lost ; u was nasalized 
and later became o. As shown by such forms as O.E. Anlaf, O.Ir. Tomrair (from 
early forms of O.N. Gldfr, Porir), nasalized vowels must have been spoken in 
the Scand. languages of the Viking age (cf. also Finnur Jonsson, L c. p. 225), and 
a form pur may have been in use at the time of the Scandinavian immigration 
into Lancashire. Such a form might have given by adaptation O.E. pur. O.N. 
pur might have been preserved in Thurston Water, etc., just as an early form of 
Oldfr was retained in Anglezark. 1 

In Thurland, found only in late sources, Tlnur- may be a late development 
of Thor-. 

2. Danes in Lancashire 

As the Danish test- words are few, it is not quite easy to establish to what 
extent the Scandinavian colonization of Lancashire may have been carried out 
by Danes. The rare occurrence of the element thorpe rather indicates that the 
Danish share cannot have been considerable. But conclusions founded on the 
absence of a certain name-element are precarious. We must make it our object 
to find out if there is anything at all in the place-names that points to a Danish 

We can then hardly fail to be struck by the remarkable fact that while 
Scandinavian place-names are comparatively rare in Salford hundred generally, 
there are several in the southernmost part, and that here hulm is frequent. 
There are in Flixton parish two townships, Flixton and Urmston, both with 
names containing Danish personal names. The pers. name Flik has only been 
found in Danish, and Urm is distinctly East Scandinavian (cf. p. 37). 

The form hulm is found in Davyhulme (earlier Hulm) about 1 m. north of 
Flixton, in Hulme (now in Manchester), Levenshulme, further in the field-name 
Oldham, in Withington, east of Flixton (Aldehulm c 1200 CC 731). It is also found 
in Hulme (Reddish), but this may originally have been Hulme Hall, named from 
a family. Kirkmanshulme is a doubtful instance ; the early forms regularly 
have -holm. As regards Oldham (Prestwich) and Wolstenholme (Rochdale), 
forms in -hulm are too rare to be taken into consideration. Besides in the cases 
mentioned, hulm occurs also in Hulme (Winwick), a good way west of Flixton. 

1 The preservation of the O.N. name in such an early form as A nlaf proves that the place- 
name (Anlaves-ergh) must have been adopted by English people at a very early date. 


Other Scandinavian names in this district are rare. We may mention 
Derboth (Barton-upon-Irwell) 1277 LAR, not far from Flixton ; both is O.Dan. 

The considerable number of distinctly Danish names is unparalleled in the 
rest of Lancashire. We must conclude that there was once a Danish colony on 
the northern bank of the Mersey, in the district south and south-west of Man- 
chester. It is impossible to establish the extent of this colony. That it embraced 
Flixton parish seems evident. But names such as Hulme need not prove that 
it comprised the whole of the district where these are found. The form hulm 
may have been introduced into the English dialects of the neighbouring country 
from the Danish language of the colony. Very likely it embraced only the low- 
lying country between the Mersey and the lower Irwell. This district may have 
been sparsely inhabited before the time of the Danish immigration. It was 
isolated at least on three sides from the surrounding country ; so here a small 
Danish colony would have a good chance of retaining its independence. 

No Danish colonization has hitherto, so far as I am aware, been proved to 
have taken place in South Lancashire. But such colonization is quite plausible. 
The present Lancashire probably belonged to the Danelaw. Even South Lan- 
cashire was carucated ; its hundreds were sometimes called wapentakes, and 
Domesday tells us that the thegns of Derby paid their customary dues in ores 
instead of shillings. The holders of manors in Newton and Warrington hundr. 
are called drengs. 1 Mr. Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, reckons Lancashire 
to the Danelaw (see map). It does not follow that a Danish colonization ever 
took place, but the place-names adduced prove that such was the case. The 
small Danish settlement south of Manchester was no doubt connected with 
Scand. colonies in Cheshire and Staffordshire. This is indicated by the fact that 
hulm is a common element in Cheshire and occurs in Stafford. 2 

It might be suggested that the Danish colony alluded to was part of a larger 
settlement in South Lancashire, and that Edward in 923 wrested Manchester 
from Danes. There is nothing in the place-nomenclature that justifies 
such a theory. We should not expect the Danish names to be restricted to 
such a small area if there had been a considerable Danish settlement round 

But if a Danish colony once existed south of Manchester, it would not be 
surprising if we could point out another or others in South Lancashire. However, 
there are no obvious traces of any other. The isolated Hulme in Win wick just 

1 These Scand. features are probably not due to Norse influence, as the Norse do not seem 
to have extended their settlements beyond the coast districts. 

2 The Cheshire hulmes are all east of the Weaver, most in the north-east part of the 

Cheadle Holme (S. of Manchester, not far from the Mersey) : Hulm 1363, etc., Ormerod 
iii. 636, Ghedulholme 1528 ib. 634. Hulme Walfield (E. of Northwich) : Hulmjuxta Wallefdd 
1307, Hulm Wallefeld 1339 Ormerod iii. 70. Hulme House (Over Alderley, W. of Maccles- 
field) : Ulm 12 cent. Ormerod iii. 579, 583. Hulme Hall (Allostock, E. of Northwich) : of. 
Ormerod iii. 15. Church Hulme (E. of Middlewich). Kettleshulme (N.E. of Macclesfield) : 
Kettleshulme 1520 Ormerod iii. 658. First el. the Scand. pers. n. (O.Dan., O.N.) Ketill 

The only Staffordshire name in hulme is : Hulme (near Stoke-upon-Trent, N.Staffs.) : 
in Hulmo 1225 AP. Scand. names seem to be rare in Staffs. Duignan mentions Swinscoe, 
Thorpe Constantino, and the hybrid Thursfield. 


mentioned does not allow of safe conclusions. It is just possible that the name 
Derby (near Liverpool) preserves the memory of a Danish colony. The name, 
which is not quite easy to explain, might be a replica of the more famous Derby 
in Derbyshire. If so, it is probably Danish. This suggestion receives some slight 
support from Toxteth, the name of a neighbouring place. Toki, its first element, 
is a chiefly Danish name. It was introduced into Norway and Iceland from 
Denmark, where it was common from the earliest times (Lind). The names 
Derby and Toxteth may point to an old Danish settlement on the lower Mersey. 
But, of course, West Derby may have got its name independently of the other 
Derby, and even if the Scandinavian colonies in West Derby hundred were 
founded by Norsemen some Danes may well have been among these. 

There is one more district in which we may expect to find Danes, viz., the 
Lune valley. In the neighbouring Kendal district (Wml.) are no less than five 
names in thorpe, an unusually large number in the north-west of England. 
Kendal may have belonged to the Danelaw (Scandinavians, p. 5f.). The thorpes 
certainly indicate Danish colonization. If this is right, there is good reason to 
believe that the Danes also penetrated into the Lune valley ; in fact, they could 
hardly reach Kendal without crossing it. Now there are two evidently old 
settlements in the Lune valley with names that look Danish : Hornby and Thirnby. 
Hornby is not actually on the Lune, but on the Wenning near its junction with 
the Lune. The first elements of Hornby and Thirnby are personal names which 
are evidenced only in East Scandinavian sources. These names do not allow of 
definite conclusions, and no other names in the district are distinctly East 
Scandinavian. Cracanethorp (Caton) CC 840 is too isolated to carry weight. 
All that can be said is that there is a priori a certain probability that there were 
once Danish settlements in the Lune valley, and that Hornby and Thirnby are 
very likely old Danish names. The majority of Scandinavian place-names in the 
district are no doubt Norwegian. 

As regards the rest of Lancashire there is nothing in the place-nomenclature 
that gives a right to assume a Danish colonization on a scale similar to that in 
the Flixton district. All we can do is to point out a few names in both, and 
isolated instances of thorpe. 

Examples of both are found especially in Blackburn and the northern part 
of Salford. The word is found in names of vaccaries ; it seems to have been 
the technical term for a vaccary, at least in Blackburn. Examples are : 
Dunnishbooth, Bothestudeyerdh, Brendebotheker WhC 658 (Rochdale), Oozebooth 
(Blackburn par.), Goldshaw Booth, Hawbooth, etc. (Whalley par.), Ladde- 
bothesike (Wigan, De) CC 611. No doubt more examples could be adduced. 
Examples like these carry no weight. The only one that might be a really 
Scand. name is Oozebooth. But Ulf was in use in Lancashire in post- 
Conquest time, and Oozebooth may be a late name. The word booth is widely 
spread in dialects and well evidenced in M.E. literature. Its occurrence in a few 
place-names, mostly hybrids, does not prove a Danish immigration. The word 
may have been introduced into Lancashire dialects from Yorkshire. 1 

The names in thorpe are too rare to be of importance as evidence ; porp is 

1 An early Yks. example is botham (ace.) c 1220 Pontefract Chartulary, p. 140 (clearly used 
as a common noun). 


occasionally used in Norwegian place-names, and some isolated examples of 
it do not seriously tell in favour of Danish immigration. 

Of course, it is quite plausible that some Danish immigrants have found their 
way from Yorkshire into eastern Lancashire. There were Danes in the West 
Riding. Names in -thorpe are fairly frequent in the district near the Lancashire 
border. See Collingwood, Anglians, p. 44. Gawthorpe (Habergham Eaves) 
might have been named after Gawthorpe near Dewsbury (Goukethorpe 1274 ; 
cf. Lindkvist p. 141). 

3. Norsemen in Lancashire 

The results of our investigations concerning a possible Danish element in the 
Lancashire place-names have proved rather meagre. On the other hand, even 
a cursory examination of the material tells us that the West Scandinavian test- 
words are common in various parts of the county. Gill, scale, and slack are 
widely spread ; so is ergh. Breck is common all along the coast, while buth is 
found only in Lonsdale. There can be no doubt that the Scandinavians in 
Lancashire must have been predominatingly Norsemen, Norwegians. Conse- 
quently the probability is that names which may be West Scandinavian are 
such rather than East Scandinavian. In the following survey only such names 
are considered as are or may be West Scandinavian. 


Scand. names, in a stricter sense, are few. Certain (or fairly certain) cases 
are Anglezark (Bolton), Sholver (near Oldham), Gawksholme (Rochdale), 
Brandlesome (Bury ; first el. a W.Scand. pers. n.), perhaps Turton (Bolton), 
Boysnope (Eccles). The places in question are mostly in the hilly parts in 
the north or east. 

There are, further, a number of names containing Scand. elements, mostly 
hybrids. The Scand. elements are words that are in dialectal use in M.E. or 
Mn.E. time, at least in the north, as bank, car, gate " road," holm, mire, scale, 
slack. Most are found in the hilly districts of Rochdale, Bury, and Oldham, some 
in Eccles. A few examples will suffice : Schofield. Roughbank, Wolstenholme, 
le Schorebonk, le Roughslak WhC 658, 698 (Rochdale), Summerseat, Hall Carr, 
Scout (Bury), Gamelsley, Folescales (Bolton), Oldham, Scowcroft (Oldham), 
Slack, Hulfkeliscroft CC 680, Walthewyscroft (first el. WaUhef, a distinctly W. 
Scand. pers. n.) WhC 918 (Eccles). Some more similar names might be added. 
Only Oldham and Turton are the names of early townships. 

Far-reaching conclusions cannot be drawn from this material. Some Scandi- 
navian immigration has no doubt taken place, especially into the northern 
districts and Eccles, where there was plenty of unreclaimed land to be had. The 
Norse seem to have come from the north (perhaps from Leyland ; names such 
as Anglezark, Turton may mark the approximate route) and from Norse 
colonies in Yorkshire (cf. Collingwood, op. cit. p. 45fL ; Goodall p. 179). 



In the western half, Blackburn par., there are hardly any Scand. names in 
the stricter sense. Belsetenab may be one ; so may Myerscough, if it is an old 
name. The rest are a few hybrids containing the well-known elements bank, 
car, gate, holm, etc., or pers. names. They are distributed fairly evenly and offer 
no particular interest. Examples are Blacksnape, Dunscar, Feniscowles, Mart- 
holme (a late name), Cronekiskar WhC 101 (Blackburn), Darnalkar ib. 969, 
le Whiteker ib. 1010, Lyolfesik ib. 1030 (first el. an O.N. pers. n.), Swaynesmore 
ib. 1027 (Billington), Scholecroft, Stiholme CC 518f. (Cuerdale), Redecar, 
Elvynkar 1200-8 DD (Rishton). Examples of names in -car, -gate, -holm are 
found in VHL vi. (passim). No definite conclusions can be drawn from this 
material as regards a Scandinavian immigration. 

In Whalley par. the Scand. element is more marked, but Scand. names in 
the stricter sense are few. Barnside may be one. Ravensholme, Snelleshou, 
at least seem to consist of two Scand. elements. Hay Slacks, Sparth, also 
Algotholme 1475 CCR (Gr. Marsden ; first el. O.N. Algautr ; cf. Bjorkman, 
Personennamen, and Lind), may be cases in point. But not one of these is really 
quite conclusive. 

The Scand. elements in hybrids are mostly the same as those mentioned under 
Salford, but some new ones crop up, as eng, gill, how (O.N. haugr). Such names 
are found all over the parish without being particularly common anywhere. 
How occurs in several names of hills, as Blacko, Gerna, Noyna, etc. Other 
hill-names containing Scand. elements are Boulsworth, Stank Top ; cf . Brown- 
brinks. In the material are further mentioned, e.g., Holme, Filly Close, Moor 
Isles ; Icornhurst ; Ayneslack ; Scholefield ; Gambleside ; Ormerod. Cf . also 
le Britholm, Meneenge (Altham) WhC 303ff., Woluetscoles (Clitheroe) ib. 1111. 
Many examples are found in the Clitheroe Court Rolls, as le Halflatt (Chatburn), 
Bredde Yngs (ib.), Brodholme, the Hogg (Colne). Isolated examples of this kind 
will be found in VHL vi. 

The Scand. names as a rule denote minor places, or such as have risen into 
some importance lately. The only exception is Clitheroe ; yet it is not abso- 
lutely impossible that -how (O.N. haugr) may have replaced O.E. hoh. We must 
conclude that some Scandinavian settlements were made in this district. The 
Scandinavians no doubt came from the Craven district and the Upper Ribble 
valley. In these districts are numerous Scand. place-names, not only minor 
names, but also names of villages and townships. Close to the border of Whalley 
parish are e.g. Earby, Newby, and a little farther off Bracewell, Carleton, Helli- 
field. Gargrave, Rathmell, Stainforth. 1 Near the border of Whalley is a Hesketh 
(S.W. of Bracewell). In these districts are numerous names in gill (Cor-, How-, 
Ray-, Wycongill), 2 scale (High Scale, W- of Hellifield, Scaleber, near Settle), and 
at least one ergh (Battrix) ; also thwaite occurs. 3 This West Yorkshire district 

1 For early forms cf. Moorman. 2 Wykingile 1302 PD. 

3 Cf. Hothimit, Mourethwait late 12th cent. (Bolton-by-Bowland), Gase-, Selgile c 1200, 
Musegile c 1240 (Rimington) PD ; Elkegile, Querenstaingile 1211-32 Kirkstall C 202, Gradale- 
hals, Thirnesetegilebroc 1232-40 ib. 203f. (Bowland). 


must have been colonized to a great extent by Norsemen. These probably poured 
in from the Lune valley along the Wenning, on which are places with such names 
as Lawkland, Newby, and into the Kibble valley, 1 along which they spread 
southwards. This explains why Scand. elements are fairly common in the 
place-names of Whalley, but rare in Blackburn parish. 


In the old Warrington hundred are no Scandinavian names in the stricter 
sense, but there are a few names containing Scand. elements, as Scholes, Ridgate, 
Hopecarr ; cf. le Cartegate (Cronton) WhC 817. Interesting names are Laffog 
(if the first element is O.N. Ipg) and Lunt, which gives us an example of O.N. 
lundr. The material hardly proves that a Scand. immigration into this district 
ever took place. 

In the old Newton hundred are found a few names with Scand. elements, 
such as Scholefield, Scholes. Turssekar (Hindley) CC 649 seems to contain 
two Scand. words (O.N. purs " giant " and Jciarr). 

In West Derby hundred proper Scand. names are very common. Here 
they frequently appear as names of townships and villages. On the relation 
between Engl. and Scand. names cf. p. 237. The following Domesday 
manors (at least probably) have Scand. names : Roby (Huyton) ; Derby, 
Kirkby, Kirkdale, Toxteth (Walton); Sefton, Crosby, Litherland (Sefton) ; 
Altcar ; Uplitherland (Aughton) ; La thorn, Skelmersdale (Ormskirk, which has 
a Scand. name itself) ; Formby, Mele, prob. Ainsdale (Formby) ; Argarmeles, 
Otegrimele (North Meols). LS 1327, 1332 add Aintree (Sefton), Bickerstaffe, 
Burscough, Scarisbrick (Ormskirk), Crossens (North Meols). To 30 Anglian 
names of townships or DB manors correspond some 21 Scand. ones. Two or 
three of these, of course, are somewhat doubtful. 

Minor names are to a great extent Scandinavian or partly so. I here draw 
attention chiefly to names Scandinavian in the stricter sense. In Child wall 
par., where all names of early townships are English, we find Aigburth, Brettargh, 
Thingwall. In Dalton (Wigan) is Laithwaite. In Walton are e.g. Aynesargh, 
Ingoe, Warbreck. In Halsall are e.g. Cunscough, Eggergate, Harker, also Get- 
tern, the name of a now drained mere (? O.N. gedda " pike," and tiprn " tarn "), 
Murscoh CC 634, Ruthwait ib. 537, Sandwath ib. 532. In Ormskirk are 
Greetby, Tarlscough, also Nathelarghe (with ergh " shieling " as second el. ; 
cf. Scandinavians, p. 80). Numerous Ainsdale names in CC 568-94 are Scandi- 
navian. We find names in -hou, as Bleshoudale, Keshou ; mel (O.N. melr), as 
Quitemeledale ; skarth, as Winscarthlithe ; slet (O.N. sletta), as Elreslete ; further, 
e.g., Lathebot, Stardale (O.N. stprr " sedge "), Wra. On the interesting names 
Scartherwlmer, Starfourauen, Gilanre-, Melcanerhou, also Oddisherhe, which show 
Goidelic influence, I refer to Scandinavians, pp. 46, 71, 81. In Ravensmeols is 
Stangerhau WhC 527 (O.N. stangarhaugr). 

1 Cf. Birkwith, Mosdalebek, Solberhe (now Sulber), Caldkelde 1400 FC i. 200E., Thueregile, 
Erdoffgile 1190 FC ii. 334 (Selside, on the upper Ribble) ; Bla-, Crokebec 1400 FC i. 202, 
Threfotherscales 1165-77 FC ii. 296 (Newby, near the Wenning) ; Ellerbech, Mosdalebech FC ii. 
326 (Souther Scales) ; Ulvesgile 1200-16 FC ii. 363 (Flasby, N.W. of Skipton). 


It is obvious that a considerable, systematic Scandinavian colonization 
took place in the district of West Derby hundred proper, especially its northern 
part. Scand. names are most numerous in the low-lying districts near the sea, 
which had not till then been to a considerable extent inhabited. 


Scandinavian names are numerous in the low-lying western parts, those 
adjoining the strongly Scandinavianized parts of West Derby. Also the names 
of old townships are (at least partly) Scandinavian ; Becconsall, Hesketh, 
Croston, Tarleton, probably Bretherton. As regards Croston, however, its 
situation is not so low that it may not have been an old English settlement. 
The name may have replaced an old English one. 

Of other Scand. names may be mentioned : Elremure, Siverthesarge, Thorp 
(Bretherton) CC 475ff., Sollom (Tarleton) ; cf. also Burnildesgate (O.N. 'Brynhildr 
pers. n.) CC 464 (Tarleton). 

In the rest of Leyland names of old townships are English, but there are some 
Scand. names in the stricter sense : Blainscough, EUerbeck (stream), Roscoe 
(Standish), Brinscall, perhaps Snubsnape (Leyland), Ulvedale (Penwortham), 
Sarscow (Eccleston). Several names contain Scand. elements, also some not 
found in the districts hitherto discussed : Crook (Standish, Leyland), Crocfeld, 
Crocland (Hoole) CC 451ff.,- Lairburmik, Lairclade (O.N. leir "clay") CC 409, 
426 (Hutton). Others are : Asland ; Limbrick (Standish) ; Gunnolf's Moors, 
Scalecroft CC 499 (Leyland), Harekar CC 411, Rokar CC 394 (Penwortham), 
Walmer (Hoole). 

There must have been a Scandinavian colony at least in the western part of 
the hundred. But it very likely comprised parts of the old Anglian territory. 
The name Gunnolf 's Moors, which designated a large inland district, refers to an 
early owner who, to judge by the name, must have been a Scandinavian chieftain. 


In the part later annexed to Blackburn (cf. p. 232f.) Scandinavian names are 
rare. Distinctly Scandinavian is Leagram. Partly Scandinavian are Daviscoles, 

In Amounderness proper the frequency of Scand. names varies. Preston 
parish is predominatingly English. In the rest of the district Scand. names 
abound. In some parts names of old manors and townships are, to a great 
extent, Scandinavian. 

DB manors or LS townships with (at least partly; Scandinavian names are : 
Grimsargh (Preston) ; Aschebi (Lancaster) ; Goosnargh, Threlfall, Bryning 
(earlier Birstath Bryning), Kellamergh, Larbrick, Medlar, Ribby, Westby, 
Wrea (Kirkham) ; Norbreck, Warbreck (Bispham) ; Carleton (Poulton) ; 
Hackinsall, Preesall, Staynall, Stalmine (Lancaster) ; Rawcliffe, Sowerby (St. 
Michael's) ; Claughton, Garstang. Scandinavian and English townships are 


found side by side. In Kirkham and Bispham are several composite townships 
with names formed of one Scandinavian and one English name, as Westby with 
Plumpton, Medlar with Wesham, Li. Eccleston with Larbrick, Bispham with 
Norbreck, Layton with Warbreck. 

A great many minor names, especially in the northern part, are Scandinavian 
or partly so. A few interesting names found in early sources are here given ; for 
the rest I refer to the material. 

Preston : Clakerkelde (Tulketh) CC 216, Hegergarthe (Cottam) CC 225. 
Kirkham : le Blenesgile (first el. obscure) CC 230 (Whittingham) ; Avenamis, 
Dounanesbrec (first el. Dundn, a Goidelic pers. n.) CC 202 (Newton) ; Baunebrec 
(O.N. baun " bean "), Flitteholm CC 194ff. (Warton) ; Aykescof (O.N. eikiskogr 
" oak wood ") CC 201 (Preese) ; Gaseflosland (O.N. gas " goose " and perhaps 
M.E. flosh " pool," found Gaw. 1430) CC 190 (L. Eccleston), Watfoth (O.N. 
vdtr " wet ") CC 166 (Greenhalgh). 

Poulton : Helrecar (O.N. elri " alders "), le Smithieflat, le Sortebuttes (Sorte- app. 
from a side-form of O.N. svartr " black ") CC 148ff. 

Lancaster par. (Stalmine, etc.) : Arghole (argh " a shieling " and hoi) CC 125, 
Cockesholm CC 95, Cumbelhou (O.N. kumbl " a memorial ") FC ii. 246, Harekar 
CC 97, Keldebrech FC ii. 240, Mourhulles (O.N. maurr " ant " ; for hulles cf. 
Moor Isles, p. 82) CC 106, Staynbrige CC 99, Stanreys (second el. O.N. hreysi 
" cairn ") CC 124, Yarlesmyre (O.N. jarl " earl " and myrr ''mire ") LC 372, 
terram IthuncB (O.N. fftunn pers. n.) CC 124 (Stalmine with Staynall). Colecros 
CC 67, Kirkegate ib. 68, Midelare CC 77, Nab FC ii. 234, Serholm CC 80, Vlve- 
graregate (for Ulvegrave- " wolf-pit ") CC 82 (Preesall with Hackinsall). 
St. Michael's : Kirkefiat CC 181, Serlescales (O.N. S0rli pers. n.) CC 178. 
Garstang : Stanrays CC 265 (Bilsborrow) ; Colder-, Cros-, Timbergate CC 254f. 
(Claughton) ; Ounespull (O.N. Ann pers. n. ; cf. Lindkvist p. 157) CC 270 
(Kirkland) ; Belanespot (Ir. Beolan pers. n. ; cf. Scandinavians, p. 70), Tilverd- 
heimholm 1 1220-46 CC 280 (Garstang) ; Leyrsic, Ferm-, Pilatewra, Sourbut (cf. 
Sowerby) CC 292ff. 

Cockerham (Forton) : Eskebec (O.N. eski " ashtrees ") CC 298, Scrikebec, Uluebec 
CC 365ff., Netlekar ib. 343, Heskehoueth (cf. Escowbeck, p. 168) CC 367, Le 
Rayse, Stanrays ib. 359f., Scamwathlithestordes (O.N. storft) ib. 355, Goscopetheit, 
Leikethaites, Lintthvaitbroc, Musethuait, Slathwaitheuid, Ulvethwait ib. 344ff., 
Grafsuinesknikel (written -kinkel ; cf. Motonknycyll CC 389 ; O.N. grafsvin 
" badger " and knykill " lump," etc. ; cf. Faroese knykil " lump, small hill or 
rock ") CC 342 (1185-1200). 

Of course, there are in early sources numerous English names of fields and 
the like. 

There is a statement which has been taken to prove that there was a Scandi- 
navian population in Amounderness c 930, viz., in the twelfth century " Lives 
of the Archbishops of York" (Historians of the Church of York, Chron. and Mem. 
ii. 339), which tells us that JSthelstan granted to the cathedral church of St. 
Peter the whole of Amounderness " quam a paganis emerat." Whether the 

1 Cf. Tillirdauholme CC 278, Tyllesholm 1539 CC 1196. The name seems to be a compound 
of holm with an earlier place -name *Tilverdheim, very Likely Scandinavianizedf or *Tilverdham, 
Tilverd being a form of O.E. Tilfrip. Tilverdham may have been replaced e.g. by Garstang. 


statement is true or not, 1 the place-names tell us that there must have been a 
very considerable Scandinavian population, which spread over the greater part 
of the district. Some parts, especially the low-lying northern (north-western) 
districts, seem to have been first colonized by Scandinavians. The whole district 
was named from a Scandinavian chieftain. 


Most old townships (manors) of this district have English names (p. 240). 
A few, however, have Scandinavian names : Swainshead, Skerton, Torrisholme, 
perhaps Caton (Lancaster), Arkholme, perhaps Farleton (Melling), Claughton ; 
Ireby (Thornton), probably Leek (Tttnst&ll), Kellot (Bolton), all of which are in 
DB, further Wray, Wrayton (Melling) 1332 LS. On rlornby, Thirnby, see p. 247. 

Minor names are to a great extent Scandinavian. Only some examples not 
dealt with in the material are here given. The material is somewhat uneven 
because some townships are better represented in early sources than others. 
Cockerham : Haghekar, Launland (cf. Laundal " hidden valley " NG ix. 210), 
Linholm, Quitebrek, Quitstorth, Raysefeld, Stanrays, Ragarthout (O.N. hpfuft), 
Tratherig (O.N. trod " fold," etc.) CC 762ff. 

Lancaster : Kelderise, Morhaus (O.N. maurr " ant " and haugr " hill), Reysbrec, 
Sondholm (? for Soud-, O.N. saudr " sheep "), Skynerisflatte CC SOlfi. (Scot- 
forth) ; Scheldulvesbuttes, Skeltholvesflat (O.N. Skipldulfr pers. n.), Seflat, Houkes- 
hout, Sulstainfete, 2 le Tern, toftum Haraldi, Tranewath (Ashton) CC 785ff. 
Beiskebrec, Crocflat (Stodday) CC 810f . ; Bolehagge, Capilbrek (M.E. capel " horse," 
O.N. kapall<Ii. capall) FC ii. 171 (Skerton) ; Mourhouwes (O.N. maurr " ant ") 
CC 817 (Bowerham) ; Buthebanck, Grenebanc, Kirkebanke, Tuneker, Swinsti-, 
Torneholm, Stanrais, Spanrig (O.N. spdnn " chip," etc.), Welslet, Thistelthuait 
CC 826ff. (Caton) ; File, Ulvesthweit 1202 LF (Gressingham). 
Claughton : Sletholmbec, Felebrigge (O.N./pZ "board"), le Hau (O.N. haugr), 
Thistelwat CC 883ff. 

Heysham : Staynkeldeker, Litelcrosseslak FC ii. 277ff., Drake-, Ormesholm LC 

Halton : Nithinghou (O.N. nibingr " villain ") FC ii. 168, Sygerithwath ib. 
(" ford of Sigrifo ") ib. 162. 

Melling : Ravenescrosse 3 1323 LI, Cabbanarghe (cf. Scandinavians p. 79), Wynefel 
(app. " whin fell "), Esphouet, Aspohuth (O.N. espi, psp " aspen, -s " and hpfud 
" hill "), Dalslakland, Gayle, Swinemure CC 900fL (Wennington). 

1 ^Ethelstan's charter is printed by Dr. Fairer in YCh 1, in a different form in BCS 703. 
It only says that ^E. had bought the land " non modica pecunia." The authenticity of the 
charter is doubtful. It may be pointed out here that two other charters of ^Ethelstan's 
mention the purchase of land from pagans. By the charter BCS 658 the king grants to Uhtred 
Ashford and Hope in Derbyshire (" terrain quam proprio condignaque pecunia id est xx. 
libras inter aurum et argentum a paganis emerat"). By the charter BCS 659 the king in the 
same terms grants away land in Beds. A forger knowing a genuine charter of ^Ethelstan's 
containing this phrase might well have introduced it to render his forgery more trustworthy. 

2 Perhaps O.N. sul(a) " pillar," steinn " stone," and fit " water-meadow." 

3 Stated to be Ravens Close east of Wennington (LI ii. p. 122). 


Tatham : Stanheir (O.N. eyrr " gravel-bank " ; cf. Lindkvist p. 133), Prestewat 

CC 931ff. 

Tunstall : Langauenam, Haverbergh (O.N. hafri " oats " or hafr " ram "), 

Brakanwra CC 897f. (Leek). 

Whittington : Bramfite (O.N. fit " water-meadow "), Gildehouet (O.N. hpfutf 

" hill "), Mir-, Rathornthuait, Lonewat (" Lune ford," O.N. vad] CC 941ff. 

Bolton-le-Sands : Kelde-, Thistelle-, Quitebrec CO 916, Gaselandes LC 177, 

Braithemire, Engemyre, Wyndscarthmire LC 1805., 231, Santh(e)-, Sonthpul (for 

Sauth-, South-, O.N. saudr " sheep ") FC ii. HOfE., Gratwait, -thwat CC 919, 

Mikelthwayt FC ii. 143, Natewra CC 920 (Bolton). Southecoteflatte (O.N. saudr 

" sheep "), Stanrays, Herteseyl (O.N. hiarta-seyla " stag pool " ; cf. NoB viii. 

88f.) CC 905ff. (KeUet). 

Warton : de Hothweit LAR, Hewthwaite 1845 VHL viii. 166 (Carnforth) ; Eller- 

holm (now Eldrams), Sout(he)hou (O.N. saudr " sheep "), Staynhusslac 1246-71 

EHR xvii. 294 (Warton) ; Hokereytherig (? O.N. haukahreidr " hawk's nest ") 

1246 LF (Yealand). 

Dalton : Arkillesthorn (O.N. Arnkell pers. n.), Soudhusthorn (O.N. saufthus 

" sheep-cote ") 1228 LF. 

The examples adduced, which might be considerably added to, tell us there 
must have been a very considerable Scandinavian immigration into Lonsdale 
proper. The Scandinavians seem to have spread all over the district. The 
colonization of the hilly parts seems to be chiefly due to them. 


The Cartmel district seems to have been sparsely inhabited before the 
Scandinavian time (p. 240). The Scandinavian element in the place-nomencla- 
ture is strong ; it is really easier to enumerate the English than the Scandinavian 
names. The name Cartmel seems to be Scandinavian. Of Domesday manors 
only Kirkby (= Cartmel) has a Scand. name, but by 1332 the Scand. names 
Allithwaite and Holker have taken the place of Newton and Walton as the names 
of the townships. For minor names the early material is very scanty, and we 
must be content with a reference to the names given in the material. 

The Furness district is better represented in early sources. Of Domesday 
manors only Sowerby has a distinctly Scand. name, but the names Stainton and 
Ulverston at least show Scand. influence, and Killerwick has a Scand. first 
element. Of early townships Kirkby Ireleth has a Scand. name. The name 
Furness is no doubt Scandinavian. 

Names of later townships or villages (in High Furness), on the other hand, are 
preponderatingly Scandinavian : Blawith, Coniston, Hawkshead, Lowick, 
Subberthwaite, Torver, etc. Names of minor places and also those of streams, 
lakes and hills, are mostly Scandinavian, as seen from the material. Some of 
the elements have not been met with in the districts discussed hitherto, as O.N. 
kleif (Claife), lair (Hulleter), oddr (Greenodd), skrida (Scrithwaite). 

Of names found in early sources the following may be mentioned : 
Dalton : Melbrek, Fermeribouthe, Leyrgile, Langeslak, Staynonesterne, Stermanwra 


FC i, Ingritheros 1262-3, Gyle c 1225 FC ii, Cros-, How-, Oldelathflat, Scalbank, 

Grenethwaytmedowe 16th cent. FC ii. 

Aldingham : le Calfecar, Layrepotbankes, Brakanthwayt 1419 CR. 

Pennington : Brakanbank, Kirke-, Mos-, Terneflat, Aykehamer (O.N. eik " oak " 

and hamarr " cliff "), Grenemire, Lairpot 1332 FC i. 

Urswick : le Sletehaw 1282 OWNS xii. 235 (first el. perhaps O.N. slettr " even "). 

Kirkby Ireleth : Gunildebrigge (O.N. Gunnhildr pers. n.), Saurchales (O.N. 

saurr " mud " and scale), Fog(he)wra l FC i. (Angerton). Note le Ose de Sterispul 

FC i. 321, where Ose must be O.N. oss " mouth of a river." 

For High Furness early sources are very scanty. 

Of particular interest in this district are names containing a Scand. genitive 
form combined with an English second element. A certain case is Osmotherley. 
Possible cases are Elterwater and Windermere, but in these a Scand. name for 
" lake " may have been replaced by an English word. A name such as Os- 
motherley presupposes a mixed speech in which Scand. inflexions were kept, 
but in which the vocabulary was partly English. 

It need hardly be said that a very considerable Scandinavian colonization 
has taken place in Furness. High Furness seems to have been in old days an 
almost purely Scandinavian district. Cf . on English names in this district p. 240f . 

To sum up, the place-names tell us that, before the Norman Conquest, the 
coast districts all the way from the Mersey estuary to the Duddon and some 
inland districts must have had a very considerable Norse population. There are 
good reasons to believe that the immigrants came, not straight from Norway, but 
from Norse colonies in Ireland, Man, the Hebrides, and Scotland. 

This latter fact accounts for the remarkable Celtic (Irish-Gaelic) influence 
found in the Scandinavian place-nomenclature, and which I have dealt with in 
my book Scandinavians and Celts. Thus the common element ergh " a shieling " 
is Ir. airge. To the Lancashire examples pointed out in the book quoted may be 
added some fresh ones (Barker, Bethecar, perhaps Houkler Hall, Robsawter). 
Some Ir. personal names are found in place-names, as a rule combined with 
Scand. elements ; examples will be found under Becconsall, Beacons Gill, 
Bethecar. Sometimes the order between the elements of compounds is inverted 
in accordance with Celtic usage. The Lancashire examples of this type are few 
and mostly somewhat doubtful. An additional (and, in my opinion, safe) case 
is Croskelloc 1260-76 FC ii. 777 (orig.), in Ulverston. The first element of this 
name is Ir. cros (O.N. kross, M.E. cross). The second may be identical with the 
pers. name Chelloc quoted by Bjorkman, Namenkunde, and identified by him 
with Chetelog LV (<O.N. Ketillaug, etc.). Another possible source is O.N. 
Kiallakr<Ii. Cellach. 

Hardly any light is thrown by place-names on the time of the Scandinavian 
immigration. There is good reason to believe that it took place in a fairly late 
period of the Viking age, very likely from about 900. A Scandinavian emigra- 
tion from Ireland to Cheshire is known to have taken place immediately after 

1 First el. M.E. fogge, Mn.E. fog " aftermath ; long grass left standing in the fields during 
winter, etc." (Lindkvist, p. 200). Fog is identical with Norw. dial, fogg " tall, thin grass," 
especially growing on wet soil (Ross). Fog is probably a Scand. word. 


900 (901 or 902). A similar period is likely for the Scandinavian settlements in 
Lancashire (e.g., in Amounderness). If the Irish-Gaelic elements in place-names 
may be taken to prove that the immigrants had been to some extent influenced 
by Irish civilization and speech, an earlier time than about 900 is hardly to be 
reckoned with. 

It has been suggested that the Scandinavian immigration into the north-west 
of England was of a peaceful nature, and that no systematic conquest of the 
district took place. The place-names to some extent seem to point in this direc- 
tion. Scandinavian names are most numerous in districts which seem to have 
been practically uninhabited before the Viking age, e.g., the low-lying districts 
of West Derby, Leyland, and Amounderness and the Lonsdale and Furness fell 
districts. This might seem to indicate that the Norse were content to settle in 
districts before unoccupied. I do not think this conclusion is necessarily correct. 
Also against the theory of peaceful immigration seems to tell the general im- 
probability that such extensive settlements as those which must have taken place, 
for instance, in the Liverpool district and in Amounderness should have been 
permitted by the previous inhabitants if they were in a position to prevent them. 
However, if Lancashire (or the greater part of it) belonged to the Danelaw, a 
strong Scandinavian immigration without a previous conquest is plausible. There 
were very intimate relations between the Scandinavians in York and Dublin 
in the time before and after 900, as a result of which a stream of Norse settlers 
poured into Northumbria (Yorkshire). On this point reference may be made 
especially to A. Bugge, Vikingerne ii. 255fL, Oman, p. 495. Under the circum- 
stances it is extremely probable that Norse from Ireland also founded settlements 
on the west coast, and did so with the consent or even the encouragement of the 
kings of York. 1 They may have settled in waste districts or bought land from 
previous inhabitants, just as settlers in Iceland often did. 

How long did a Scandinavian language continue to be spoken in Lancashire ? 
This question cannot be definitely answered. The well-known runic inscription 
of Pennington, however, indicates that a Scand. language of some sort was in 
living use as late as the twelfth century in the Pennington district. The place- 
names do not throw much light on this question. It is true some place-names 
show a somewhat late form, as -breck, -slack (O.N. brekka, slakki), but the assimila- 
tion nk>kk at any rate took place before 1000 ; cf. Finnur Jonsson, op. cit. 
p. 264. The only place-name known to me that seems to be of value for the 
present purpose is Stanraysinum (written Stau-) LC 184 (Bolton-le-Sands), 
which apparently contains the Scand. suffixed article ; the word seems to be 
O.N. steinhreysi " cairn." As the origin of the suffixed article seems to date 
from about 1100 (Noreen, Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen 207) this example 
would seem to show that in the district of Bolton-le-Sands a Scand. language 
was spoken at least as late as about 1100. 

1 If A. Bugge should be right in his suggestion (op. cit. ii. 317) that Amounderness was 
named after Agmund Hold, who was killed in 911 during a Northumbrian raid in Mercia 
(Chron. D), this theory gains in probability. The position of a hold was intermediate between 
that of an earl and a thegn. A hold may very well have been head of Amounderness. 



1. Place-names referring to old roads, buildings, and the like. 

Names containing O.E. street, stret, as Stretford, Stanistreet, as a rule refer 
to Roman roads and have been of value in determining the exact lines of such 
roads. Thus Street-fold, in Moston, Street-yate, in Royton, mark the line of the 
road from Manchester to Oldham and the north-east (Whitaker, Manchester i. 
138). At Street in Leyland no Roman road has been found, so far as I know. 
A search for one might very well be worth while. 

Other memorials of the Roman time are names in -caster, -Chester (cf. p. 9) 
and port (Alport, Portfield). 

Old forts have often given name to places, and names containing a word 
such as burh often give hints as to where old forts are to be looked for. Burrow 
(on the Lune) and Castercliff (Bl) are named from old forts. The name Tilber- 
thwaite Lo (olim Tillesburc) indicates that there was a fort at the place, and its 
site has been determined with much probability by Mr. Collingwood. Burrow 
south of Lancaster was probably named from a lost fort, as were no doubt 
Arbury, Burscough (De). But not all names in burh were named from forts ; 
cf. p. 8. Some names in -borough (as Flookborough, Newburgh) refer to 

Names such as Eccles, Eccleston, in my opinion indicate that there were 
British churches in the places so called. It is true there are no traces of an old 
church at Eccleshill or Eccleston Am., but many old churches have disappeared. 
Eccleston in Prescot par. adjoins Prescot, where the old parish church is. No 
doubt Eccleston originally embraced Whiston, from which Prescot was carved 
out as a rectory manor. 

Bradkirk (Am.), Kirkstead, Kirkhead, Kirkpool (Lo.) contain the word kirk 
and refer to lost churches. The disappearance of the wooden church at Bradkirk 
is no matter for surprise. The church may have been of a type similar to that 
at Greenstead in Essex (cf. Reallexikon ii. 557f.). Old documents mention 
churches or at least chapels of even flimsier material than boards. Thus, accord- 
ing to the Register of Lanercost, a chapel of wickerwork was made about 1050 
at Triermain in Cumberland ; cf. the Register of Wetherhal, p. 224 5 . 

On the name Abbeystead, see p. 172. 

It is doubtful if there is any place-name alluding to a place of heathen worship. 
The Anglians were probably Christianized soon after their immigration into 
Lancashire. The Norse may have been to some extent so even before they 
came to Lancashire. Some of the colonists of Iceland who came from the British 
Isles are stated to have been Christians. Cf. Finnur Jonsson op. cit. p. 17ff. 
(esp. p. 43). There is one place-name, however, now lost, which may refer to a 
heathen place of worship : Harhum 1298 LI (West Derby) ; cf. Harumcar 
1228 C1R, Hargunkar 1228 WhC. This must be the dat. pi. of O.E. hearg 
" (heathen) temple ; idol," or O.N. hprgr " heap of stones ; heathen place of 
worship " ; cf. the place-names O.Swed. Hargh, O.Dan. Hqrg 1145, Horgh 
(now Hor in Scania ; Falkman). But the meaning may be simply " heap of 


stones." What renders it rather plausible, however, that the meaning may be 
that of " temple " is the fact that Harhum must have been close to Thingwall. 
In C1R 1228 the perambulation of the forest of West Derby begins at " the 
broad apple-tree " in Harumcar, and ends at Thingwalacres. 

Singleton, Chingle Hall, New Chingle Hall, were named from shingled roofs. 
The use of shingles must have been exceptional in Lancashire. 

2. Names referring to old institutions, social classes, etc. 

Only a few isolated cases can be adduced here. 

Some places are shown by their names to have been local meeting-places. 
Spellow De is a case in point. Moothills are mentioned, e.g., in Carnforth 
(Moothaw VHL viii. 166), Kellet (Mouter or Mootha ib. 141). Of. also Schyrokes, 
p. 173). 

Thingwall, near Liverpool, was a Scandinavian thing-place. 

LaSog De may have been named from an oak at which a court of justice 
was held. 

At Hesketh (S.W. of Preston) was a Scandinavian racecourse. Hesketh is 
a common place-name in N. England. Horse-racing was a favourite sport with 
the Norse in Norway and Iceland. 

Several place-names allude to old systems of def erice, Ij^ac^m hills and the 
like. Probable old English names of this kind are Warton (Am. and Lo.) and 
Wardle, Sa. On Wuerdle, near Wardle, see p. 57. The two Warbrecks date 
from Scandinavian times. Lookout hills are often alluded to in place-names ; 
cf. Tottlebank and Tootal Hill, near Longridge. 

Of social classes the following are mentioned in place-names : 
King (O.E. cyning or O.N. konungr) : Kingley, Conishead, Coniston, Cunscough. 
The last two obviously contain the Scand. word. Cunscough may be later than 
the conquest of S. Lancashire by King Edward. But Coniston must have been 
named from some Scandinavian king. 

Earl : Yarlside (two), Yerleskelde, Yarlesmyre seem to contain the O.N. jarl 
" earl." The names cannot well be later than the time when North Lancashire 
was under Northumbrian earls. 
Gerefa : see Gerefholm. p. 186. 

Ceorl : Chorlton Sa, Chorley Le. Cf. O.N. karl in Carleton Am. 
Thrall. O.N. pr&ll is found in Threlfall Am. and Trailholme Lo. (which see). 

3. Personal names in place-names. 

In his admirable book on Berkshire place-names, p. 25fL, Professor Stenton, 
in discussing the personal element in local nomenclature, gives it as his opinion 
that a personal name in a place-name has a seignorial implication. As, before the 
Conquest, the land between the Ribble and the Mersey was parcelled out in 
small manors held by thegns or drengs, and the same was very likely the case 
with the rest of Lancashire, we might expect to find personal names plentiful 
in the names of old Lancashire names of townships, villages, and hamlets. A few 
notes on the personal element in Lancashire place-names may therefore be of 


interest. As the names in question can be easily picked out from the lists on 
p. 234ff. a full discussion will not be necessary. 

In Salford hundred the only English names of early townships that have or 
may have a personal first element 1 are Edgeworth (very doubtful) and Hunders- 
field. More often we find personal names in other names, as Balderstone, Chorlton 
(with Hardy), Elton, Ard-, Bes-, Gothers-, Whittleswick. These may be old 

In other parts of Lancashire personal names are more common in place- 
names. Thus in Blackburn we find Balderston, Osbaldeston, Witton, Livesey, 
Worston, Huncoat, Chatburn, Simonstone, Oswaldtwistle, Worsthorn. In West 
Derby they are also more numerous than in Salford. There are, e.g., in the old 
Warrington hundred, Atherton, Rixton, Woolston, Bed-, Rainford, Rainhill, 
Tyldesley ; in the old Newton hundred, Abram (first el. a woman's name), 
Winwick, Winstanley ; in West Derby proper, Harleton, Woolton, Halsall, 
Knowsley, Wibaldeslei. For the rest of the hundreds I refer to the lists on 
p. 234fi. 

To the examples from Blackburn and West Derby a few more might be added. 
Anyhow, the number of place-names with a personal first element is compara- 
tively small. The percentage is much smaller than in Berks., where more than 
half the names enumerated by Stenton p. 45fi. have a personal first element. 
But I do not think definite conclusions can be drawn from the comparatively 
rare occurrence of place-names with a personal first element in Lancashire. 
Even in a strongly manorialized district the majority of place-names might very 
well have as first elements a descriptive word. On the other hand, it is not 
necessary to assume that a personal name in place-names has always a seignorial 
implication. Many villages have no doubt developed from insignificant begin- 
nings, e.g., from clearings or small farmsteads. The later village would often 
retain the old name of the place, which would frequently contain the original 
squatter's name. Nor need a personal name in a place-name always imply 
ownership. There are numerous instances in Landnama of localities named from 
some person who was killed or perished there. A Lancashire example of this 
kind is Deadwinclough, though in this case the valley was named from a nameless 

Scandinavian names fairly often contain personal names. We may mention 
Flixton, Turton, Urmston in Salford, Ainsdale, Argarmeles, Scarisbrick, Skel- 
mersdale, Toxteth in West Derby. Here we must remember that the Norse 
usually lived in isolated homesteads, not in villages, and probably settled to 
a great extent in homesteads also in England. The names mentioned, as a rule, 
probably refer to freehold homesteads, and hardly have a seignorial implication 
in a stricter sense. 

4. Flora and fauna in place-names. 

Many tree-names are found in place-names, e.g., alder (Ollerton, etc.), aspen 
(as Aspden), birch (as Birch, Birtle, Birtenshaw, Bescar, etc.), elm (see wice, 
p. 20), hazel (Hazelrigg, etc.), holly (Hollinworth, etc.), linden or lime (Lindale), 

1 1 do not count names such as Tottington, because these, in my opinion, contain a 
genitive plural (Totinga tun). 


mountain ash (Wickenlow), spruce fir (perhaps in Sabden), sallow (Salford, 
Salesbury, etc.), willow (Withington, etc.). The beech does not occur in names. 

Particularly frequent in place-names is ash (O.E. cesc, O.N. askr), not only in 
minor names, as Ashhurst, Eskrigg, etc., but also in names of old townships. 
There are several Ashtons. This might be due simply to the common occurrence 
of the ash in Lancashire. But there are probably other reasons. Not only was 
the ash in the old days a very valuable tree, but it is also fastidious as regards 
soil. Very likely it was known that where ashtrees grow, there the soil is generally 
good. Moreover, the ash was, in the old days, looked upon as a holy tree. A 
charter in BCS 476 (A.D. 854) mentions " quendam fraxinum quern imperiti 
sacrum vocant " (Taunton, Somerset). For further examples reference may be 
made to Bugge, Studier over de nordiske Gude- og Heltesagns Oprindelse, 
p. 499. For this reason people would settle where ashtrees grew or plant ashtrees 
at their homesteads. Similar considerations may account for the considerable 
number of names containing the word oak. 

Thornbushes or hawthorns have given name to several places : Thornham, 
Thornton, Thurnham, etc. The thornbush and hawthorn also used to be looked 
upon as holy. On holy thorns and hawthorns in Sweden, see Sahlgren, NoB 
viii. 56f. A thornbush at a homestead or village would, therefore, naturally 
give rise to a place-name. 

Names of animals frequently occur in place-names, especially those of woods, 
hills, streams, and the like. We may mention hart and hind (in Hartshead, 
Hindley, etc.), roe (Roeburn, Royle, Read), badger (Brockholes, Brock Hall, 
Badsberry, etc.), marten (Marshaw), grampus (Walney). Urswick seems to 
contain O.E. ur " bison." Many names contain the word wolf (or O.N. ulfr), 
as Wolf Fell, Wolfenden, Wolfhole Crag, Woolden, Ulvedale. On Ulvegravegate 
see p. 252. Names of birds in place-names are, e.g., crane (Cranshaw, Carnforth ; 
Tarnacre, etc.), crow (Crawshaw), hawk (Hawkshaw). Of. also Dunnockshaw, 
Tewitfield, Warcockhill. 

5. Names referring to agriculture, etc. 

The chief industries in old Lancashire were agriculture and cattle-farming. 
Names alluding to these pursuits are numerous. Only a few need be pointed out. 

Several names contain the name of a cereal, as barley, O.E. bere, or O.N. 
bygg (Barley, Barlow, Barton, Berwick, etc. ; Bigland, Bigthwaite), rye (Royley, 
Royton, Ryley, Renacres, Ruthwait, p. 250, etc.), wheat (Wheatley). I have found 
no names with O.E. dtan " oats " (except one or two field-names), and only 
two or three with O.N. hafri (Haverthwaite, Haverigg ; Haverbreck). Perhaps 
oats were so commonly cultivated that a name alluding to them would not have 
been distinctive enough. No conclusions should be drawn from these names as 
regards the extent to which the various cereals were cultivated. But it is 
extremely interesting to find that barley and wheat must have been cultivated 
from an early date in places where they are hardly ever grown now, e.g., in 
the highly situated parts of the old Forest of Pendle (Barley, Wheatley). 

It is of some interest to find that the old Scandinavian and Celtic custom of 
sending cattle away to shielings in the summer must have been introduced into 


Lancashire. The numerous names in -ergh and -set originally denoted shielings. 
But many of these at an early date developed into permanent settlements. 
Several erghs are among Domesday manors. 

The name Orgrave proves that iron-mining was carried on in Furness before 
the Conquest. The two Orrells were possibly named from iron mines. Mill- 
stone quarrying may be alluded to by such names as Quarlton, Quernmore. 

Place-names referring to hunting or fishing seem to be chiefly Scandinavian : 
Ingoe, Waitham, Waitholme. The word cockshoot " a glade through which 
woodcocks, etc., might dart so as to be caught by nets stretched across the 
opening " (first exemplified in NED in 1530) is found early in Lancashire 
place-names (Kocsute, Kockesuteheved 1180-1200 CC 607), which proves that this 
method of catching birds is of high antiquity. 

6. Folk-lore, etc. 

Only a few isolated names contain allusions to popular beliefs or customs. 
Of interest are names containing O.E. pyrs " giant, goblin " (Thirsden, Thurs- 
clough ; cf. Thuresdoch CC 647, in Hindley) or O.N. purs the same (Thrushgill, 
etc. ; cf. p. 182). The words, as will be seen, are always combined with such 
words as mean " a ravine " or " a fen." Alden may contain O.E. celf, ielf, 
" a fairy." On Grimshaw see p. 76. Dragley apparently means " the dragon's 
mound," and may refer to some local legend. Cf. also Drakeholm, p. 253. 

Halliwell was named from a holy well. On Wiswell, see p. 77. 

Cunlifie, if the alternative explanation suggested p. 73 is correct, refers to 
an ancient method of curing sickness. 

Very few names testify to a feeling for natural beauty. Examples are : 
Breightmet, Facit, Fallowfield (Heaton). Scandinavian names such as Fair- 
thwaite, Fairsnape, Winsnape, may belong here, but it is quite possible that the 
adjectives/o^r, vosnn, have rather the more original sense of " good, excellent," 
than that of " beautiful." 


P. 9, s.v. cross. Forster, Keltisches Wortgut, p. 28 ff., takes a somewhat 
different view of the history of the word. 

P. 23 f., s.n. Lyme. To the examples given the following may be added : 
Dray ton subtus Lyme 1259 IPM. The editor identifies this with Dray ton in 
Wroxeter. But there are two Dray tons in N. Salop., one near Betton-in-Hales, 
which is very likely meant. Schertelyme 1297 IPM (Staffs.) Chesterton, near 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, is also called Chesterton-under-Lyme. 

P. 46, s.n. Quarlton. Also Goth. (asilu)qairnus, and probably O.H.G. quirn, 
M.H.G. Tcurne had the meaning " mill-stone." This tells in favour of the theory 
that O.E. cweorn had this sense. 

P. 58, s.n. Littleborough. Cf . Euxton Burgh, the name of the village in Euxton, 
Le. Also in this name the meaning of burh is obscure. 

P. 82, s.n. Habergham. The present pronunciation is [(h)abagam]. 

P. 93, s.n. Deerplay. Cf. Deerplay, W. Yks., Hindeplewe (Stanford, Nhp.) 
Selby C ii. 271. 

P. 113, s.n. Tarbock. The identification of the surname (de) Thornebrooke with 
(de) Torbok (Tarbock) suggested tentatively is undoubtedly correct. Henry de 
Thornebrooke is stated to have been bailiff between Bibble and Mersey (1232-56 
CC 556). This post was held by Sir Henry de Torbock, who flourished in the first 
half of the 13th century (VHL iii. 177). This clinches the etymology of Tarbock 

P. 121, s.n. Bickerstaffe. A late O.E. instance of Bickerton is found in YCh 7 : 
Biceratune c 1030, apparently a lost place near Otley, W. Yks. This proves that 
O.N. bekkiar cannot be the first el. of Bickerton, and, I suppose, also disposes of 
Mawer's suggestion that it might be bicker, " quarrel." Bicera- may quite well be 
the gen. of an O.E. pers. n. Bicera, for n would have disappeared by this time in 
the dialect of the district. It may also be a gen. pi. If so, we might compare O.E. 
bycera (fold} 972 BCS 1282, which is hesitatingly identified in B-T (Suppl.) with 
O.E. beocere " apiarius." The i, if this is correct, must be due to Anglian " smooth- 
ing " of 10 (in O.E. bio) before c. Dr. Bradley told me long ago that he had con- 
sidered the possibility of deriving Bicker- from O.E. beocere. 

P. 128, s.n. Shevington. While the MS. is passing through the press, I come 
across some illustrative material that seems worth quoting. Prof. Tait suggests 
connection with the hill-name Chevin. I had already thought of such connection, 
but the different initial consonants seemed to render it impossible. However, 
I now find that the Chevin, the name of a ridge in W. Yks., near Otley, appears 
in O.E. sources as scefinc c 972 BCS 1278, (on) Scefinge c 1030 YCh 7. To be quite 
exact, scefinc is not the name of the ridge, but that of a place named from the 
Chevin, and no doubt situated at the foot or on the slope of the ridge. Chevin is 
presumably identical with or related to Welsh cefn " ridge " ; cf. M.W. kefyn, 
kevyn, Gaul. Cebenna. Here C (>Ch-) has apparently been replaced by O.E. 
Sc- ; the O.E. ending -ing has been substituted for original -en, -in. The sub- 
stitution of Sc- is difficult to explain. The only possible analogy I know of is 
Shorncote (Schernecote DB, Cernecote c 1290, etc.) near the Churn in Wilts., whose 
first el. is identified by Zachrisson, A.N. Infl., p. 159, with the river name (Cern). 
I doubt whether this etymology is correct. More probably the name has as first 


el. O.E. scearn " dung," Cernecote being due to association with the name Cern. 
Zachrisson thinks Sh- is due to A.N. influence. This is, at any rate, impossible 
in the case of scefinc. 

O.E. scefinc may represent an O.Brit. 7s cefn " below the ridge " ; cf. Welsh 
Iscoed " below the wood," and particularly M.W. Iskevyn (the name of a place 
in Llandanwg, Merioneth) Rec. Cam., which apparently means " below the 
ridge." 7s cefn (>scefinc) I suppose was the name of a place at the foot of Cefn, 
" The Chevin." As 7s was unstressed, loss of the initial vowel might take place. 
Shevin- in Shevinhull and Shevington may be analogous to O.E. scefinc. If so, 
Shevington Moor may be supposed to have had the O.Brit, name Cefn. 

P. 140, s.n. Skippool. Cf. Skyppul WhC 490, the name of a stream or pool near 
the Alt (De). 

P. 158, s.n. Limebrest. The name may be compared with a lost name in 
Bowerham (SLo) : (acram super) Bounebrest c 1200, Bambrist, -brest 1450, 
Bawnbrist 15 cent. CC. The first el. of this name is O.N. baun " bean." This 
suggests that Lime- may be O.E. or O.N. lin " flax," with n>m before the b. 
The second el. of both might be O.E. breost in some transferred sense such as 
round hill or slope (cf. breast of a hill). But more probably we may derive it from 
an O.N. equivalent of Norw. dial, brest " slope." Limebrest is on a slope. Boune- 
brest was close to the Lune. The prep, super before the name is noteworthy. 

In Saxton's map (1577), as well as in Speed's map of 1608, the Fleetwood 
peninsula, or the left bank of the Wyre N. of Thornton village, is called Bergerode. 
I find no mention of this name in other sources. 

P. 168, s.n. Lune. As regards the form Landc on coins, it should be pointed 
out that the editors of VHL (viii. 4) look upon the existence of a mint at Lancaster 
in the reign of Harold I. as very doubtful. 


The Index contains all the names discussed pp. 23-223; further, a selection of 
names and forms dealt with in the Introduction and Summary. Forms from early 

sources are italicized. 


A Abbot's Reading, 217 
* X Above Town, 205 
Abram, 102 
Accrington, 89 
Ackers Hall (Mill), 115 
Acornley, 88 
Addington, 187 
Adgarley, 210 
Adlington, 128 
Admarsh Church, 166 
Affeside, 63 
Agecroft, 42 
Aigburth, 111 
Aighton, 140 
Ainsdale, 125 
Ainsworth, 53 
Aintree, 117 
Akefrith, 180 
Aldclifife, 174 
Aldehulm, 245 
Alden, 64 
Aldingham, 208 
Algotholmc, 249 
Alkincoats, 87 
Alkrington, 50 
Allerton, 111 
Allithwaite, 196 
Alport, 34 
Alsager (Ches.), 84 
Alston, 145 
Alt, 29; 95 (riv.) ; Altcar, 118; Alt 

Grange, 118 
Altham, 89 
Alt Marsh, 118 
Alton, 122 

Araounderness, 139, 256 * 
Ancliffe, 186 
Ancoats, 35 
Anderton, 128 
Angerton, 221 
Anglezark, 48, 245 
Angram Green, 79 
Antley, 90 
Appleton, 106 
Appletreeworth, 222 
Appley Bridge, 130 
Arbury, 98 
Ardwick, 35 
Argarmeles, 125 
Arghole, 252 
Arkholme, 180 

Arkillesthorn, 254 

Arklid, 218 

Arley, 45 ; 74 

Armetridding, 133 

Arnside, 219 ; Arnside Dub, 169 

Arpley, 96 

Arrow, Little, 215 

Artlebeck, 168 

Aschebi, 148 

Ashhurst, 105 

Ashlack Hall, 220 

Ashley, 35 ; 149 

Ashton, 23, 29 (A.-under-Lyne); 100 (A.-in- 

Makerfield); 146; 160; 174; 260 
Ashworth, 54 
Askam, 205 
Aakdetcros, 171 
Asland, 126 
Asp(d)en, 91 
Aspinwall, 124 
Aspul, 102 
Astley, 101 
Atherton, 102 
Audenshaw, 29 
Audlem (Ches.), 23 
Audley, 74 
Aughton, 121 ; 179 
Aulthurstside, 222 
Avenamis, 252 ; Avenham, 146 
Aykehamer, 255 ; Aykescof, 252 
Aynesargh, 116 
Ayneslack, 87 
Aynesom, 198 
Ayre, 176, 177 
Ayside, 199 

Bacup, 92 
Badsberry, 148 
Bagganley, 131 
Bagslate Moor, 59 
Bailey, 141 
Bailrigg, 173 

Balderston, 69 ; Balderstone, 55 
Balladen, 64 
BaUam, 151 
Ballesley, 43 
Balshaw, 7 
Bamber Bridge, 68 
Bamford, 54 
Bamfurlong, 102 
Bandrake Head, 216 



Bank Hall, 7, 137 

Barbers Moor, 137 

Barcroft, 84 

Bardsea, 210 

Bardsley, 29 

Bare, 177 

Barker, 149 

Barley, 81 

Barlow, 31 

Barmskin Hall, 131 

Barnacre, 164 

Barnside, 88 

Barrow, 77; 107; 204 (B.-in-Furness) 

Barrowford, 87 

Barrow Nook, 122 

Bartle, 161 

Barton, 38 (B.-upon-Irwell); 120; 148 

Baskell, 222 

Bastwell, 74 

Baunebrec, 252 

Baxenden, 90 

Baycliff, 208 

Bazil Point, 175 

Beacons Gill, 203 

Beal, 28 ; Beal Moor, 52 

Beanthwaite, 220 

Beardshaw, 88 

Beardwood, 74 

Beaumont, 177 

Beaver, 88 

Becconsall, 138 

Bedford, 101 

Beesley, 149 

Beetham (WmL), 189 2 

Beiskebrec, 253 

Belanespot, 252 

Belfield, 56 

Belsetenab, 67 

Belthorn, 19 

Bergerode, 264 

Bernshaw Tower, 58 

Bescar, 124 

Beswick, 35 

Bethecar Moor, 218 

Bewsey Hall, 96 

Bickershaw, 102 

Bickerstaffe, 121, 263 

Big Forth, 173 

Biggar, 205 

Bigland, 198 

Bigwra, 211 

Billingcote, 202 

Billinge, 104 ; Billinge [Hill], 66 ; Billinge 

Scar, 67 
Billings, 202 
Billington, 71 
Bilsborrow, 162 
Birch, 31 
Birchley, 104 

Birkby, 196, 224 

Birkdale, 125 

Birkett Houses, 200 

Birkland Barrow, 187 

Birkrig, 209 

Birkrow, 214 

Birkwray, 218 

Birley Wood, 128 

Birshaw, 52 

Birtenshaw, 47 

Birtle, 54 

Birtwisle, 80 

Bispham, 136; 156 

Blackay, 87 

Blackburn, 65, 74 

Blacklache House, 133 

Blackley, 37 ; Blackley Hurst, 104 

Blackmoor, 101 

Blacko, 67, 87 

Blackpool, 156 

Blackrod, 45 

Blacksnape, 75 

Blackstone Edge, 28 

Blackwater, 66 

Blainscough, 129 

Blake Hall, 149 

Blasher, 135 

Blatchinworth, 57 

Blawith, 214 

Bleansley, 222 

Bleasdale, 165 

Bleaze Wood, 184 

Blelham Tarn, 192 

Blenket Farm, 196 

Bleshoudale, 250 

Blindhurst, 166 

Blindsill, 43 

Blowick, 126 

Blythe Hall, 122 

Boar Bank, 196 

Bold, 107, 229 

Bolehagge, 253 

Bolton, 8; 41; 45 (B.-le-Moors) ; 186 (B.-le- 

Sands);210; 230 
Bonds, 163 
Booths Hall, 40 
Bootle, 116, 230 
Borch, 222 
Borderiggs, 222 
Borgan, -es, 85 
Borgerha, 222 
Borsden, 43 
Berwick, 188 
Bottin, 84 
Botton, 182 
Bouldrey, 214 
Boulsworth, 67 
Bounebrest, 264 
Bouth, 216 ; Bouth Wood, 203 



Bowerham, 174 

Bow Laithe (Yks.), 142 

Bowland, 142 

Boysnope, 39 

Bracelet, 222 

Braddyll, 71 

Bradford, 35 

Bradkirk, 153 

Bradley, 96; 144 

Bradshaw, 46 

Braithemire, 254 

JBrakanbank, Brakanthwayt, 255 

Bramfite, 254 

Brandlesome, 62 

Brandwood, 59 

Brantbeck, 174 

Brantwood, 219 

Brathay, 192 

Breast Mill Beck, 203 

Breck, 115 

Breightmet, 46 

Bretherton, 137 

Brettargh Holt, 111 

Bretieroum, 16, 224 ; Brettestret, 224 

Briercliffe, 85 

Brierfield, 86 

Brimmicroft, 132 

Brimrod, 55 

Brindle, 134 

Brindle Heath, 41 

Brinscall, 132 

Brinsop, 43 

Broadhalgh, 59 

Broad Oak, 109 

Brock, 140 

Brockhall, 71 

Brockholes, 145 

Brocklehurst, 90 

Bromyhurst, 38 

Brooks, 166 

Brotherod, 59 

Broughton, 32 ; 147 ; 198 (B.-in-Cartmel) ; 222 

(B.-in-Furness) ; Broughton Beck, 213 
Brownbrinks, 81 
Brownedge, 69 
Brown Hill, 67 
Brownlow, 93 
Brownside, 83 
Brown Wardle, 57 
Bruche, 96 
Brun, Brunshaw, 83 
Bryning, 151 
Brynn, 100 
Buckcrag, 199 
Buckden, 64 
Buckley, 57 
Buckshaw, 16 
Buersill, 55 

Bulk, 175 

Bullough, 48 

Bulsnape, 149 

Burblethwaite, 200 

Burgh, 129 

Burn [Hall], 157 

Burnage, 30 

Burnden, 46 

Burnedge, 52 

Burnley, 83 

Burrow, 174; 184 

Burscough, 123 

Burslem (Staffs.), 23 

Burton, 96 ; Burton Brook, 132 

Burtonhead, 108 ; Burtonwood, 96 

Burwains, 85 

Bury, 61; 114 

Bushburn, 66 

Buthebanck, 253 

Butterworth, 55 

Byrewath, 163 

Byrom, 99 

s-^abbanarghe, 253 

( Cabus, 165 

^^Cadiave-hustude, 228 

Cadishead, 39 

Cadley, 148 

Cadmanwell, 228 

Cadshaw, 70 

Calder, 66 ; 140 ; -brook, -moor, 57 

Calkeld Lane, 175 

Cant Beck, 169, 183 

Cantsfield, 183 

Capernwray, 187 

Capilbrek, 253 

Cark, 197 ; c/. High Cark 

Carleton, 157 

Carnforth, 187 

Carrs, 226 

Carry Bridge, 87 

Cartmel, 195 ; Cartmel Fell, 200 

Castercliff, 67 

Castlehead, 199 

Castleton, 55 

Catforth, 162 

Catlow, 86; 91 

Caton, 177 

Catshaw, 172 

CatteraU, 162 

Caw, 194 

Cawood, 180 

Cayley, 100 

Chadderton, 50 

Chaddock Hall, 101 

Chadsworth, 42 

Chadwick, 59 

Chaigley, 141 



Challen Hall, 190 

Charnock Richard, 130 ; cf. Heath Charnock 

Chatburn, 79 

Chat Moss, 39 

Chatterton, 64 

Cheesden, 59 

Cheetham, Cheetwood, 33 

Chequerbent, 102 

Chesham, 61 

Chew, 71 ; Chew Moor, 46 

Childwall, 112 

Chingle Hall, 149 

Chipping, -dale, 143 

Chisnall Hall, 129 

Choo, 33 

Chor, 127 

Chorley, 131 

Chorlton, 31 (C.-with-Hardy) ; 32 (C.-upon- 

Chowbent, 102 
Church, 90 

Churchtown, 163; 196 
Claife, 219 
Claughton, 162; 178 
Clayden, 35 
Clayton, 36 ; 70 (C.-le-Dale) ; 89 (C.-le-Moors) ; 

134 (C.-le-Woods) 
Clegg, Cleggswood, 56 
Clerk Hill, 76 
Cleveley, 166 
Cleworth, 101 
Clifton, 42; 83; 150 
Clitheroe, 78 
Cliviger, 84 
Clougha Pike, 169 
Clover Hill, 86 
Cobhouse, 62 
Cockden, 85 

Cocken, 203; -shell, 214 
Cocker, Cocker Bar (Brook, Lumb), 168 
Cockerham, 170 
Cockersand, 171 
Cockey Moor, 53 
Cockney, 38 
Cokerdene, 168 
Coldcoats, 77 
Coldshaw, 50 
Colecroa, 252 
Colloway, 175 
Collyhurst, 35 
Colne, 87 ; Colne Water, 66 
Coltesnape, 17 
Colthouse, 219 
Colton, 216 
Combe Hill, 67 
Comberhalgh, 149 
Compley, 157 
Compton, 152 
Conder, 168 

Conishead Priory, 211 

Coniston, 215 ; Coniston Water, 192 

Constable Lee, 92 

Coo Hill, 74 

Copp, 161 

Coppull, 129 

Copster Hill, 51 

Copthurst, 80; 133 

Coptrod, 59 

Core as Lane, 159 

Core, 143 

Cornbrook, 27 

Corner Row, 154 

Cottam, 147 

Cowan Bridge, 184 

Cowburn, 151 

Cowclough, 59 

Cowhill, 73 

Cowhouses, 90 

Cowley, 109 

Cowlishaw, 52 

Cowm, 59 

Cowpe, 65 

Cowpren Point, 197 

Cowran, 211 

Cracanethorp, 247 

Craggs, 81 

Crag House, 177 

Crake, 191 

Cranshaw, 16; 107 

Crawshaw Booth, 92 

Cribden (Cridden), 67 

Crimbles, 166 

Cringelborhanet, 85 

Cringlebarrow Wood, 189 

Cringleber, 180 

Cringlebrook, 27 

Crivelton, 202 

Crocflat, 253 

Croft, 98 

Croglinhurst, 191 

Croichlow, 63 

Crompton, 52 

Cronkshaw, 83 

Cronton, 107 

Crook, 128; 133; 171 ; -hey, 170 

Crookhurst, 104 

Crosby, 118 

Crosflat, 255 ; Crosgate, 252 

Croskelloc, 255 

Cross Copp, 179 

Croaaeberg, 8 

Crossens, 126 

Croston, 136 

Crow Hill, 67 

Croxteth Park, 114 

Crumpsall, 37 

Cuerdale, 69 

Cuerden, 134 


Cuerdley, 106 
Culcheth, 97 
Cumbelhou, 252 
Cunliffe, 73 
Cunscough, 119 
Cunsey, 219 

Dalton, 105; 190; 201 (D.-in-Furness); 
Dalton Lees, 105 
Damas Gill, 167 
Dandy Birks, 162 
Dane Ghyll, 203 
Darwen, 66 (riv.); 75 
Daughtarn, 197 
Davyhulme, 38 
Davyscoles, 141 
Deadwin Clough, 93 
Deane, 42 
Dearden, 64 
Dearnley, 57 
Deepdale, 146 
Deerplay Moor, 93, 263 
Deerslet, 190 
Dendron, 209 
Denham, 134 
Denton, 30 ; 106 
Depestale, 17 
Derboth, 246 

Derby, West, 93, 114, 247 
Dertren, 186 
Dewhurst, 72 
Didsbury, 31 
Dilworth, 145 
Dimpenley Clough, 81 
Dimple, 47 ; Dimples, 163 
Dinckley, 70 
Dinckling Green, 142 
Dineley, 84 
Dingle, 115 
Ditchfield, 106 
Ditton, 106 
Dixonground, 11 
Docker, 185 
Dolpblnholme, 164 
Dolphinlees, 175 
Douglas, 126 
Dounanesbrec, 252 
Dove Bank, Dove Ford, 220 
Dowbridge, 150 
Dow Crags, 193, 226 
Downham, 79 
Downholland, 120 
Down-Litherland, 117 
Dragley Beck, 212 
Drakeholm, 253 
Droylsden, 35 
Drummersdale, 124 
Duckworth, 91 

Duddel (Brook, Hill), 144 
Duddon, 191 
Dulas, 191 
Dumplington, 38 
Dunkenhalgh, 89 
Dunkenshaw, 172 
Dunnerdale, 223 
Dunnerholme, 206 
Dunnermersk, 206 
Dunnishbooth, 60 
Dunnockshaw, 80 
Dunnyshope, 90 
Dunscar, 73 
Dutton, 144 
Duxbury, 129 
Duxendean, 149 
Dwerryhouse, 130 

Eastham, 155 
Eaves, 131 ; 162 
Eccles, 37 
Eccleshill, 75 
Eccleston, 108; 131; 154 (Little E.); 161 

(Great E.); 257 
Eckersley, 101 
Edenbreck, 175 
Edenfield, 64 
Edgeworth, 47 
Ediholes, 73 
Eea, 10; 190 
Egburden, 44 
Egerton, 47 
Eggergarth, 120 
Egton, 213 
Eldrams, 254 
Ellabarrow, 211 
Ellel, EUel Crag, 170 
Ellenbrook, 40 
Ellenrod, 60 
Eller Beck, 95 
Elliscales, 206 
Elmridge, 143 
Elremure, 251 
Elston, 145 
Elswick, 161 

Elter Holme, Elterwater, 192 
Elton, 62 ; Eltonhead, 108 
Emmetts, 172 
Emmott, 87 
Engemyre, 186 
English Lea, 147 
Entwisle, 47 
Escowbeck, 168 
Eskebec, 252 
Eskham, 165 
Eskrig, 178 
Esphouet, 253 
Esprick, 154 



Esthwaite, 218 
Etherston Hall, 100 
Euxton, 133 
Everton, 115 
Ewe Dale, 211 
Ewood, 75; 91 
Extwistle, 85 

T-IACIT, 60 
MFailsworth, 36 
* Fairfield, 193 
Fairhurst, 130 
Fairsnape, 166, 243, 261 
Fairthwaite, 184, 243, 261 
Faldworthings, 134 
Falinge, 60 ; Falling, 105 
Fallowfield, 30; 50 
Farington, 135 
Farleton, 180 
Farnworth, 43 ; 106 
Fawcett (WmL), Fawside (Scotl.) 60 
Fazakerley, 116 
Fearnhead, 96 
Felebrigge, 253 
Fence, 82 

Fenisclifie, 75 ; Feniscowles, 74 
Fermeribouthe, 254 
Fernyhalgh, 147 
Fiddler Hall, 199 
Fieldhead, 218 
Fieldplumpton, 151 
Filly Close, 82 
Finney, 136 
Finsthwaite, 217 
Firber, 81 
Fishwick, 146 
File, 253 
Flan Hill, 194 
Fleagarth, 188 
Fleetwood, 158 
Flitcroft, 97 ; Flitteholm, 252 
Flixton, 37 
Flookborough, 197 
Fogwra, 255 
Folescalis, 48 

Force Beck (Forge, Mill), 220 
Ford, 117 
Fordbottle, 202 
Formby, 125 
Forshaw, 110 
Forton, 166 
Fosse, 220 
Fouldray, 200 
Foulney, 204 
Foulridge, 88 
Foxdenton, 50 
Foxholes, 57 
Frant (Suss.), 144 
Freckleton, 150 

French Lea, 147 

Friarhills, 90 

Frith, 198 

Fulesnape, 149 

Fulledge, 83 

Fulshaw, 87 

Fulwood, 148 

Furness, 200 ; Furness Fells, 201 

Fylde, 139 

GAITS Water, 192 
Gale; see High Gale 
Galgate, 170 
Gamblesholme, 182 
Gambleside, 92 
Gamelsley, 48 
Gannow, 83 
Garrett [Hall], 35 
Garstang, 163 
Garston, 111 
Garswood, 100 
Gartside, 52 
Gascow, 212 

Gaseflosland, 252 ; Qaadandes, 254 
Gathurst, 128 
Gaulkthorn, 19 
Gautley, 105 
Gawksholme, 58 
Gawthorpe, 83, 248 
Gawthwaite, 214 
Gayle. 253 
Gerefholm, 186 
Oerleuuorde, 220 
Gerna, 79 
Gettern, 250 
Gidlow, 103 
Gilanrehou, 250 
Gilberton, 172 
Gilda Brook, 27 
Gildehouet, 254 
Glanscalan, 226 
Glasson, 171 
Glazebrook, 94, 95 
Glazen (Ess.), 171 
Gleaston, 209 
Glest, 108 
Glodwick, 51 
Golborne, 99 
Goldmire, 206 
Goldshaw Booth, 80 
Gooden, 53 
Goodshaw Booth, 92 
Goosnargh, 149 
Gore Brook, 27 
Gorsuch, 124 
Gorton, 35 
Goscopetheit, 252 
Gotherswick, 37 
Goyt, 95 



Grafauinesknikel, 252 

Grange, 198 

Grassendale, 111 

Grassguards, 215 ; Grassyard, 177 

Orathwat, 254 

Graveoak, 101 

Graythwaite, 220 

Great Hill, 67 ; 126 

Greaves, 147 

Green Ayre, 176 

Greenbank, 172 

Greenhalgh, 154; Greenhalgh Castle, 164 

Greenlow Marsh, 35 

Greenodd, 213 

Greenscoe, 206 

Green Tarn, 192 

Greeta, 169 

Greetby, 123 

Grenemire, 255 

Gresgarth, 177 

Gressingham, 178 

Grey Friar, 193 

Greystoneley, 142 

Grimsargh, 145 

Grimshaw, 76 ; 84 

Grindlestonehurst, 86 

Gristlehurst, 54 

Grizebeck, 221 

Grizedale, 166 ; 220 

Grizehead, 174 

GroSa Crag, 214 

Gubberford, 165 

Gunildebrigge, 255 

Gunnerthwaite, 180 

Gunnolf' s Moors, 131 

y JABERGHAM Eaves, 82, 263 

n Hacking, 46; 71 
Hackinsall, 160 
Hades, 57 
Hagg, 206 
Haggate, 85 
Haigh, 102 
Haighton, 147 
Hala Carr, 174 
Hale, -bank, 110 
Halecath, 163 
Halewood, 110 
Hallatrice, 174 
Hall Carr, 65 
HalliweU, 44 
Halsall, 120 
Halsnead, 108 
Halstead (High), 84 
Halton, 179 
Hambleton, 155 
Hameldon, 67 
Hamer, 57 

Hampsfell, Hampsfield, 198 

Hanging Chadder, 53 

Hannakin, 218 

Hapton, 80 

Harcles Hill, 28 

Hardhorn, 157 

Hardshaw, 109 

Hardy, 31 

Hareappletree, 173 

Harekar, 252 

Haresfinch, 109 

Harhum, 257 

Barker, 120 

Harleton, 124 

Harpurhey, 36 

Harrock Hall (Hill), 130 

Harsenden, 60 

Hartbarrow, 200 

Hart Carrs, 208 

Harterbeck, 181 

Hartley, 55 

Hartshead, 29 

Harwood, 46 ; 72, 73 

Haskayne, 120 

Haslam, 61 

Haslingden, 91 

Hastingley, 73 

Hasty GiU, 212 

Hathershaw, 51 

Hatlex, 186 

Haugh, 56 

Haughton, 30 

Haukeswelle, 186 

Haulgh, 45 

Haume (High and Green), 206 

Haverbergh, 254 

Haverigg Holme, 221 

Haverthwaite, 217 

Haw Booth, 81 

Hawcoat, 203 

Hawes, 156 ; Hawes Water, 169 

Hawkeroum, 16 

Hawkley, 104 

Hawksclough, 105 

Hawkshaw, 63 

Hawkshead, 186; 218 

Hawkswell, 214 

Haws Bank, 216 

Hawthornthwaite, 172 

Hawthwaite, 222 

Hay bridge, 216 

Haydock, 99 

Hayhohne, 157 

Hay Hurst, 144 

Haylot, 181 

Hay Slacks, 89 

Hazelhead, 166 

Hazelhurst, 41 

Hazelrigg, 174 



Head House, 199 

Healdhouses, 30 

Healey, 60; 131 

Heap, 61 

Heapey, 133 

Heath Charnock, 129 

Heath waite, 221 

Heaton, 30 (H. Norris); 44 (H.-under-Hor- 

wich); 49; 176; 203 
Hecham (Heigham), 162 
Helks Wood, 187 
Helly Platt, 84 
Helmshore, 91 
Hendon, 86 
Henfield, 89 
Hengarth, 119 
Henheads, 91 
Hennewurthe, 21 
Henshaw, 16 
Henthorn, 77 
Herteseyl, 254 
Hesketh, 138 
Heskin, 130 
Hest, 185 

Hesterheugh (ScotL), 179 
Hestham, 177 
Hewthwaite, 254 
Hey, 29 
Heyhouses, 80 
Heyrod, 29 ; Heyroyd, 87 
Heysandforth, 83 
Heysham, 178 
Heywood, 62 
High (The), 199 
Higham, 80 
High Cark, 199 
Higher Booths, 91 
High Gale, 182; 184 
High Halstead, 84 
High Mere Beck, 221 
Hilderston, 189 

Hillam, 170 ; Hillam Farm, 37 
Hill Park, 218 
Hinchliffe (Yks.), 59 
Hindburn, 169 
Hindle, 89 
Hindley, 102 
Hindpool, 203 
Hoathwaite, 215 
Hodder, 139 
Hoddlesden, 75 
Hoghton, 89 ; 132 
Hokum, 136 
Hokereytherig, 254 
Holbrook, 107 
Holcombe, 63 
Holcroft, 97 
Holden, 91 
Holebeck, 202 

Holebiggerah, 211 

Holgill, 179 

Holker, 197 

Holleth, 165 

Hollinfare, 95 

Hollingworth, 56 

Hollinhead, 75 

Hollins Green, 95 

Hollowforth, 148 

HoUowhead, 72 

Holme, 84; 197 ; Holmes, 138; 158 ; Holmes 

Wood, 137 
Honeyth waite, 196 
Hoole, 137 
Hope, 42 
Hopecarr, 101 
Hopwood, 53 
Hordern, 48 
Horelaw, 68 
Hornby, 180 
Horncliffe, 64 
Horrocksford, 78 
Horsedge, 51 
Horwich, 44 
Hoscar, 123 
HothersaU, 145 
Hough End Hall, 31 
Houghton, 41 ; 98 
Houkeshout, 253 
Houkler Hall, 215 
Howarth, 57 
Howath, 164 
Howbarrow, 198 
Howflat, 255 
Howick, 135 
Howley, 96 
Hubbersty, 171 
Hubberthorne, 188 
Hulleter, 194, 216 
Hulm, 244; Hulme, 33; 98; Hulme Hall, 

30 ; Hulme (Staffs., Ches.), 246 
Hulton, 43 
Humblescough, 163 
Humphrey Head, 196 
Huncoat, 91 
Hundersfield, 56 
Hunger Hill, 130 
Hunterholme, 80 
Huntingdon, 144 
Huntroyde, 79 
Hurst Green, 141 
Hurstwood, 84 
Hutt (The), 110 

Button, 136; 173; 181 ; cf. Priest Hutton 
Huyton, 45; 113 
Hyde Park, 148 
Hyles, 82 
Hyndburn, 66 
Hyning, 188 



Icornhurst, 90 
Idlecote, 205 
Ightenhill, 82 

Ince, 103 (I.-in-Makerfield) ; 118 (I. Blundell) 
Irichfield, 59 
Inglebreck, 186 
Ingle white, 149 
Ingoe Lane, 116 
Ingol, 147 ; -head, 147 
Ingrithcros, 255 
Inskip, 161 
Ireby, 183 
Ireleth, 205 
Irk, 28 
Irlam, 39 
Irwell, 27 
Ivah, 182 

Kearsley, 43 
Keer, 169 

Keldebrec(h), 252, 254 ; Kelderise, 253 
Kellamergh, 151 
Kellet, 186 
Kempesbirines, 85 
Kent, 169 ; Kent's Bank, 196 
Kenyon, 98 
Kerlingedimpel, 38 
Kersal, 33 
Kershaw Bridge, 54 
Keshou, 250 

Kettleshulme (Ches.), 246 
Kidsnape, 149 
Kilgrimol, 155 
Killerwick, 205 
Killinsough, 148 
Kingsley, 131 
Kinknall, 97 

Kirkby, 116; 196 ; Kirkby Ireleth, 220 
Kirkdale, 116 
Kirkham, 152 
Kirkhead, 196 
Kirkland, 163 
Kirkmanshulme, 36 
Kirkstead, 211 
Kirkthwaite, 216 
Kitlow, 180 
Knapperthaw, 214 
Knarrs, 88 
Knott End, 160 
Knowley, 131 
Knowl Green, 145 
Knowsley, 113 
Knuzden, 91 


AFFOG, 109 


Lairdade, 251 ; Lairpot, 

Laithbutts, 183 
Laithgryme, 142 
Laithwaite, 104; 167 
Lamberhead Green, 105 
Lancashire, 23 
Lancaster, 174 
Landskill, 163 
Langauenam, 254 
Langho, 72 
Langley, 53 
Langroyd, 87 
Langthwaite, 174 
Langtree, 127 
Langwathforde, 166 
Larbrick, 154 
Lathebot, 183 
Lathora, 122 
Latter barrow, 194 
Launland, 253 
Layrepotbankes, 255 
Lay ton, 155 
Lea, 146 
Leagram, 142 
Leek, 184 

Leece, 209 

Lee Fell, 172 

Lees, 29 

Legbarrow Point, 217 

Leigh, 100 

Leighton, 189 

Leikethaites, 252 

Lemon House, 69 

Lench, 65 

Lentworth, 172 

Leven, 191 

Levenshulme, 31 

Lever, 45 

Levers Water, 192 

Levy Beck, 191 

Lewth, 162 

Leyland, 126, 133 

Leyrgile, 254 ; Leyrsic, 252 

Lickhurst, 142 

Lickle, 191 

Lickow, 160 

Lightollers, 58 

Lightshaw, 99 

Limbrick, 129 

Lime, 23 

Limebrest, 158, 264 

Limehurst, 23 

Linacre, 116, 237 

Lindal, 207 ; Lindale, 199 

Lindeth, 188 

Linedred, 86 

Lingart, 164 

Linholm, 156, 253 

Lintthvaitbroc, 252 

Liscoe, 160 



Litelcrosseslak, 253 

Litherland, 117 ; c/. Uplitherland 

Little Arrow, 215 

Littleborough, 58, 263 

Littledale, 177 

Little Fell, 169 

Little White (Durh.), 19 

Liverpool, 116 

Livesey, 75 

Locka, 180 

Lodge Holme, 88 

Lomax, 62 

Lomeshay, 86 

Lonethwaite, 219 

Longbarrow, 114 

Long Causey, 170 

Longley, 149 

Longridge, 140 

Longton, 136 

Longworth, 47 

Lonsdale, 167 

Loose (Kent), -ley (Bucks.), 12 

Loppergarth, 211 

Lostock, 39; 45; 127 (riv.) 

Loud, 139 ; Loud Mytham, 142 

Loudscales, 149 

Love Clough, 92 

Loveley Hall, 70 

Low Chapel, 68 

Lower Booths, 92 

Lowgill, 182 

Lowick, 213 

Lowton, 99 

Lucy Brook, 168 

Ludder Burn, 200 

Lumb, 62 ; 64 ; 93 

Lund, 150 

Lune, 167, 264 

Lunt, 118 ; Lunt Heath, 107 

Luzzley, 29 

Lydiate, 120 

Lyme, Lyme Wood, 23, 263 

Lynnall, 98 

Lyolfesik, 249 

Lytham, 155 

Lythe, 182 ; Lythe Brow, 173 

MADGELL Bank, 70 
Maghull, 119 
Mains, 155 
Makerfield, 93 
Malkins Wood, 41 
Mallowdale, 181 
Manchester, 33 
Mansriggs, 212 
Markland, 104 
Marland, 55 
Marsden, 86 
Marshaw, 172 

Martholme, 72 

Martin, 124; 207 ; Martin Mere, 124 

Martinscroft, 96 

Marton, 124; 156 

Masseycroft, 60 

Maureholme, 188 

Mawdesley, 136 

Mearley, 78 

Medlar, 153 

Medlock, 27 

Meer Clough, 84 

Melbrek, 254 

Melcanerhou, 250 

Melishaw, 176 

Melling, 119; 180 

Mellor, 73 

Mere Brow, 138 

Mersey, 26 

Mickering, 121 

Micklehead, 109 

Middleforth, 135 

Middleton, 53 ; 98 ; 149 ; 176 

Midelare, 252 

Midge Hall, 133 ; 148 ; Midghalgh, 148 

Millwood, 203 

Milnrow, 56 

Mirthuait, 254 

Mitton (Little), 77 

Monk Coniston, 219 

Monkroyd, 88 

Monsall, 36 

Monton, 39 

Moor Hall, 121 

Moorham Hill, 160 

Moor Isles, 82 

Mootha, Moothaw, 258 

Morecambe, 176 

Moreton, 77 

Morhaus, 253 

Morleys, 101 

Mossborough, 110 

Mossley, 29 

Mossock Hall, 122 

Moss Side, 32 

Moston, 36 

Mourhouwes, 253 

Mourhulles, 252 

Mousell, 206 

Mouter, 258 

Mowbrick, 153 

Muchland, 208 

Mungeon, 198 

Murscoh, 250 

Musbury, 64 

Musden, 65 

Musethuait, 252 

Myerscough, 70; 148 

Mytholme, 142 

Mythop, 153 



NADEN, 28, 60 
Nateby, 164 
Natetvra, 254 
Nathelarghe, 250 
Nelson, 86 
Netherton, 118 
Nether Wyresdale, 164 
Nettleslack, 213 
Neuhuse, 177 
Newbigging, 155 ; 208 
Newbold, 55 
Newburgh, 123 
Newby Bridge, 217 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, 23 
New Chingle Hall, 147 
Newchurch, 92 ; 97 
Newhall, 40 ; New Hall, 64 ; Newhall Hey, 


Newland, 213 
New Laund Booth, 82 
Newsham, 116; 148 
Newton, 36; 98(N.-in-Makerfield); 150; 157; 

175; 185; 199; 202 
Newtown, 202 
Nibthwaite, 217 
Nithinghou, 253 
Noggarth, 21 

Norbreck, 156; Norbrick, 170 
Norcross, 157 
Norley, 104 
North Meols, 125 
North Scale, 205 
Noyna, 68 
Nuthurst, 36 
Nutshaw, 136 
Nuttall, 63 


I lOakeneaves, 83 
^^Oakenhead, 92 
Oakenrod, 60 
Oak Head, 199 
Occleshaw, 102 
Oddisherhe, 250 
Ogden, 50; 56; 65 
Oglet, 111 
Oldham, 50 
Old Laund Booth, 81 
Old Man, 193 
Old Town, 184 
Ollerton, 132 
Oozebooth, 74 
Openshaw, 35 
Ordsall, 32 
Orford, 96 
Orgrave, 207 
Ormerod, 84 
Ormesholm, 253 
Ormskirk, 121 

OrreU, 105; 117 

Ortner, 172 

Osbaldeston, 70 

Ose, 255 

Osmotherley, 213 

Oswaldtwistle, 90 

Otterpool, 95; 191 ; Otter's Pool, 95 

Ouneapull, 252 

Outerthwaite, 196 

Outhwaite, 181 

Ovangle, 176 

Over (Warw.), 112 

Overton, 175 

Over Wyresdale, 171 

Oxcliffe, 176 

Oxendale, 70 

'arbold, 130 
.I'arkamoor, 218 
Parlick, 140 
Parr, 109 
Parrox Hall, 160 
Peaseholmes, 202 
Peasfurlong, 97 

Peel, 156 ; Peel Hall, 43 ; Peel Island, 205 
Pemberton, 104 
Pendle, 68 
Pendlebury, 42 
Pendleton, 41 ; 77 
Pendle Water, 66 
Penketh, 106 
Pennington, 100; 210 
Penny Bridge, 213 
Penwortham, 135 
Perburn, 126 
Pex Hill, 107 

Pickup, 83 ; Pickup Bank, 76 
Picthall, 215 
Pigsden, Pigsley, 62 
Pike Law, 68 
Pilkington, 49 

Pilling, 140, 165 ; Pilling Lane, 160 
Pilsworth, 54 
Pimbo, 105 
Plain Furness, 201 
Platt, 31 ; Platt Bridge, 102 
Pleasington, 74 

Plumpton, 151 ; 213 ; 241 ; cf. Woodplumpton 
Polden, 52 
Ponthalgh, 90 
Poolstock, 103 
Portfield, 77 
Potfurlang, 207 
Poulton, 96; 157 (P.-le-Fylde) ; 176 (P.-le- 

Preesall, 159 
Preese, 153 
Prescot, 108 


Prestall, 43 ; Prestolee, 49 
Preston, 146 
Prestwich, 49 
Prickshaw, 60 
Priest Hutton, 188 
Priestwath, 175 


X-^UABLTON, 46, 263 

( 1 Quarry Flat, 197 

N^Quernbarrow, 210 

Quernmore, 173 

Quick, 107 

Quitebrec, 254 ; -brek, 253 ; -meledale, 250 

Quitstorth, 253 

Ragarthout, 253 
Ragden Wood, 144 
Ragill Beck, 168 
Rainford, 110 
Rainhill, 107 
Raisthwaite, 221 
Rakes Moor, 204 
Rampside, 203 
Ramsbottom, 64 
Ramsgreave, 73 
Ramshead, 186 
Ramsholme, 70 
Rathmoss, 211 
Rathornthuait, 254 
Rath vale, 211 
Ravden Clough, 48 
Ravens Close, Ravenescrosse, 253 
Ravensholme, 79 
Ravensmeols, 125 
Ravensty, 217 
Rawcliffe, 160, 161 

Rawtenstall, 92 ; Rawtonstall (Yks.) 92 
Rawthey, 191 
Rayse, 252 ; -feld, 253 
Read, 79 
Reddish, 30 
Redfern, 60 
Redlam, 74 
Redvales, 61 
Reedley Hallows, 82 
Renacres, 120 
Revidge, 67 
Revoe, 156 
Reysbrec, 253 
Rhodes, 49 
Ribble, 65 ; -ton, 146 
Ribby, 151 
Ribchester, 144, 233 
Ridgate, 108 
Ridihalgh (Higher), 85 
Ridley, 44 
Ringstonhalgh, 89 
Riscar, 157 

Rishton, 72 ; Rishton Thorns, 87 

Risley, 97 

Ritherham, 158 

Ritherope, 108 

Rivington, 48 ; Rivington Pike, 28 

Rixton, 95 

Roa, 205 

Roanhead, 206 

Robert Hall, 182 

Robsawter, 204 

Roby, 113 

Roch, 28, 55 ; Rochdale, 54 

Rockliffe, 60 

Roddlesworth, 132 

Roeburn, 169 ; -dale, 181 

Rogerground, 11 

Rogerstead, 17 

Rokar, 251 

Rooden Lane, 49 

Roose, 202 ; -beck, 208 ; -cote, 202 

Roscoe Low, 128 

Roseacre, 152 

Roshead, 212 

Roskit, Rosket, 225 

Rossall, 158 

Rossendale, 92 
Rosthwaite, 197 ; 200 ; 222 

Roughbank, 56 

Roughlee Booth, 81 

Rougholme, 197 

Rowall, 163 

Rowley, 85 

Row Ridding, 221 

Rowton Brook, 173 

Royle, 83 

Royley, 52 

Royton, 52 

Rufford, 137 

Rulbuth, 200 

Rumworth, 44 

Rusholme, 31 

Rusland, 217 

Ruthwait, 250 

Ryley, 90 

St. Helens, 110 
St. Helen's Chapel (Bierley), 205 
St. Michael-on-Wyre, 160 
Sales, 217 
Salesbury, 70 
Sale Wheel, 70 
Salford, 26, 32 
Salt Ayre, 176 
Salter, 181 
Salthill, 78 
Salthouse, 204 
Salwick, 150 
Samlesbury, 69 



Sandscale, 204 
Sandivath, 250 
Sankey, 94 (riv.) ; Great, Little Sankey, 

105, 106 
Santhpul, 254 
Sarscow, 131 
Satterhow, 219 
Satterthwaite, 219 
Saurchaleg, 255 
Savick Brook, 139 
Sawrey, 219 
Saxifield, 83 
Scaitcliffe, 69 ; 90 
Scalbank, 255 
Scale, 177 ; -ber, 183 
Scales, 146; 150; 208 
Scambler, 181 

Scamwathlithe, -stordes, 166, 252 
Scarisbrick, 124 
Scartherwlmer, 250 
Scarth Hill, 123 
Scarthwaite, 173 
Scathwaite, 213 
Scheldulvesbuttes, 253 
Scholecroft, 249 
Scholefield, 56 ; 86 ; 97 
Scholes, 104; 108; 118 
Schyrokes, 173 
Scorton, 164 
Scotforth, 173 
Scout Moor, 28 
Scowcroft, 50 
Scrapps, 167 
Scrikebec, 252 
Scrithwaite, 223 
Seamill, 208 
Seathwaite, 223 
Seattle, 199 

Sea Wood, Seawood Scar, 208 
Sefton, 118 
Sella, 223 
Sellet Hall, 184 
Sepheterne, 207 
Serlescales, 252 
Serlesholme, 186 
Shackerley, 133 
Shadsworth, 21 
Shakerley, 101 
Sharneyford, 93 
Sharoe, 147 
Sharpies, 47 
Shaw, 52 ; -forth, 21 
Shelfield, 86 
Shepley, 29 
Sherdley, 109 
Shevington, 128, 263 
Shillingbottom, 64 
Shipperbottom, 63 
Shirdley Hill, 120 

Shireshead, 166 

Sholver, 52 

Shooter, 28 

Shore, 58 ; Shoresworth, 42 

Shorrock Green, 74 

Showley, 70 

Shurlacres, 120 

Shuttleworth, 63; 80; 101 

Sid Brook, 127 

Siddal, 54 

Sidebeet, 73 

Sideyard, 179 

Sidgreaves, 147 

Sillinghurst, 54 

Silverdale, 189 

Simonstone, 79 

Simonswood, 116 

Singleton, 154 

Sinkfall, 204 

Siverthesarge, 251 

Skelmersdale, 122 

Skeltholvesflat, 253 

Skelwith, 219 

Skerton, 177 

Skippool, 140, 264 

Skitham, 160 

Skynerisflatte, 253 

Slack, 40; 199 

Slade, 31 

Sladen, 58 

Slathwaitheuid, 252 

Sletehaw, 255 ; Sletholmbec, 253 

Slyne, 185 ; -head, 107 

Smalley, 70 

Smeer Hall, 181 

Smethurst, 54 

Smithdown, 115 

Smithieflat, 252 

SmithiUs, 44 

Snab, 178 

Snape, 124 

Snelleshow, 77 

Snodworth, 72 

Snubsnape, 133 

Snydale, 43 

Sollom, 138 

Sondholm, 253 

Sortebuttes, 252 

Sough, 75 

Sourbut, 252 

Soutergate, 221 

Southecoteflatte, Southou, Southpul, 254 

Southworth, 97 

Sow Clough, 93 

Sowerby, 161 ; 203 

Sower Carr, 155 

Sow How, 200 

Spanrig, 253 

Sparth, 89 



Speel Bank, 198 

Speke, 110 

Spellow, 115 

Spodden Brook, 28 

Spotland, 59 

Stable Harvey, 215 

Staining, 156 

Stainton, 210 

Stakehill, 53 

Stalmine, 159 

Stalybridge, 29 

Stanah, 158 

Standen, 77 

Standing Tarn, 192 

Standish, 127 

Standroyd, 87 

Stangerhau, 250 

Stanheir, 254 

Stanicliffe, 64 

Stank, 203 ; Stank Top, 68 

Stanrais (-rays, -reys), 252-254 ; Stanray- 

sinum, 256 
Stansacre, 148 
Stansfield, 58 
Stanworth, 132 
Stanystreet, 41 
Stapleton Terne, 186 
Stardale, 250 
Starhourauen, 250 
Stauvin, 182 
Staveley, 199 
Staynall, 159 
Staynbrige, 252 ; Staynhusslac, 254 ; Stayn- 

keldeker, 253 
Steers Pool, 191 
Stennerley, 214 
Stephen's Head, 169 
Stermanivra, 254 
Stewnor, 207 
Stickle Pike, 193 
Stidd, 144 
Stirzacre, 164 
Stodday, 174 
Stonebridgley, 116 
Stonestar, 223 
Stonyhurst, 141 
Storrs, 181 
Stot Park, 217 
Strangeways, 33 
Street, 129 
Strellas, 179 
Stretford, 32 
Struteberg, 8 
Stub [Hall], 179 
Stubbins, 64 
Studlehirst, 70 
Studley, 144 
Subberthwaite, 214 
Sudden, 55 

Sugham, 179 

Sulber Hill (Yks.), 214, 250 
Sullam Side, 164 
Sulstainfete, 253 
Summerseat, 62 
Summersgill, 182 
Sunbrick, 208 
Sunderland, 29; 70; 175 
Suntun, 241 
Sutton, 108 
Swainshead, 172 
Swaintley Hill, 170 
Swarbrick, 153 
Swarthmoor, 212 
Swaynesmore, 249 
Swill Brook, 139 
Swinden, 86 
Swinemure, 253 
Swinley, 104 
Swinton, 41 
Syddles, 78 
Sygerithwath, 253 

, 27 

Tangley (Surr.), Tangmere (Suss.), 18 

Tarbock, 113, 263 
Tarleton, 138 
Tarlscough, 124 
Tarnacre, 161 
Tarnbrook, 172 
Tarn Flat, 207 
Tarn Hows, 194 
Tatham, 182 
Taunton, 18, 29 
Tawd, 95 ; -bridge, 123 
Templand, 197 
Terneflat, 255 
Tetlow, 33, 230 
Tewitfield, Tewitmire, 188 
Thatto Heath, 108 
Theale Moor, 36 
Thieveley, 84 
Thingwall, 112 
Thirnby, 184 
Thistelthuait, 253 
Thistleton, 154 
Thoraldestub, 124 
Thorfinsty, 200 
Thorney holme, 81 
Thornham, 53 
Thornley, 144 
Thornton, 118; 157; 260 
Thorp, 119; 137 ; Thorpe, 52 
Thorpen Lees, 166 
Threaphaw Fell, 170 
Threlfall, 149 
Thrushgill, 182 
Thureacloch, 261 
Thurland Castle, 183 



Thurnham, 171 

Thursden, 85 

Thursgyll, 182 

Thursland, 170 

Thurston Water, 192 

Thwaite Flat, 207 

Tilberthwaite, 216 

Tilverdheimholm, 252 

Tingreave, 131 

Tittleshaw, 64 

Tockholes, 75 

Took How, 219 

Todderstaffe, 157 

Todgill, 184 

Todmorden, 58 

TonaclijBfe, 60 

Tong (Kent, etc.), 18 

Tonge, 45 ; 50 ; Tong End, 61 

Tongham (Surr.), 18 

Tongton, 18, 29 ; Tongue Moor, 177 

Toppin Rays, 213 

Torrisholme, 177 

Torver, 215 

Tottington, 63, 229 

Tottlebank, 214; 217 

Tottleworth, 73 

Towneley, 84 

Townworth, 72 

ToxtethPark, 115 

Trafford, 32 

Trailholme, 175 

Tranewath, 253 

Tratherig, 253 

Trawden, 88 

Treales, 152 

Trewhitt (Nhb.), 19 

Trinkeld, 212 

Trippet of Ogden, 66 

Trough, 61 ; Trough of Bowland, 170 

Troughton Hall, 221 

Troutal, 223 

Trunnah, 158 

Tulketh, 146 

Tunewath, 213 

Tunley, 130 

Tunstall, 183 

Tunstead, 93 ; 104 

Turnagh, 56 

Turssekar, 250 

Turton, 47 

Twiss Green, 97 

Twiston, 79 

Tyldesley, 101 

Tytup Hall, 207 

y -rghrithsete, 170 

I Ulnes Walton, 136 
^-^ Uluebec, 252 
Ulvedene, 136 ; Ulvegravegate, 252 

Ulverston, 211 

Ulvesdale, 136 ; Ulvesthweit, 253 

Unsworth, 49 

Upholland, 105 

Uplitherland, 121 

Upton, 106 

Urmston, 37 

Urswick, 209 

Urton, 147 

Waitham HiU, 222 ; Waitham Moss, 

Waitholme, 189 
Walkden, 41 
Walmer Bridge, 137 
Walmersley, 62 
Walmesley, 47 

Wahiey, 205 ; Walney Scar, 193 
Walsden, 58 
Walshaw, 85 
Walthewyscroft, 248 
Walthwaite, 211 
Walton, 68 (W.-le-Dale); 115 (W.-on-the- 

Hill) ; 198 ; 224 
Walton Breck, 116 
Waltoncote, 203 
Walverden, 86 
Wanless Water, 66 
Warbreck, 116; 156 
Warcockhill, 44 
Wardle, 57 
Wardleworth, 56 
Wardley, 41 
Warmden dough, 90 
Warrington, 96 
Warte, 241 
Warth Brook, 127 
Warton, 151 ; 188 
Waterhead, 218 
Water Yeat, 215 

Waver, -ley, -ton (Cumb., etc.), 112, 229 
Wavertree, 112 
Wayoh Fold, 47 
Weaste, 42 
Weeton, 153 
Welch Whittle, 129 
Wenning, 169 ; -ton, 181 
Werneth, 51 
Wesham, 153 
Westby, 151 
West Close, 80 
West Derby, 93, 114, 247 
West Hall, 185 
Westhead, 123 
Westhoughton, 43 
Weatleigh, 100 
W estslak, 40 
Wetherlam, 193 



Whackersall, 87 

Whalley, 76 ; Whalley Nab, 67 

Whams Farm, 124 

Wharles, 152 

Wharton, 43 

Wheatley, 144; Wheatley Booth, 

Wheatley Carr Booth, 81 
Wheatshaw, 47 
Wheelton, 132 
Whelcroft, 132 
Whelley, 104 
Whelpshead Crag, 222 
Whinfield, 211 
Whiston, 108 
Whitaker, 80 
Whitefield, 49 
White Hough, 81 
Whiteray, 182 
Whitestock Hall, 217 
Whithalgh, 75 
Whittingham, 149 
Whittington, 184 

Whittle, 62 ; Whittle-le- Woods, 133 
Whittleswick, 39 
Whitworth, 61 
Wibaldeslei, 112 
Wicheves, 43 
Wickenlow, 47 
Widnes, 106 
Wigan, 103 
Wignall, 138 

Wilders Moor, Wilderswood, 44 
Wilpshire, 72 
Wilshers, 138. 
Wilworth, 21 
Winder, 178; 182; 197 
Windermere, 193 
Windhill, 209 
Windle, 109 ; -shaw, 110 
Windy Bank, 58 
Winewall, 88 
Winfold Fell, 170 
Wingates, 44 
Winkley, 141 
Winmarleigh, 164 
Winsnape, 166, 261 
Winstanley, 104 
Winster, 190 
Winton, 40 
Winwick, 98 
Wirples Moss, 123 
Wiswell, 77 
Withington, 30 

Withnell, 132 
Witton, 74 
Wolf all Hall, 113 
Wolfenden, 93 
Wolfhall, 143 
81 ; Wolf hole Crag, 170 
Wolfscroft, 108 
Wolfstones, 68 
Wolmoor, 123 
Wolstenholme, 61 
Woluetscoles, 249 
Woodacre, 164 
Woodfall Hall, 109 
Woodhill, 62 
Woodland, 221 
Woodplumpton, 161 
Woolden, 39 
Woolston, 95 
Woolton, 111 
Woore (Ches.), 112 
Worden, 133 
Worsaw, 78 
Worsley, 40 
Worsthorne, 84 
Worston, 78 
Worthington, 128 
Wra, 250 
Wrampool, 140 
Wray, 182 ; 219 
Wraysholme, 197 
Wrayton, 180 
Wrea, 152 
Wrightington, 130 
Wrigley Head, 36 
Wrynose Hawse, 194 
Wuerdle, 57 
Wycoller, 88 
WycongiU (Yks.), 249 
Wyke, 124 
Wymondhouses, 77 
Wymott Brook, 127 
Wynefel, 253 

Wyre, 139 ; Wyresdale, 164, 171 
Wytheruum, 16 

Yareswurthebroc, 21 
Yarlesmyre, 252 
Yarlside, 185; 201 
Yarrow, 127 
Yate Bank, 76 

Yealand, 188 ; Yealand Storrs, 189 
Yerleskelde, 187 
Yewdale Beck, 192 

Printed in England at the Cloister Press, Heaton Mersey, near Manchester 

DA Ekwall, Eilert 

670 The place-names of 

L2E5 Lancashire